Fungal infection: vaccination against fungi slows down inflammation in the intestines

Vaccination against yeasts could relieve symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. This was reported by June Round’s team from the University of Utah in Salt Lake City in the journal Nature. At least in mice, the new vaccine has already proven itself: Vaccinated rodents render aggressive forms of fungus harmless with effective antibodies.

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Richard C. Lewontin (1929-2021), the geneticist who did not believe in genetic determinism | Genetics

Since the mid-1800s, when Charles Darwin articulated the theory of evolution and Moravian monk Gregor Mendel identified the basic principles of heredity by crossing peas in his garden, scientists, philosophers, social scientists and theologians debated the implications of genetics at origins, meaning and future of human life.

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Biology and Geology exam: “accessible” and “nothing very unexpected” test | National Exams 2021

The 11th year exam in Biology and Geology took place this Thursday and was the exam with the highest number of participants in the 24 tests that will take place this year. At the Escola Secundária de Camões, in Lisbon, the students considered the test “accessible” and without major surprises.

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Scientists have figured out why fermented foods are good for you

https://ria.ru/20210712/pitanie-1740983802.html

Scientists have figured out why fermented foods are good for you

Scientists have found out how fermented foods are useful – Russia news today

Scientists have figured out why fermented foods are good for you

The results of a clinical study conducted by American scientists showed that fermented foods increase the diversity of intestinal microbes, … RIA Novosti, 12.07.2021

2021-07-12T18:55

2021-07-12T18:55

2021-07-12T18:55

science

biology

diabetes

health

USA

diet

food

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MOSCOW, July 12 – RIA Novosti. The results of a clinical study conducted by American scientists have shown that fermented foods increase the diversity of gut microbes, reduce inflammation and increase immunity. Published in the journal Cell, researchers at the Stanford School of Medicine set out to test how fermented and high-fiber foods affect the gut microbiome and immune system. To do this, they conducted a clinical study in which 36 healthy adults participated. The volunteers were randomly divided into two groups. For ten weeks, one group ate fermented foods that included yogurt, kefir, cottage cheese, fermented vegetables, kimchi, pickle drinks, and kombucha, while the other ate high-fiber foods like legumes, seeds, whole grains, nuts, vegetables, and fruits. Blood and stool samples were collected from the participants during the three weeks prior to the start of the study, the entire period of the experiment, and four weeks afterwards. The results showed that people from the first group, who ate fermented foods, had increased overall microbial diversity and decreased levels of inflammatory proteins, including interleukin 6, which is associated with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes and chronic stress. Volunteers from the second group of volunteers in the gut microbiota remained stable and none of the 19 inflammatory proteins decreased. “This is a startling discovery, one of the first examples of how a simple dietary change can replenish the microbiota,” – quoted in a press release from the Stanford School of Medicine words study lead Dr. Justin Sonnenburg, associate professor of microbiology and immunology. “We expected high fiber to have more universal beneficial effects and lead to increased microbiota diversity,” continues another article author Erica Sonnenburg, senior research scientist Fellow in Basic Life Sciences, Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford School of Medicine “But the data show that eating fiber alone over a short period of time is not enough to increase microbial diversity.” , in its In turn, it affects the immune system and overall health. In particular, a low diversity of gut microbes predisposes to diabetes and obesity. “Diets that target the microbiota can alter immune status, offering promising opportunities for reducing inflammation in healthy adults,” said Prof Christopher Gardner, who participated in the study. Director of Nutrition Research at Stanford Prevention Center “We wanted to test if food that targets the microbiota could be a way to fight chronic inflammatory diseases.” The authors believe that a diet based on fermented foods helps maintain a healthy weight, reduces the risk of diabetes. cancer and cardiovascular disease. Results also showed that higher fiber intake leads to an increase in the amount of carbohydrates in stool samples, indicating incomplete breakdown of fiber by intestinal microbes. These results are consistent with other studies suggesting that the microbiome of people living in the industrialized world is depleted in microbes that destroy fiber.

https://ria.ru/20210422/pitanie-1729345889.html

https://ria.ru/20210602/frukty-1735257359.html

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biology, diabetes, health, usa, diet, nutrition

MOSCOW, July 12 – RIA Novosti. The results of a clinical study conducted by American scientists have shown that fermented foods increase the diversity of gut microbes, reduce inflammation and increase immunity. The results of the study are published in the journal Cell.

Scientists at the Stanford School of Medicine decided to test how fermented and high-fiber foods affect the gut microbiome and immune system. To do this, they conducted a clinical study in which 36 healthy adults participated.

The volunteers were randomly divided into two groups. For ten weeks, one group ate fermented foods that included yogurt, kefir, cottage cheese, fermented vegetables, kimchi, pickle drinks, and kombucha, while the other ate high-fiber foods such as legumes, seeds, whole grains, nuts, vegetables, and fruits.

Blood and stool samples were collected from the participants during the three weeks prior to the study, the entire experimental period, and four weeks afterwards. The results showed that people from the first group, who ate fermented foods, had increased overall microbial diversity and decreased levels of inflammatory proteins, including interleukin 6, which is associated with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes and chronic stress. In volunteers from the second group, the composition of the intestinal microbiota remained stable and none of the 19 inflammatory proteins decreased.

“This is a startling discovery, one of the first examples of how a simple dietary change can replenish the microbiota,” said study leader Dr. Justin Sonnenburg, associate professor of microbiology and immunology, in a press release from the Stanford School of Medicine.

Scientists have described deadly eating styles

“We expected that high fiber content would have more universal positive effects and lead to increased microbiota diversity,” continues Erica Sonnenburg, senior fellow in basic life sciences, microbiology and immunology at the Stanford School of Medicine. “But the data show that eating fiber alone over a short period of time is not enough to increase microbial diversity.”

It is known that the composition of food largely determines the composition of the gut microbiome, which in turn affects the immune system and overall health. In particular, the low diversity of gut microbes predisposes to diabetes and obesity.

“Diets that target the microbiota can alter immune status, offering promising opportunities to reduce inflammation in healthy adults,” said Professor Christopher Gardner, director of nutritional research at Stanford Prevention Center, who participated in the study. can food targeting the microbiota be a means of combating chronic inflammatory diseases. “

The authors believe that a diet based on fermented foods helps maintain a healthy weight and reduces the risk of diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease.

The results also showed that higher fiber intake leads to an increase in the amount of carbohydrates in the stool samples, indicating incomplete breakdown of the fiber by the intestinal microbes. These results are consistent with other studies suggesting that the microbiome of people living in the industrialized world is depleted in microbes that destroy fiber.

Breakfast - RIA Novosti, 1920, 02.06.2021

Scientists have found foods that reduce the risk of diabetes

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Knots make RNA molecules extremely stable

Viruses arm themselves against attacks with various defensive measures: They hide from the immune system by keeping quiet or camouflaging, and they know ways and means to defend themselves against bacterial weapons such as the gene scissors CRISPR-Cas. In the course of the “virus against all” evolutionary arms race, viruses have also made weak points in their own design more difficult to attack. For example, their genetic make-up molecule: in the case of Zika viruses, it contains unusual knots that are specially tied that slow down the breakdown by hostile enzymes.

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“Sub auspiciis”: Highest honor for Vorarlberg residents – Vorarlberg –


City Councilor Christine Oppitz-Plörer, Nadine Präg, Rector Tilmann Märk (from left).
© University of Innsbruck

Nadine Präg from Vorarlberg received Austria’s highest possible academic award for her achievements in her studies.

The Vorarlberg microbiologist Nadine Präg received the honorary ring “Sub auspiciis Praesidentis Rei Publicae” from Governor Günther Platter on behalf of the Federal President for her academic achievements. The doctorate under the auspices of the Federal President is the highest possible award for achievements in the course of studies in Austria.

Requirement for a “Sub auspiciis” doctorate

  • Preference in all upper school classes of a higher school
  • Matura with distinction
  • In the course of studies, the grade “very good” in all partial exams of the diploma, bachelor and master’s exams as well as in the rigorosum
  • Top marks for the scientific written work (diploma or master thesis and dissertation)

The doctoral candidate

Nadine Präg, born 1987 in Feldkirch, began studying biology in Innsbruck in 2006, followed by a master’s degree in microbiology from 2010 and a doctorate in biology from 2013. In her doctoral thesis, submitted in 2019, Nadine Präg examined how climate and land use changes affect the diversity of microorganisms in soils and placed a focus on the methane cycle influenced by microorganisms. During her dissertation, Nadine Präg was already working as a senior lecturer at the Institute for Microbiology at the University of Innsbruck, and since 2020 she has been employed as a senior scientist at the same institute. As a lecturer, Nadine Präg (co-) supervised numerous bachelor and master theses, as a researcher co-organized conferences and carried out research projects. She is also involved in university self-administration: As a student, Präg was most recently chair of the student council PhD / Doctorate Natwi-Technik of the Austrian Students’ Union and has been a member of various commissions at the University of Innsbruck for many years. Since 2020 she has been chairwoman of the “Soil Biology” commission of the Austrian Soil Science Society. Her dissertation has already been awarded the Kubiena Research Prize and the Hypo-Tirol-Bank Dissertation Prize.

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Found a new approach to the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes

https://ria.ru/20210630/ozhirenie-1739193070.html

Found a new approach to the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes

Found a new approach to the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes – Russia news today

Found a new approach to the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes

American scientists have found a link between obesity, fatty liver disease and diabetes. Researchers have identified how the liver interacts with the brain and affects RIA Novosti, 06/30/2021

2021-06-30T12:23

2021-06-30T12:23

2021-06-30T18:32

science

obesity

biology

diabetes

USA

medicine

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MOSCOW, June 30 – RIA Novosti. American scientists have found a link between obesity, fatty liver disease and diabetes. Researchers have identified how the liver interacts with the brain and affects the metabolic changes seen in obesity and diabetes. The authors believe that by acting on fat in the liver, insulin sensitivity can be altered. Published in Cell Reports, researchers at the University of Arizona have worked with colleagues at the University of Washington School of Medicine in St. Louis for nine years to better understand the relationship between obesity, fatty liver disease and diabetes, in particular as a liver. affects insulin sensitivity. “All current therapies for type 2 diabetes are primarily aimed at lowering blood glucose levels. Thus, they treat the symptom. This is the same as treating the flu by lowering the temperature.” In a press release from the University of Arizona, study leader Dr. Benjamin Renquist, associate professor at the University’s College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, said obesity is one of the causes of type 2 diabetes, but obesity also increases the amount of fat in the liver. ” eating as the amount of fat in the liver increases, the incidence of di Abet, – notes Renquist. “But how fat in the liver triggers insulin resistance or excessive secretion of insulin by the pancreas remained a mystery.” To better understand how the liver interacts with the brain, the authors measured the levels of neurotransmitters secreted by obese laboratory mice and found that fat in the liver increases the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA. “Then we determined the pathway through which the synthesis of GABA and the key enzyme responsible for the production of GABA in the liver – GABA transaminase,” continues the scientist. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous systems of humans and other mammals, an amino acid that reduces nerve activity going from the brain to tissues and vice versa, from tissues to the brain. “GABA, which is produced by the liver, reduces the activity of the nerves going from the liver to the brain. Thus, the fatty liver, by producing GABA, reduces the active work of the brain. This decrease in arousal is felt by the central nervous system, which alters the outgoing signals that affect glucose homeostasis, “explains Dr. Renquist. To determine whether increased hepatic GABA synthesis causes insulin resistance, the researchers medically suppressed GABA production in the liver of mice with type 2 diabetes. This restored insulin sensitivity in animal models for several days.Longer inhibition of GABA transaminase led to decreased food intake and weight loss.Additional studies have shown that in people with insulin resistance, the liver more actively expresses genes involved in the production and release of GABA In the near future, the authors plan to begin clinical trials that will investigate the use of a commercially available GABA transaminase inhibitor to improve insulin sensitivity in obese people.

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https://ria.ru/20210430/kovid-1730670752.html

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obesity, biology, diabetes, usa, medicine

MOSCOW, June 30 – RIA Novosti. American scientists have found a link between obesity, fatty liver disease and diabetes. Researchers have identified how the liver interacts with the brain and affects the metabolic changes seen in obesity and diabetes. The authors believe that by acting on fat in the liver, insulin sensitivity can be altered. The research results are published in the journal Cell Reports.
Researchers at the University of Arizona, along with colleagues at the University of Washington School of Medicine in St. Louis, have worked for nine years to better understand the relationship between obesity, fatty liver disease and diabetes, in particular how the liver affects insulin sensitivity.

“All current therapies for type 2 diabetes are primarily aimed at lowering blood glucose levels. Thus, they treat the symptom. This is the same as treating the flu by lowering the temperature,” the University of Arizona said in a press release. research director Dr. Benjamin Renquist, associate professor in the University’s College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

It is known that obesity is one of the causes of type 2 diabetes, but with obesity, the amount of fat in the liver also increases.

“That is, as the amount of fat in the liver increases, the incidence of diabetes increases,” Rehnquist notes. “But how the fat in the liver causes the body to become resistant to insulin or over-secreted insulin by the pancreas remained a mystery.”

Scientists have found foods that reduce the risk of diabetes

To better understand how the liver interacts with the brain, the authors measured the levels of neurotransmitters secreted by obese laboratory mice and found that fat in the liver increased the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA.

“We then identified the pathway by which GABA is synthesized and the key enzyme responsible for the production of GABA in the liver, GABA transaminase,” continues the scientist.

GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system of humans and other mammals, an amino acid that reduces nervous activity going from the brain to tissues and vice versa, from tissues to the brain.

“GABA, which is produced by the liver, reduces the activity of the nerves that travel from the liver to the brain. Thus, the fatty liver, by producing GABA, reduces the activity of the brain. This decrease in arousal is felt by the central nervous system, which alters the outgoing signals that affect glucose homeostasis.” – explains Dr. Renquist.

To determine whether increased GABA synthesis in the liver causes insulin resistance, the researchers medically suppressed the production of GABA in the liver of mice with type 2 diabetes. This restored the insulin sensitivity of the model animals within a few days. Longer duration of GABA transaminase inhibition resulted in decreased food intake and weight loss.

Additional studies have shown that in people with insulin resistance, the liver more actively expresses genes involved in the production and release of GABA.

In the near future, the authors plan to begin clinical trials that will investigate the use of a commercially available GABA transaminase inhibitor to improve insulin sensitivity in obese people.

Body mass index - RIA Novosti, 1920, 04/30/2021

Scientists have named the body weight at which the risk of COVID-19 is maximum

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Inflamed cells in the brain in severe Covid-19 disease – SWR knowledge

Many people seriously ill with Covid-19 have neurological symptoms such as loss of smell and taste. Researchers have now discovered inflamed cells in the brain that could be responsible.






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Many patients report neurological and psychological complaints such as loss of smell and taste, headaches, speech disorders or depression during and after a severe Covid 19 illness. These symptoms occur more frequently in patients with a severe course of Covid-19 and can last longer as “Long Covid”.

Researchers from Saarland University and Stanford University have now been able to show in a study that in severe cases, cells in certain brain regions are activated, which could be responsible for the psychological and neurological symptoms of COVID-19.

Tissue samples are taken and cells are analyzed

As part of the study, tissue samples were taken from brain regions from eight people who died of Covid-19 and a control group of 14 people who died, which, among other things, control behavior and concentration.

Tissue samples were taken from brain regions of deceased Covid-19 patients and the cells were analyzed using RNA single cell sequencing.



Image


image images/Westend61


Using a special method – RNA single cell sequencing – 65,000 cells from 30 brain samples were examined, explains Andreas Keller, visiting professor at Stanford since 2019. The genes in the nucleus of each individual cell were analyzed. This is important in order to determine changes in gene activity – i.e. molecular changes in the cell – that are present in the event of a disease.

Inflammatory response in the brain

SARS-CoV-2 genetic information could not be detected in the brain – the virus itself apparently did not get into the brain. The inflammations are probably caused by Covid-19 elsewhere in the body, transmitted by inflammatory messengers to the brain and finally to the corresponding brain regions. This then leads to the activation of immune cells in the brain, which trigger inflammation.

Brain (Photo: Imago, imago / Science Photo Library)

The inflammation elsewhere in the body is directed to the brain, where it activates immune cells that trigger inflammation.



Image


imago/Science Photo Library


The researchers also found activated T cells in the brain. These must have migrated across the blood-brain barrier into the brain and increase the inflammation there. This inflammation of the brain cells could lead to the altered cognitive functions of the sick, such as concentration disorders. In the tissue samples from the control group, the researchers were unable to find any inflammation in the nerve tissue in the brain.

Cells in the brain in Covid-19 disease are similar to cells in neurological and mental illnesses

The scientists also discovered immune and nerve tissue cells in the brain that showed changes at the gene level similar to those of cells from people with neurological and mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia or depression. In order to identify these similar patterns, the researchers had to examine all 20,000 genes of the 65,000 cells each – around 1.3 billion data sets! A long way.

Inflamed brain cells (Photo: Imago, imago / Science Photo Library)

Immune and nerve tissue cells in the brain of people with severe Covid-19 disease are similar to the cells of people with neurological and mental illnesses such as schizophrenia or depression.



Image


imago/Science Photo Library


“The amount of data that we generate today through high-throughput single cell sequencing cannot be managed without sophisticated algorithms and modern bioinformatics.”

Better therapies for severe Covid-19 diseases

With these scientific findings, the researchers want to contribute to better therapies for seriously ill Covid-19 patients. Long Covid patients often experience poor concentration and speech disorders, which could perhaps also be traced back to this inflammation in the corresponding brain regions, explains Fabian Kern, first author of the study together with Andrew C. Yang.

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Scientists have discovered a new mechanism for the development of cancer

https://ria.ru/20210623/rak-1738239198.html

Scientists have discovered a new mechanism for the development of cancer

Scientists have discovered a new mechanism of cancer development – Russia news today

Scientists have discovered a new mechanism for the development of cancer

American biologists have discovered a gene mutation that leads to the development of cancer. The authors studied the new mechanism using the example of leukemia, but believe that it works in … RIA Novosti, 06/23/2021

2021-06-23T18:00

2021-06-23T18:00

2021-06-23T20:43

science

genetics

biology

health

USA

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MOSCOW, June 23 – RIA Novosti. American biologists have discovered a gene mutation that leads to the development of cancer. The authors studied the new mechanism using the example of leukemia, but believe that it works in other cancers as well. Published in the journal Nature, researchers at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill and the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center have discovered a biophysical mechanism that activates certain genes that lead to cancer. They have shown that a mutation that combines two unrelated gene, helps to trigger a physical process of phase separation, similar to that which occurs when two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water, are combined. When the phases are separated inside the cell nucleus, compartments are formed – cells with different physical properties that can contribute to the development of cancer. “Phase separation and its role in the development of cancer were the missing piece of the puzzle in understanding this disease,” the head said in a press release from the Lineberger Center research by Dr. Greg Wang, Associate Professor in the Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Pharmacology, UNC School of Medicine. This discovery, linking phase separation to cancer formation, provides new insights into the complex, multi-step process that connects biology and physics, according to the authors. To help decipher this process, the researchers conducted laboratory experiments on cancer cells that carry a common fusion gene called NUP98-HOXA9. This abnormal fusion is found in the blood cells of patients who develop leukemia. “Because similar gene fusions have been seen in other cancers, the mechanism we discovered could explain other types of cancer,” said study participant Douglas Phanstiel. ), Associate Professor, Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, UNC School of Medicine. “We believe our findings will help create innovative methods to fight cancer cells.” There are unstructured regions in the proteins produced by NUP98-HOXA9, known as internally disordered regions, or IDR … The role of IDR is still a mystery, but researchers have shown that IDR promotes liquid-liquid separation for NUP98-HOXA9 proteins when they reach critical concentrations in the nucleus, causing the NUP98-HOXA9 complex to become phased, or compartmentalized. ” The liquid-liquid phase separation alters the behavior of the NUP98-HOXA9 proteins, and forces them to bind much more strongly to the target genes, explains the first author of the article, Dr. Jeong Hyun Ahn, UNC Researcher. HOXA9, when separated into phases, generates a unique pattern called a super enhancer. Stronger binding of NUP98-HOXA9 proteins to DNA leads to an increase in the activity of this factor, which underlies the formation of aggressive blood cancer. ” which will destroy or dissolve the phase separated liquid droplets formed by NUP98-HOXA9. “We hope to explore possible therapists phase separation agents, because we know that this process can also influence neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, where plaque that builds up in the brain may be partially associated with liquid-liquid phase separation. notes Wang. So far, scientists have performed all the experiments in the laboratory, but they hope to soon check how the mechanism they discovered works on living organisms.

https://ria.ru/20210415/mozg-1728301674.html

https://ria.ru/20210617/starenie-1737469498.html

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genetics, biology, health, usa

MOSCOW, June 23 – RIA Novosti. American biologists have discovered a gene mutation that leads to the development of cancer. The authors studied the new mechanism using the example of leukemia, but believe that it works in other cancers as well. The research results are published in the journal Nature.
Researchers at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill and the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center have discovered a biophysical mechanism that activates certain genes that lead to cancer.

They showed that a mutation combining two unrelated genes triggers a physical phase separation process, similar to that which occurs when two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water, are combined. When phases are separated inside the cell nucleus, compartments are formed – cells with different physical properties that can contribute to the development of cancer.

“Phase separation and its role in cancer has been the missing piece of the puzzle in understanding the disease,” said research leader Dr. Greg Wang, assistant professor of biochemistry, biophysics and pharmacology at UNC School of Medicine, in a press release from the Lineberger Center.

According to the authors, this discovery, linking phase separation with the formation of cancer, allows a new look at the complex, multi-stage process that connects biology and physics.

To help decipher this process, the researchers conducted laboratory experiments on cancer cells carrying a common fusion gene called NUP98-HOXA9. This abnormal fusion is found in the blood cells of patients who develop leukemia.

Scientists have discovered “hotspots” in the brain indicating signs of cancer

“Since similar gene fusions have been seen in other cancers, the mechanism we discovered could explain other types of cancer,” said fellow study participant Douglas Phanstiel, assistant professor of Cell Biology and Physiology at UNC School of Medicine. we believe our findings will help create innovative methods to fight cancer cells. “

The proteins produced by NUP98-HOXA9 have unstructured regions known as internally disordered regions, or IDRs. The role of IDR is still a mystery, but researchers have shown that IDR promotes liquid-liquid separation for NUP98-HOXA9 proteins when they reach critical concentrations in the nucleus, causing the NUP98-HOXA9 complex to become phased, or compartmentalized.

“Liquid-liquid phase separation alters the behavior of NUP98-HOXA9 proteins, and makes them bind much more strongly to target genes,” explains first author Dr. Jeong Hyun Ahn, UNC Researcher. “-HOXA9, when separated into phases, generates a unique pattern called a super enhancer. Stronger binding of NUP98-HOXA9 proteins to DNA leads to an increase in the activity of this factor, which underlies the formation of aggressive blood cancers.”

In theory, the authors believe, it is possible to create a drug that will destroy or dissolve the phase-separated liquid droplets formed by NUP98-HOXA9.

“We hope to explore possible therapeutic agents targeting phase separation, as we know that this process can also influence neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, where plaque that builds up in the brain may be partially related to phase separation.” – liquid, “says Wang.

So far, scientists have performed all the experiments in the laboratory, but they hope in the near future to check how the mechanism they discovered works on living organisms.

Aging genes - RIA Novosti, 1920, 17.06.2021

Scientists have discovered the factor of premature aging

.