the forgotten ‘special forces’ of the Hispanic Monarchy against the collapse of the Empire

Manuel P. VillatoroManuel P. Villatoro



Pedro de Zubiaur he drank from his family the trade of seamanship from a boy. Salt water ran through his veins and his mind resounded, like an indefatigable litany, the rattling of the wind against the cloth of the sails. The one that indicates that the ship is flying towards the enemy. Since always, and forever, the waters were his life. When he was about half a century of life, back in November 1592, he attacked with his fleet – a dozen small and light filibotes, do not believe … – an English convoy formed, nothing less and nothing more, than by forty boats. Insured disaster, you might think. But boy, no. Our Basque arrested the captain, captured three more,


Actor and screenwriter Jean-Pierre Bacri died at age 69

IHe was the favorite grouch of French cinema: Jean-Pierre Bacri died of cancer at the age of 69. “He died in the early afternoon,” in Paris, his agent Anne Alvares-Correa told Agence France-Presse.

The actor has appeared in many classics: Didier, My best friends, Kitchen and outbuildings, City of fear, The taste of Others… His duet in the city as on the stage with Agnès Jaoui, whom he met in 1987 at the theater in The birthday de Pinter, will have spawned plays and then films that have delighted cinemas. Their bittersweet comedies have enchanted millions of spectators.

READ ALSOWhen Jean-Pierre Bacri was to die on March 14 …

Five Caesars

Author, screenwriter, dialogue writer, Jean-Pierre Bacri brought in all his interpretations his grumpy, detached, but always fair side – he picked up a Molière for Wise women in 2017. The character will be the joy of imitators. It almost all started in The Big Pardon by Alexandre Arcady. Some successes followed before the triumph of the play, adapted into a film, Kitchen and outbuildings, co-written with Agnès Jaoui. They won the César for best screenplay in 1994. Two years later, bis repetita with A family resemblance. Will follow The taste of Others in 2000 (best scenario), Like a picture in 2004, Tell me about the rain in 2008, At the end of the tale in 2013 et Public place in 2018.

In parallel, Jean-Pierre Bacri turns in many popular comedies like Didier by Alain Chabat (1997), where he played a player agent for PSG, We know the song by Alain Resnais (he will have a César for Best Supporting Actor in 1998) and more recently The sense of celebration by Olivier Nakache and Éric Toledano.

Jean-Pierre Bacri has been awarded five times at the César, where he received four times the trophy for best screenplay with Agnès Jaoui, for Smoking/No Smoking, A family resemblance, We know the song and The taste of Others, and once that of the best actor in a supporting role for We know the song. The actor and author confided a few years ago that he did not like heroes. I “do not believe in brilliant types of happiness”: “to track down the lived experience, sobriety, modesty”, “to refuse cheating” is a profession of faith.

early summary of episode 4197

MORE BEAUTIFUL LIFE. Emma finds her sister, Jean-Luc passes on his hardware store to his son and Thomas offers Barbara to set up their business … Here is what you need to know about episode 4197 of Plus belle la vie on Tuesday, January 19, 2021.

Summary of pblv episode 4197 of Tuesday, January 19, 2021

[Mis à jour le 18 janvier 2021 à 16h36] Emma recognized her sister Camille, in the photo that Kevin showed her. She then remembers the day she disappeared. Emma then goes to the police station, accompanied by Kevin. She explains to Patrick that the young girl may be her little sister who was kidnapped ten years ago, when she was 8 years old. Emma has had a DNA test and dreads the meeting because she is afraid it is not her. Once in front of her, Emma asks the young girl questions and her answers are not always correct, but she talks about specific details and Emma understands that it is indeed her sister.

During this time, Jean-Luc wants to leave the hotel because Mirta has chosen her son’s party. Yolande explains to him that in the family we almost always end up being reconciled and tells him to love his son as he is. Jean-Luc then agrees to bequeath his hardware store to Bastien. His son is stunned and accepts, but Jean-Luc has trouble letting go. Bastien thanks Mirta for her help and confesses to her that he thought his father would come back during the day. This is actually what he wanted to do, but Mirta stopped him by locking him in her room.

Regarding Thomas, he has been working for some time in a new bar, he enjoys his job and wonders if the fact of having lost the Mistral is not a bad for a good. Barbara then comes to visit her father who works at the Mistral and is happy to see him so happy. However, he misses work. Barbara then goes to see Thomas at his new job and he explains to her that she lacks the team spirit that there was at the Mistral. Thomas offers Barbara to speak about her to the boss to work there. The manager does not want to change and Thomas resigns. He then offers Barbara to set up their business together.

Summary of pblv episode 4196 of Monday, January 18, 2021

Léa announces to Jean-Paul that she has accepted the post of first assistant in exchange for her appointment as head of the municipal police, which will allow her to investigate Samia’s disappearance from the inside. Jean-Paul is touched but is afraid that this will put Lea in danger. He surprises his daughter for having booked a ski holiday for the weekend, but Lucie doesn’t want to. She misses her mother and says her father doesn’t do much to find her. Then, while Jean-Paul and Abdel are having a drink, the lawyer receives a call from one of the two young people who had been hit by the municipal police. The latter tells him that they have withdrawn their complaint and that they will leave the territory. The two friends think it is an attempt to intimidate and Jean-Paul is convinced that there is something to do with Samia’s disappearance. While Cisse summoned Boher in the hope that he would apologize for his words, the latter announces that he is resigning.

Meanwhile, Emma’s sister has a crisis in the market, she is taken to the police station. When Kevin arrives to question her, she is paralyzed. She doesn’t give her first name but says she saw her sister, Emma, ​​at the market with a little one. Kevin promises him that he will find her. He then thinks that the young woman’s sister is his friend Emma and makes an appointment to warn her. He thinks it is crazy but shows him a photo anyway and Emma is speechless. At the hospital, Riva understands that Jean-Luc has narcolepsy attacks when he talks about his son, Bastien. The doctor explains to her that Mirta is no longer enough to treat her narcolepsy and that reconciling her son would be beneficial to her. Jean-Luc then wants to leave the hotel but Mirta refuses, she wishes to reconcile him with her son. She will then ask Bastien to bury the hatchet with his father so that he will be better. Mirta then comes to announce to Jean-Luc that Bastien agrees to return to work at the hardware store, but on the condition that he does not return. Jean-Luc does not admit his faults and does not accept this condition.

More beautiful life – info

Plus belle la vie is the daily soap opera of France 3, broadcast every evening from Monday to Friday at 8:20 p.m. The series, created in 2004, follows the daily life of the inhabitants of the Mistral, a fictitious district located in Marseille, between personal life, police and societal intrigues. For 16 years (and 16 seasons), Plus belle la vie has established itself as a provider of audiences and paved the way for other daily soap operas, such as Tomorrow belongs to us (TF1) and Un si grand soleil (France 2 ). In this article, find all the information about the daily series of France 3: the broadcast times, the current cast of the series, the intrigues developed, but also how to find spoilers and indiscretions, or watch Plus belle la life ahead.

Viewers eager to know the sequel to Plus belle la vie can discover the episodes in advance. Every morning, the episode broadcast the same evening is put online, on the official site of Plus belle la vie, but also on France TV. The next episodes are also available for rental on the MyCanal site, for 0.99 € per episode. It is also possible to buy them at a price of 1.49 €. The next three episodes are available for rental. The opportunity to discover the next events of the France 3 soap opera in advance!

The producers of Plus belle la vie try to keep viewers in suspense every night with serial twists in their characters. And they understood the interest of revealing certain scenes in advance. Short spoiler videos are thus offered, often several days before their broadcast, on the official website of the series. There are many extracts from Plus belle la vie en avant, in particular in the “Indiscretions” section (see here). Please note that the passages below contain important spoilers for the sequel to Plus belle la vie.

Fans of Plus belle la vie bade farewell to an emblematic character of the soap opera on January 8, 2021. Fabienne Carat had announced in the columns of Télé Star that she was going to leave the series of France 3. To justify her departure, the actress, who played Samia Nassri since 2005, evoked the desire to “grow up alone”: “I liked her very much, we contributed a lot, but today, I feel the need to grow up alone and leave, “she told the magazine. She notably joined the new season of Research Section in 2019 which will be broadcast in prime time on TF1 from January 28, 2021. The TelFrance group, production company of Plus belle la vie, had also reacted to the announcement of the departure of Fabienne Carat on Twitter: “Fabienne has decided to“ say goodbye to the character of Samia. ”The actress wishes to go towards new personal adventures and the production as well as the channel respect her choice and accompany her with their wishes for success . “

The departure of Fabienne Carat was justified by the departure of her character who says “to be at fault and to have decided to leave in the hope of fixing things” in a letter intended for her ex-husband, Jean-Paul. Samia therefore left for Algiers, without giving more details. In 2019, the interpreter of Samia had already told Télé Star that she hoped that her departure, if it were to take place, “would be smooth, for the fans”.

It is not always easy to be present in front of your television set every day at 8:20 p.m. to discover the new adventures of the inhabitants of the Mistral or even Tomorrow belongs to us on TF1. But don’t worry, France 3 has thought of everything: fans of Plus belle la vie can discover the episode online in the morning, which will be broadcast a few hours later, at 8:20 p.m. the same day. All you have to do is connect to the official website of Plus belle la vie or that of France Télévision. In addition, fans can catch up with the episodes replay on these two platforms. Note that the episodes remain available for 6 days on the site. In addition, episodes streaming is also available on smartphones, computers and tablets.

The general plot of Plus belle la vie is difficult to summarize as the series has evolved since its first season in 2004. Plus belle la vie follows the daily life of a group of characters linked by a common point, the Mistral, an imaginary district of Marseille in which they meet and tell each other. Two types of intrigues have crossed each evening for many seasons already: intrigues retracing everyday social and societal issues and police intrigues ranging from the search for a serial killer to the fight against the mafia or terrorism. Plus belle la vie has taken the habit of being inspired by current events with numerous references to real events or to miscellaneous facts over the episodes.

The actors and actresses of Plus belle la vie change with the seasons. However, very familiar faces continue to roam the Mistral. In the cast, we find in particular Laurent Kerusoré in the role of Thomas Marci, Stéphane Henon who plays Jean-Paul Boher or Anne Décis in the role of Luna Torres. Other well-known actors in the series include Rebecca Hampton (Céline Frémont), Alexandre Fabre (Charles Frémont), Sylvie Flepp (Mirta Torres), Fabienne Carat (Samia Nassri), Jérôme Bertin (Patrick Nebout), Marwan Berreni ( Abdel Fedala), Pauline Bresson (Emma) or Pierre Martot (Léo Castelli). Here is a non-exhaustive list of the main actors and actresses still on screen in Plus belle la vie:

  • Marwan Berreni: Abdel Fedala
  • Jérôme Bertin: Patrick Nebout
  • Theo Bertrand: Kevin Belesta
  • Pauline Bression : Emma Rimez
  • Fabienne Carat: Samia Nassri
  • Jean-Charles Chagachbanian: Franck Ruiz
  • Michel Cordes: Roland Marci
  • Anne Decis: Luna Torres
  • Serge Dupire: Vincent Chaumette
  • Alexandre Fabre: Charles Frémont
  • Sylvie Flepp : Mirta Torres
  • Léa François: Barbara Évenot
  • Rebecca Hampton: Céline Frémont
  • Stéphane Henon: Jean-Paul Boher
  • Cecilia Hornus: Blanche Marci
  • Laurent Kerusoré: Thomas Marci
  • Léa Kerel: Thérèse Marci
  • Joakim Latzko : Gabriel Riva
  • Avy Marciano : Sacha Malkavian
  • Pierre Martot: Leo Castelli
  • Flavie Péan: Victoire Lissajoux
  • Caroline Riou: Laetitia Belesta
  • Myra Tyliann : Alison Valle

Plus belle la vie – on the TV program from Monday to Friday at 8:20 p.m. on France 3

how Bourges wants to experience the reopening of cultural places

The mayor of Bourges, Yann Galut, explained this morning on BFMTV that this experiment would then allow a reopening to be extended to all of France.

The city of Bourges proposes to serve as a place of experimentation for a gradual reopening of cultural places, closed for months due to the pandemic. Invited this Monday morning on BFMTV, the mayor of the city Yann Galut explained his project.

“I suggest that our city of Bourges, which has a strong cultural influence, test for several days, the reopening for cultural actors, with reinforced protocols”, he explained, before recalling that a similar experience has was conducted in Barcelona.

On December 12, several hundred people went to the Apolo room in the Catalan city for a concert, wearing an FFP2 mask and after having tested negative for the coronavirus by means of an antigen test. At the end of December, the directors of the trial revealed that all participants had then tested negative for the coronavirus again eight days later.

“The cultural players are hit hard by this crisis. We are a cultural country, and I believe that this experiment would allow us to have a return which would then allow us to extend to all of France”, added Yann Galut. “But, of course, with an extremely strict health protocol: tests, distancing, ventilation in the rooms …”.

“A land of initiative”

Yann Galut sent a letter on Friday with his proposal to the Minister of Culture, Roselyne Bachelot. He reminds us that “the City of Bourges has the advantage of being able to present the diversity of cultural sectors: museums, historical monuments, contemporary art spaces, places of live performance or dedicated to contemporary music; under municipal, associative or EPCC status (public establishment of cultural cooperation, Editor’s note)“, specifying that” the persons in charge of (these) structures said they were ready to resume the protocols implemented at the end of the first containment and to support them “.

“I will be in contact with his cabinet in the coming hours,” said Yann Galut on BFMTV, who in his letter said to be listening to the minister in order to “implement a policy of reopening concerted with officials cultural and heritage, by making Bourges a land of initiative “.

Roselyne Bachelot has scheduled a meeting to assess the situation on January 20 with a view to reopening cultural venues for which she felt, at the start of last week, that it would be “totally irresponsible” to set a date.

TV tips: TV tips on Monday |

TV tips
TV tips on Monday

"The dead from Lake Constance - the ghost": The commissioners Micha Oberländer (Matthias Koeberlin) and Hannah Zeiler (Nora Waldstätt

“The dead from Lake Constance – the haunted man”: The inspectors Micha Oberländer (Matthias Koeberlin) and Hannah Zeiler (Nora Waldstätten) bring explosive news

© ZDF/Patrick Pfeiffer

In “Die Toten vom Bodensee” (ZDF) a child’s test of courage ends differently than expected. The first shows the nature documentary “Sharks ice cold”. In “Total Recall” (ProSieben) Colin Farrell becomes the hunted by fake memories.

8:15 p.m., ZDF, Die Toten vom Bodensee – Der Wegspuk, crime thriller

What begins as a test of courage turns into a moment of horror for three children from a nearby holiday camp. They secretly enter a villa that has been uninhabited for years. You want to convince yourself that it is really haunted. But instead of encountering ghosts, they witness the fight between Jakob Stocking (Robert Finster) and the building contractor Ingo Hauer (Robert Lutz), in which the latter is killed by a knife. Micha Oberländer (Matthias Koeberlin) and Hannah Zeiler (Nora Waldstätten) investigate.

8:15 p.m., Das Erste, Haie ice cold !, documentary

Sharks have ruled the seas for millions of years. As skilled hunters in the depths of the oceans, we know them primarily from tropical waters. But we know very little about the sharks of the north and their fascinating survival strategies. Christina Karliczek wants to change that and goes on an exciting expedition. The experienced underwater camerawoman is one of the few in her profession. It is specially trained for diving under the ice and at extreme depths

8:15 p.m., cable one, Total Recall, sci-fi action thriller

To escape his frustrating everyday life in 2084, factory worker Douglas Quaid (Colin Farrell) books a virtual adventure. Let the memories of a real secret agent become his own. But something goes wrong with the treatment – Quaid is suddenly being followed as a spy. Even his wife (Kate Beckinsale) turns against him. Do the new memories contain more truth than what he previously thought was his life?

8:15 p.m., RTL, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? – The big gamer special, quiz show

New gamblers, new questions and a new game: in the big “Gambler Special”, candidates who love risk play! Under the spell of millions, brazen gamblers can win two million euros if they have nerves of steel. Who starts a hero’s journey with Günther Jauch? Only those who are brave enough to answer the first nine of the 15 questions without using a joker have the chance to step off the council chair as a two-time millionaire.

22:15, ZDF, November Man, Thriller

After an unsuccessful mission in which his protégé David Mason (Luke Bracey) made a fatally wrong decision, CIA top agent Peter Devereaux (Pierce Brosnan) has retired from active service. But the veteran is reactivated for a very personal assignment. On behalf of his ex-boss John Hanley (Bill Smitrovich), Devereaux is supposed to bring his former lover, the Russian agent Natalia Ulanova (Mediha Musliovic), to safety. Natalia had gathered explosive information in Moscow as a confidante of the Russian presidential candidate Arkady Fedorov (Lazar Ristovski).


His pop made the 1960s dance, his violence led him to prison … the legendary producer Phil Spector died at 81

Phil Spector, and 1989.

His career was relatively short, most of which covered the 1960s and early 1970s. American producer, songwriter and composer Phil Spector died on Saturday, January 16, without the causes having been indicated – he had been treated of Covid-19 a few weeks earlier – at the California Health Care Facilty, a prison facility reserved for sick prisoners, in Stockton (California). He was 81 years old. The musician was sentenced in May 2009 to nineteen years in prison for the murder of a young actress, Lana Clarkson, in February 2003.

Writer and journalist Tom Wolfe had given it the title of“Teenage emperor” in January 1965 in the New York Herald Tribune. His British colleague Nick Kent compares him, for pop, to Richard Wagner, in his book The Dark Stuff (2006). This is to praise the qualities of its pop productions, in particular for the female groups The Crystals (He’s a Rebel, Da Doo Ron Ron, Then He Kissed Me…) et The Ronettes (Be My Baby, Baby, I Love You), ou le duo The Righteous Brothers (You’ve Lost That Lovin’Feelin, Unchained Melody), which marked the 1960s. And for its manner of recording, a symphonic density which bears the name of “wall of sound”, of which many – Brian Wilson, of the Beach Boys, Bruce Springsteen – will be inspired. Spector had also collaborated with Ike and Tina Turner, John Lennon, George Harrison or Leonard Cohen.

Peak between 1962 and 1966

Harvey Philip Spector was born on December 26, 1939 in New York City. Subject to asthma attacks and allergies, he is overprotected by his mother. After the traumatic suicide of his father in 1949, he withdraws and experiences a difficult adolescence. Mocked for his puny appearance, he finds solace only in music, taking piano and guitar lessons. The family moved to Los Angeles.

In high school, he met Marshall Leib, Sandy Nelson and Annette Kleinbard with whom he formed The Teddy Bears – the only group he would be part of – for which he wrote most of the songs. Whose To Know Him is to Love Him (to know him is to love him), a title which uses the epitaph inscribed on his father’s grave. It will be its first number 1, at the end of 1958. Despite this success and after the recording of an album, the formation separates.

Phil Spector, who supervised the recording sessions, then decides to perfect his production knowledge. With Lester Still, who introduced him to songwriters Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller, he founded the phonographic company Philles Records. He also works with Lee Hazlewood, future partner of Nancy Sinatra, and with Jerry Wexler, eminence of the Atlantic Records label.

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“Now is the right time for eternal bonds”

These are not normal times. The Covid-19 pandemic has created an emergency because authorities have not been able to get it under control quickly enough to prevent a global economic shock. Thanks to a remarkable show of strength in epidemiology and medicine, the pandemic will soon be under control.

Various vaccines will be widely available within a year. Meanwhile, however, the virus has wreaked economic damage worse than the post-2008 financial crisis. That calls for a firm economic strategy.

Unfortunately, the measures taken by European politics have brought little benefit. The reasons for this failure can be traced back to the complicated relationship between the central authorities of the EU and its member states.
I have long been a proponent of perpetual bonds. These are bonds that never have to be paid back; only the annual interest has to be paid. This may sound like a radical idea to some, but Eternal Bonds have been in use for centuries.

Great Britain issued unlimited bonds, so-called “consols”, in 1752 and later also used unlimited “war bonds” to finance the Napoleonic wars. The United States issued consols in the 1870s. In fact, the first perpetual bonds issued by the Dutch in 1648 to maintain their dikes are still outstanding; however, the annual interest payments on them are so small that hardly anyone knows of their existence.

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Eternal bonds should be introduced now while international interest rates cannot fall any further. This would mean that this advantage would be permanent. They could be introduced gradually to allow financial markets to become familiar with a new financial market instrument. This is not a problem as an undated bond can easily be sold in tranches.

Until recently, I was in favor of the European Union, not the Member States, issuing perpetual bonds. I understand that this is not feasible under the current circumstances. Despite a number of major policy breakthroughs, the EU does not have sufficient tax revenues to deliver the kind of fiscal stimulus that would be needed to deal with the pandemic.

For an effective financial policy to respond to the pandemic, European governments must therefore expand their own room for maneuver. For this reason, individual countries should issue perpetual bonds to finance the cost of fighting Covid-19.

Although not noticed by the general public, the European Central Bank (ECB) has already introduced perpetual bonds. The ECB bought massive amounts of government bonds as part of its quantitative easing program. The experts know that the ECB has no choice but to keep this debt forever.

The ECB has already introduced perpetual bonds

A market sale of the accumulated bonds could cause excessive market turbulence; Forcing governments to buy them back would never be feasible as it would create unimaginable financial bottlenecks. Instead, the bonds owned by the ECB will simply be replaced with newly issued government bonds when they mature. This redeployment could be continued forever. In this way, quantitative easing has effectively turned fixed-term bonds into perpetual debt.

There is a big difference between perpetual bonds issued directly by governments and perpetual debt that comes indirectly. If a European government issues perpetual bonds, it will fix the low interest rates forever. Conversely, if the government issues new traditional bonds to replenish the holdings of maturing ECB bonds, it may have to pay higher interest rates.

Perpetual bonds issued directly by European governments have one more crucial advantage: the process is more democratic. At the moment, perpetual bonds are being created by the ECB, an institution that does not act under direct responsibility towards the electorate of any particular member state.

The ECB is guided by a tight mandate: maintaining long-term price stability in the euro zone. This is not the mandate that should determine the financial policy decisions of European governments in the Covid-19 emergency. They are obliged to their citizens to counter this emergency with all necessary means. This includes issuing perpetual bonds due to their inherent benefits.

More: Government crisis in Italy is delaying urgently needed billions in aid for the economy


the invented “epic” that turned our soldiers into “heroes”

Israel Viana




Tistutin’s deadly and dangerous defense of pit number two nearly went down in history as one of the most heroic actions of the famous Annual disaster. You know, that sad episode that many historians still qualify as the worst military defeat of Spain in the 20th and 21st centuries. In his article “The Picasso file: The memory of an unusual memory exercise”, Alfonso Iglesias, from the University of Santiago de Compostela, speaks of “the greatest debacle ever suffered by a European colonial army on African territory.”

The death figures give him the reason, since the most optimistic is over 13,000 deaths only in the Spanish ranks, as Sebastian Balfour points out, and the most pessimistic is close to 20,000, as Geoffrey Regan defends in «History of military incompetence »(Critique, 1989). What happened was so serious that the Government of the Restoration prevented the media from referring to it, with the aim of preventing panic among the population. «The reader will notice today a total absence of information on Africa. Previous censorship has been established, “ABC warned.

In the midst of that massacre that took place between July 22 and August 9, 1921, and without showing the slightest respect for the trauma it generated among the population, one of the most incredible and unknown episodes of the famous picaresque took place. Spanish. One that affected the bosom of our Army and that turned several of our soldiers into heroes, praised by the press and decorated by our commanders, after inventing a feat in which they were placed as protagonists. And, as Paloma Aguilar Fernández explained in «Politics of memory and memories of politics» (Alianza, 2008), the fact that «many people assume something that never happened as true does not make it more real, but it may remain forever in the collective memory.

The «Picasso File»

The six false heroes of the Tistutin pit – the capes Jesus Arenzana and Rafael Lillo and four more soldiers — succeeded despite the exhaustive investigation commissioned by the Spanish government to soften the magnitude of the tragedy and the political impact it produced. It was entrusted to General Juan Picasso González with the aim of purifying the responsibilities requested by the people. The result, after nine months of intense work, was an extensive and detailed file for which all kinds of documentary and oral sources were used.

Collection of bodies in the Annual disaster, July 22, 1921,
Collecting bodies in the Annual disaster, July 22, 1921, – ABC

The latter were the ones that led to the fraud, since it was in the interviews that Picasso conducted with Arenzana in which the corporal imagined his heroic epic in defense of the well. And in which he also described, in detail, how they disabled and hid their own weapons so that they did not fall into the hands of the enemy, how they tricked the Rif people into not attacking them while there was water and how they sneaked into the French zone, avoiding all kinds of dangers, until being discovered by two Riffians to whom our protagonist killed.

In the story, captured by the general in his report, one can read such incredible passages as the following: «During the night of 29-30, the well was rudely attacked by an enemy whose number Aranzana could not appreciate in the dark. It assumes that there were more than 70, because when it was daylight they saw 35 bodies of men and more than 20 horses. In the morning they were attacked again.

His companions ratified the testimony and Picasso highlighted the feat as one of the most praiseworthy displays of courage of those fateful days. So much so that he proposed to all those involved for a promotion. Public opinion also treated them as heroes and a campaign was even started for Arenzana to obtain the Laureate Cross of San Fernando, the most precious military decoration in Spain. «They resisted in an implausible way and, at the last extreme, the six defenders met with their leader. Later they relieved him of all responsibility, disabled the weapons and the engine of the well and entered the French zone. All this after having undergone great dangers and hardships ”, ABC counted on November 19, 1922.

“Slaughtering mercilessly”

For Picasso the story was most credible. And it’s no wonder, considering the gruesome testimonies he heard during his research. Ramón J. Sender, for example, later recounted how indigenous women followed the Moorish rear, torturing and finishing off the wounded Spanish. Many of these had their teeth pulled out while they were alive to get the gold from the fillings. Others were opened in the canal with a blow of gumía, according to the writer. The entire barbarism of Abd el-Krim’s troops was further confirmed by a survivor who managed to escape after having his finger cut off and faking his death: “The Moors mercilessly slaughtered our soldiers with savage ferocity.”

As Alfonso Iglesias clarifies in his article on the final defeat, “it is true that the troops did not have sufficient preparation and were quite badly equipped, but this is not enough to justify the exaggerated rout in which many soldiers participated and that, only , it is understood through a concatenation of errors in the controls ». That was precisely the case of Aranzana and his men, since, as it became known at the end of 1922, those involved had invented everything. In reality, they surrendered without resisting and paid 100 pesetas to the enemies so that they could take them calmly to the French zone without risking their lives the slightest.

It was the corporal himself, our “hero,” who revealed the truth, driven by his bad conscience at the constant praise and appreciation he received from his superiors and the press across the country. He asked to testify again with the robed prosecutor of the Supreme Council, who reconstructed the truth. According to the book “Secret History of Annual” (Temas de Hoy, 1999), by Juan Pando, the final statement was this: “On August 28, when they saw themselves alone and abandoned, seeing how defense was impossible, they decided to make up their best possible with the enemy, the Riffians and the Spaniards being prisoners of the latter, and having had to deliver their weapons to Chief Hammú, according to Arenzana’s own confession.

The repercussion

Unfortunately, the lie had much less repercussion on public opinion than the epic, since the Government did not want to air a new humiliation of the Army. The authorities feared that the truth would lead citizens – already very critical of the state for having led their children to a suicidal war – to think that many of Annual’s exploits were also fabricated.

The prestige of the “Picasso File”, however, was not affected, as it was a truly extraordinary memory exercise. “It can be considered, despite its judicial will, a historical work much more contrasted and rigorous than the vast majority of history that was made at the time,” emphasizes Iglesias. And it is that the general, in addition to the oral and written sources, analyzed the documentation of the operations and the maps of each of the 155 positions that collapsed in just 20 days. He verified the scant consolidation of the advance and located, with surprising detail, the places where the deaths occurred. He also described the damage to the buildings, the disastrous deployment, the disorderly retreat, the cowardly behavior of some commanders, the errors of the Kabyle policy and even the lack of training of the soldiers.

All these errors were repeatedly pointed out and harshly criticized by the general. And there is no doubt that he would have acted the same with Aranzana if he had discovered his lie earlier, since it was not exactly a report to praise the work of the Army. This is demonstrated by this paragraph, which sums up the more than 2,000 pages very well: «We have been, as usual, victims of our lack of preparation, our eagerness to improvise everything and our overconfidence. All this constitutes, in the opinion of the declarant, a serious responsibility that the country has the right to demand. And while it is true that the authorities and former ministers have visited the territory and found everything perfectly, congratulating the command for the results, it is no less true that the officers promised to dedicate all their efforts to improve the condition of the soldier. Even so, it did not comply, to the detriment of a country that needs not an Army that sacrifices itself, but an Army that triumphs.

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The great Italian chefs turn the paintings of the Uffizi Gallery into recipes

Angel Gomez FuentesAngel Gomez Fuentes

Correspondent in Rome



Cooking is an art. More and more chefs are considered artists, characters who act by explaining their recipes to the public on television. Now one of the most important museums in the world, nothing more and nothing less than the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, a temple of Renaissance art, has come up with the idea of ​​combining art and food. Some of his masterpieces will serve as inspiration for the great Italian chefs. Every Sunday, starting yesterday, the Uffizi will publish a video on Facebook in which a well-known chef – or a character from the world of gastronomy and oenology – will choose a work from the collections (especially a still life)


Keanu Reeves’ incredible workout

John Wick 2: Keanu Reeves' incredible training

For the purposes of filming John Wick 2, Keanu Reeves had to undergo a very special physical training in order to embody the former hired killer.

[Mis à jour le 17 janvier 2021 à 20h55] Keanu Reeves is used to physical filming from The Matrix. However, John Wick 2 still forced him to broaden his skills. For the filming of the action film, the actor had to learn a form of Brazilian jiu-jitsu, but also to use weapons. For the first skill cited, the interpreter of John Wick spent nearly four months of training with Machado brothers to learn this very particular jiu-jitsu.