RKI reports a new high with 487 deaths – exit restrictions in almost all of Saxony

In view of the very high number of new infections in Saxony drives the Free State according to information from the Prime Minister Michael Kretschmer a tough course now. “It applies to almost the entire Free State except for the three large cities that have a different infection rate (…) an exit restriction”said the CDU politician on ZDF. People are only allowed to leave the house for important reasons. The number of new infections must be reduced quickly because the hospitals are already extremely stressed. “It is imperative to act urgently,” warned Kretschmer and appealed to the population to take the situation very seriously.

Kretschmer also holds the Closure of restaurants and hotels also until January into it for likely. You have to think ahead, says the CDU politician with a view to today’s deliberations between the 16 Prime Ministers and Chancellor Angela Merkel. This includes saying to restaurateurs and hoteliers: “It will not be eased quickly.” This applies to December. “It can go on like this even in January”says Kretschmer. This goes beyond the federal-state resolution of November 25th.

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Scientists have established the effect of cholesterol on mortality from coronavirus COVID-19

pixabay.com




For a year now, scientists have been studying the coronavirus and how the virus enters the body.

According to ToDay News Ufa, citing Nature Metabolism, Chinese experts have established that SARS-CoV-2 enters the body via ACE2 receptors. In addition, the process involves the cholesterol receptor, which is present in the blood.

Experts from China have found that the coronavirus enters the human cell through two receptors. Previously, it was believed that all responsibility for the penetration of the virus lies with the ACE2 receptor, but now it turned out that the SR-B1 receptor also facilitates penetration. Experts are sure that if you block it, you can significantly reduce the contagiousness.

The researchers found that the degree of the disease depends on the level of cholesterol in the blood. In addition, Chinese experts said that people with type 2 diabetes mellitus are most susceptible to complications.

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+++ Corona-News +++: So far 54,000 applications for November help – intensive care doctors: three intensive care beds per hospital in Germany are free

The Bavarian city of Passau replaces the Hildburghausen district as a top hotspot. Bavaria calls for permanently low VAT for restaurants and festival hosts. The news blog. .

Conservation of species through tourism in Akagera National Park in Rwanda

AWhen the lion roars sometime shortly after midnight, the pandemic is suddenly over. A shiver creeps over damp skin. The animal cannot stand behind the tent wall for more than a few antelope jumps. All of a sudden the drowsy guest from Europe is wide awake and in the middle of Africa. Even the peaceful grunts of the hippos have stopped. Only the notorious croaking of the reed frogs continues to permeate the night.

Chinese businessmen in safety suits that made them look like astronauts were just still haunted through Addis Ababa airport; a robot measured the temperature of exhausted passengers on arrival in Rwanda; a silent sister in a polyester sleeve with a surgical mask and plastic visor poked her throat for the virus – another test in a room on the third floor of a city hotel in Kigali. Anyone who wants to overcome borders these days will be tested closely and – if they are allowed to travel – be fairly certain that they are not a carrier of the Covid-19 virus.

Nature out of joint

With the roar of the lion, the complex, costly and time-consuming procedure is forgotten. So you lie in a safari tent, listening intently, and the only bit of fear in a world out of joint is an animal that you know very well that tourists behind tent walls don’t fit into the prey scheme. Not even if you actually forgot to lock the tent entrance properly.

In the early morning the wild thoughts are gone. The lion has apparently disappeared. A mother hippo and her child bathe in the fabulously peaceful Rwanyakizinga Lake in front of the tent. Jacana prance over a carpet of floating plants. Somewhere a fish eagle calls its familiar call for its beloved. And suddenly it is there and will not go away from now on: the happiness of being back in the wilderness of Africa, a feeling that one had longed for for months, after weeks and months of lockdown.


They are back: herd of elephants in Akagera National Park.
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Image: Win Schumacher

Drew Bantlin may only smile in embarrassment at these starved city dwellers. The zoologist spent the lockdown in the wilderness of Akagera – after all these months it is almost exotic for him to meet a stranger. Fear of the virus is far removed from him because a state regulation in Rwanda provides that everyone who enters a national park must have a demonstrably negative test.

The American from Arizona is currently on the road with two local employees to observe two black rhinos in the north of the sanctuary, which he has equipped with a new transmitter. The conservationists locate the animals with the help of an antenna. Olmoti, the rhinoceros they are chasing, doesn’t seem to be paying much attention to the researcher and his team today. It immediately disappears into the undergrowth after briefly crossing the men’s path. “She avoids us,” says Bantlin, whom the animals know very well, “that’s a good thing!”

The rhinoceros from Zurich

Olmoti is actually Swiss. She was born at Zurich Zoo and has only been living in the African wilderness since June 2019. Before that, she met four other rhinos in a Czech safari park. From there, the group was brought to the Akagera National Park in Rwanda for reintroduction. “It was the biggest event of its kind ever,” says Bantlin. After a period of acclimatization in a gate, the rhinos now live in the wild, but are always accompanied by Bantlin and his team. “The last rhinoceros was poisoned in Akagera in 2007,” says Bantlin. “In 2001, herdsmen had already killed the last lion.” The last animal was probably poisoned by shepherds who feared for their flocks. As a result of the 1994 genocide, returning refugees from Uganda, among others, turned the once huge area into a pasture. Elephants, buffalo and antelopes have been decimated by poachers. Akagera was stripped of much of its famous wildlife, and Rwanda’s last savannah ecosystem was in danger of disappearing forever.

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More than 12 thousand mutations found in coronavirus SARS-CoV-2

Today, 08:30 | author: Ivan Egorov | Photo ru.depositphotos.com

In a series of experiments, virologists were fortunate enough to find more than 12 thousand mutations in the genome of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. To find out the exact number of versions of the virus, volunteers from 99 countries were involved in the experiment, in which the COVID-19 pandemic is raging.

According to the publication Nature Communications, researchers have found no evidence that any strain increases the contagiousness of the virus. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 can change in several situations: coming into contact with other viruses, dividing, or coming into contact with antibodies of the host organism.

The first mutated strain of SARS-CoV-2 was discovered in the spring of 2020 in Italy, some time after the new version of the virus began its movement with a mutation in the S gene. Recall that this gene is responsible for entering the host’s body. Researchers are confident that the beginning of widespread vaccination will lead to the emergence of new types of SARS-CoV-2, which transform beyond recognition, increasing its already high infectivity.

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High risk of life-threatening pneumonia – medical practice

Study explains major cause of fatal influenza

Many people worry that the coronavirus pandemic could overload the health system during the flu season. Influenza is usually over within a few days without medical help, but it can also lead to death. However, the most common cause of death here is not the influenza virus itself, but rather secondary bacterial pneumonia. Swedish researchers have now gained new insights into this.

It is largely unknown why influenza infections lead to an increased risk of bacterial pneumonia. Researchers at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm have now described important findings that lead to so-called superinfections, in which many people worldwide are killed every year. The study was published in the journal “PNAS” (“Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences”) and can also contribute to research into COVID-19.

One of the world’s leading causes of death

The Spanish flu was an influenza pandemic that occurred around the world in 1918-20 and, unlike many other pandemics, affected young, otherwise healthy adults disproportionately. An important reason for this were so-called superinfections by bacteria, especially pneumococci.

Flu (influenza) is caused by a virus, but the leading cause of death is secondary bacterial pneumonia (pneumonia) rather than the influenza virus itself. According to a release from the Karolinska Institutet, pneumococcal infections are the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and one of the leading causes of death worldwide.

A previous influenza virus infection sensitizes to pneumococcal infections, but the mechanisms behind this increase in susceptibility are not fully understood. Scientists at the Karolinska Institutet have now identified influenza-induced changes in the lower airways that affect the growth of pneumococci in the lungs.

Bacteria growth is favored

Using an animal model, the researchers found that various nutrients and antioxidants such as vitamin C and other substances that normally protect cells escape from the blood, creating an environment in the lungs that favors the growth of bacteria.

The bacteria adapt to the inflammatory environment by increasing the production of the bacterial enzyme HtrA. The presence of HtrA weakens the immune system and promotes bacterial growth in the influenza-infected airways. The lack of HtrA stops bacterial growth.

“The ability of pneumococci to grow in the lower respiratory tract during influenza infection seems to come from the nutrient-rich, antioxidant-rich environment that occurs during viral infection, as well as the ability of bacteria to adapt and adapt to the environment to protect from being exterminated by the immune system, ”says study director Birgitta Henriques Normark, professor at the Institute for Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology at the Karolinska Institutet.

New possible treatments

The results provide valuable information on how bacteria integrate into their environment in the lungs and could be used to find new therapies for double infections between the influenza virus and pneumococcal bacteria.

“HtrA is an enzyme, a protease, that weakens the immune system and enables pneumococcal bacteria to penetrate the protective cell layer inside the airways,” explains the first author of the paper, Vicky Sender, a researcher in the same department. “A possible strategy could therefore be the use of protease inhibitors to prevent the growth of pneumococci in the lungs.”

It is still not known whether people with COVID-19 are also susceptible to such secondary bacterial infections, but researchers believe that similar mechanisms could possibly be found in seriously ill COVID-19 patients.

“Acute pneumonia, whatever the cause, is likely to lead to a leak of nutrients and antioxidants and an environment that encourages bacterial growth,” says Professor Henriques Normark. (ad)

Author and source information

This text corresponds to the requirements of the medical literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical professionals.

Sources:

  • Karolinska Institutet: New study explains important cause of fatal influenza, (Abruf: 28.11.2020), Karolinska Institutet
  • Vicky Sender, Karina Hentrich, Anuj Pathak, Alicia Tan Qian Ler, Bethel Tesfai Embaie, Susanna L. Lundström, Massimiliano Gaetani, Jan Bergstrand, Rei Nakamoto, Lok-To Sham, Jerker Widengren, Staffan Normark & Birgitta Henriques-Normark: Capillary leakage provides nutrients and antioxidants for rapid pneumococcal proliferation in influenza-infected lower airways; in: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (veröffentlicht: 23.11.2020), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Important NOTE:
This article is for general guidance only and should not be used for self-diagnosis or self-treatment. He can not substitute a visit at the doctor.

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several billion virus particles in the body of an infected person

Have you ever wondered how many viral particles sit in the body of a person infected with the coronavirus? Scientists have done the math.

You will also be interested


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Mathematical models show that mass screening, even with less reliable tests, is much more effective in containing the epidemic than tests that are more sensitive but take longer to deliver results.

Israeli and American researchers have sought to calculate the number of virions present in the body of a person infected with the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Obviously, they didn’t count them one by one, but with some math they were able to get a reliable estimate. They share their result in a publication for the moment only relayed by MedRxiv.

The first calculation is concerned with the total number of viral particles present in the body, whether they are viable or not. To do this, they used data published in a study that estimated the number of copies ofARN per gram of tissue in different organs (lungs, trachea and bronchi, tonsils and lymph nodes, digestive system) in macaque rhésus.

Up to a hundred billion virions in the body of an infected person

To relate this to the human being, they multiplied by the mass of each organ. For example: there are between 106 and 108 copies per gram of lung in the rhesus macaque. Human lungs weigh approximately 1 kg, on a donc 109 and 1011 copies of RNA in the lungs of an infected person.

This figure includes both viral particles infectious and those that are not. To realize the number of viral particles actually infectious, the researchers carried out the same reasoning but taking into account the TCID50 which makes it possible to determine the titer, or the concentration, of the infectious virions. In the lungs of rhesus macaques, it has been estimated to be 102 to 104 per gram of tissue. Multiplying again with the mass of human lungs, we get 105 to 107 infectious viral particles in the lungs.

The researchers also put forward a rather surprising data: if we weighed all the virions present in the body of an infected person, the scale would display between 1 and 100 µg. Compared to the number of people infected in the world, the figure obtained shows between 0.1 and 1 kilo of coronavirus !

Interested in what you just read?

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Risk of life-threatening pneumonia – medical practice

Study explains major cause of fatal influenza

Many people worry that the coronavirus pandemic could overload the health system during the flu season. Influenza is usually over within a few days without medical help, but it can also lead to death. However, the most common cause of death here is not the influenza virus itself, but rather secondary bacterial pneumonia. Swedish researchers have now gained new insights into this.

It is largely unknown why influenza infections lead to an increased risk of bacterial pneumonia. Researchers at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm have now described important findings that lead to so-called superinfections, in which many people worldwide are killed every year. The study was published in the journal “PNAS” (“Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences”) and can also contribute to research into COVID-19.

One of the world’s leading causes of death

The Spanish flu was an influenza pandemic that occurred around the world in 1918-20 and, unlike many other pandemics, affected young, otherwise healthy adults disproportionately. An important reason for this were so-called superinfections by bacteria, especially pneumococci.

Flu (influenza) is caused by a virus, but the leading cause of death is secondary bacterial pneumonia (pneumonia) rather than the influenza virus itself. According to a release from the Karolinska Institutet, pneumococcal infections are the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and one of the leading causes of death worldwide.

A previous influenza virus infection sensitizes to pneumococcal infections, but the mechanisms behind this increase in susceptibility are not fully understood. Scientists at the Karolinska Institutet have now identified influenza-induced changes in the lower airways that affect the growth of pneumococci in the lungs.

Bacteria growth is favored

Using an animal model, the researchers found that various nutrients and antioxidants such as vitamin C and other substances that normally protect cells escape from the blood, creating an environment in the lungs that favors the growth of bacteria.

The bacteria adapt to the inflammatory environment by increasing the production of the bacterial enzyme HtrA. The presence of HtrA weakens the immune system and promotes bacterial growth in the influenza-infected airways. The lack of HtrA stops bacterial growth.

“The ability of pneumococci to grow in the lower respiratory tract during influenza infection seems to come from the nutrient-rich, antioxidant-rich environment that occurs during viral infection, as well as the ability of bacteria to adapt and adapt to the environment to protect from being exterminated by the immune system, ”says study director Birgitta Henriques Normark, professor at the Institute for Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology at the Karolinska Institutet.

New possible treatments

The results provide valuable information on how bacteria integrate into their environment in the lungs and could be used to find new therapies for double infections between the influenza virus and pneumococcal bacteria.

“HtrA is an enzyme, a protease, that weakens the immune system and enables pneumococcal bacteria to penetrate the protective cell layer inside the airways,” explains the first author of the paper, Vicky Sender, a researcher in the same department. “A possible strategy could therefore be the use of protease inhibitors to prevent the growth of pneumococci in the lungs.”

It is still not known whether people with COVID-19 are also susceptible to such secondary bacterial infections, but researchers believe that similar mechanisms could possibly be found in seriously ill COVID-19 patients.

“Acute pneumonia, whatever the cause, is likely to lead to a leak of nutrients and antioxidants and an environment that encourages bacterial growth,” says Professor Henriques Normark. (ad)

Author and source information

This text corresponds to the requirements of the medical literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical professionals.

Sources:

  • Karolinska Institutet: New study explains important cause of fatal influenza, (Abruf: 28.11.2020), Karolinska Institutet
  • Vicky Sender, Karina Hentrich, Anuj Pathak, Alicia Tan Qian Ler, Bethel Tesfai Embaie, Susanna L. Lundström, Massimiliano Gaetani, Jan Bergstrand, Rei Nakamoto, Lok-To Sham, Jerker Widengren, Staffan Normark & Birgitta Henriques-Normark: Capillary leakage provides nutrients and antioxidants for rapid pneumococcal proliferation in influenza-infected lower airways; in: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (veröffentlicht: 23.11.2020), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Important NOTE:
This article is for general guidance only and should not be used for self-diagnosis or self-treatment. He can not substitute a visit at the doctor.

.

Alexander Kluge’s letter to Giorgio Agamben on Sars-CoV-2

Dear Giorgio Agamben,

You will still remember our long conversation in Venice, which became a broadcast in one of my culture magazines under the title “Uscita – the message from the way out”. The question at the time was why we don’t have a theory of terror. That was a conversation in relatively quiet times.

We now live in November time, I am significantly further north than you and in the time of a second lockdown. We have experiences like Robinson knew on his island and share the experiences of our oldest ancestors.

Our ancestors were prairie animals and cavemen at the same time. We are currently mostly sitting in our cave dwellings. Basically, such a situation is only half new for people who write. You had already amazed me at the beginning of the Corona period with your thesis “We should worry less and think more”. They wrote: “How did it get to the point where, in the face of a disease whose severity I cannot judge but which is definitely not a plague, an entire society felt the need to feel polluted or contaminated, to isolate itself in their homes and suspend normal living conditions? “

Your wording has sparked a debate. At the beginning of the Corona period it was pictures from northern Italy that touched my mind. I mean the pictures showing the transport of the coffins on military trucks. Such images have penetrated the cocoon of reality in which we habitually set ourselves up like in a glass house. When I saw these pictures, I thought of our conversation. And it is important to me to write to you on the occasion of the Frankfurt / Milan dialogue (this includes Venice).

The filmmaker and writer Alexander Kluge at the Berlinale in February 2020


The filmmaker and writer Alexander Kluge at the Berlinale in February 2020
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Image: dpa

Like you, it amazes me that the king of algorithms, as the virus presents itself, disrupted our human algorithm world, our customs and manners, so quickly that we actually changed some of our habits and at least our relationship between proximity and distance. In the lively communication that accompanied this process, the object itself, the virus, the counter-reality that the Sars-CoV-2 virus represents compared to our living environment, remained astonishingly blurred. What kind of “misanthrope” is that? It comes from a parallel evolution and, separated from the history of humans and their ancestors, probably lived in bats in its homeland for a long time. A strange living being knocks on our door.

Some politicians have spoken of warfare on this matter, a civil war between human nature and the nature of these hybrid microorganisms. Your journalistic intervention in the “Neue Zürcher Zeitung” on April 7, 2020 corresponded to a picture of the Leviathan, the frontispiece of Thomas Hobbes’ treatise of the same name from 1651, which deals with the prevention of civil wars through the power of the sovereign. A fight of the earth citizen Sars-CoV-2 (which never appears as an individual, but always as a mass of billions or trillions) against the earth citizen human? Is that right? According to Carl von Clausewitz ‘”Vom Kriege” (The War), knowledge of the opponent is essential for every fight. This knowledge is at the beginning of every art of war and peace. At Clausewitz, politics and knowledge are of equal importance. I think, dear Giorgio Agamben, of my Skype conversations during the quarantine with the leading virologist Karin Mölling, who, by the way, is also an excellent narrator. She told me how much older the world of viruses is than we are. They may have existed billions of years ago.

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Passau replaces Hildburghausen as the top hotspot – RKI reports more than 11,000 new cases

The critic at the request of Union faction leader Ralph Brinkhaus (CDU) greater participation by the federal states in the Corona aid is growing. Resistance comes from Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia.

The states have already made a significant financial contribution to combating the crisis, Thuringia’s finance minister Heike Taubert (SPD) told the MDR. “Just for ours In the Free State of Thuringia, we initially have 700 million euros for direct aid deployed in the pandemic. There are also guarantees. “

Saxony’s finance minister Hartmut Vorjohann (CDU) criticized the MDR that the impression was given that the federal states had not yet participated. Saxony has a corona management fund of almost seven billion euros hung up.

The fight against the pandemic should not depend on the budget of the federal states, said Saxony-Anhalt’s Prime Minister Reiner Haseloff (CDU) the broadcaster. “Rich countries could then afford more protection and more compensation than poor ones. Nobody can seriously wish that. “

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