The vaccination that put Alzira in the history of medicine

The vaccination that put Alzira in the history of medicine


This is a little-known document that came to the hands of the Catalan chemist and historian of photography Salvador Tió through a copy during his documentation on Innocent Paulí, Ferran’s close collaborator. The letter is signed by Dr. Pierre Paul Émile Roux, co-founder of the Pasteur Institute and a colleague of Louis Pasteur himself, and would read the following: «To Mr. Bernard Linarès, mayor of Alcira (Valencia). I appreciate your communication and I congratulate the people of Alcira and you. Also to the spirit of initiative that he has given to this great experience. made by his illustrious compatriot Dr. Ferran. I subscribe to the complete success and I sincerely wish you that July 24, 1919 marks a memorable date in the fight against tuberculosis ». The document is dated just one day later.

Today’s society is immersed, at the moment, in a historical period that can easily be compared with that time. A massive vaccination to stop a disease with the capacity to end the lives of millions of people. Something that, surely, would not be possible without the work carried out by Dr. Ferran in Alzira.

The Catalan doctor drew up the cholera vaccine in 1884, when he was 33 years old. To do this, he studied the discovery of the bacillus that caused tuberculosis made by the German Robert Koch (who received the Nobel Prize for this finding, a recognition that Ferran would not achieve, however). In the months prior to the manufacture of his remedy, he performed a thousand tests on animals until he formulated a remedy that he himself inoculated. Despite ingesting the cultures made with the cholera-causing bacillus by mouth, he did not become ill. Neither did Paulí nor his family and friends.

Only 0.13% of deaths

The epidemic was in a phase in which it generated great social alarm. But the political conjuncture of the time invited skepticism. And, in those years, talking about vaccines against diseases in the human species was little more than nonsense. However, the following year, Ferran would visit Alzira for the first time. The city was affected by the disease between March and September, as noted by the chronicler Aureliano Lairón. It was on April 24 when vaccination began in the town of Alzira. Later records would corroborate the efficacy of the serum prepared by the famous doctor. The city had an approximate census of 16,000 people, of which 11,000 were vaccinated. Only 15 lost their lives due to cholera, that is, 0.13%. In contrast, of the remaining 5,000, 216 died from the epidemic. However, it was necessary to wait for the massive vaccinations of the armies that participated in the First World War to obtain the international recognition it deserved. The political disputes of the time over inoculation cost, according to some sources, around 150,000 lives in the Spanish state alone. Its formula was used until 1970.

Precisely, after the most important warlike conflict on the continent (until that moment), Ferran returned to Alzira. The city demanded that Ferran repeat the process carried out with cholera also with tuberculosis, the second of the great investigations carried out by the doctor. The disease had already claimed many lives in a time of hardship. Thus, he went back to the city, where he established two inoculation points. one in the Hospital de Santa Lucía and a second in the Escuelas Pías.

Together with local doctors and other collaborators, more than 10,000 doses of their vaccine were administered again. After the campaign, the town hall named Dr. Ferran the adoptive son of the city, who received recognition from the Pasteur Institute for his collaboration in the fight against the disease.

Health vanguard. Alzira was a pioneer in the world of medicine more than a hundred years ago. 1 Doctor Ferran during the cholera vaccination in the Pious Schools. 2 Letter in which the Pasteur Institute congratulates Alzira in July 1919. F

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Devin Booker, the “baby face” who left his mother to go for his dream and, out of sheer lack of respect, won the heart of Kobe Bryant

Giannis Antetokounmpo did everything in his power, and perhaps more, to prevent the Milwaukee Bucks from walking away empty-handed in Game 2 of the NBA Finals against the Phoenix Suns. There was one team responsible for their majestic performance (42 points and 12 rebounds) not leading to a victory, and on that team there was a main culprit: Devin Booker.

The guard of the Arizona team finished on Friday with 31 points, 6 assists and 5 rebounds but, beyond what the statistics leave, he was in charge of nailing a series of daggers in the hopes of those from Wisconsin responding with their daggers every time the Greek rival brought theirs closer to recovery.

This postseason, these finals, for this “baby-faced killer”, are the confirmation of something that his trainer, Monty Williams, I had promised at the time, when it came to what was a team that could not be a loser. They are also the first step to meet you to the request that the deceased once made Kobe Bryant.

Devin Booker and his two passions: 1950s cars and his dog. Instagram photo

One of the first talks he had coach with Booker it revolved around what he had done and to the recognition that I did not have. Of course, it is that even though he had been the youngest player to score 70 points in history (he did them to the Boston Celtics in March 2018), his name was still not considered among the top figures.

“They still haven’t paid attention to you because of all the problems the team has. We are going to build a winning culture here and thus the talent you have. will be recognized accordingly“the manager told Devin. Especially in America, losing teams rarely make it to nationally televised games.

There, and abroad too, he was often considered a mere scorer of those that do not serve to achieve great things.

Promise zone

“Mama tastes good,” Gustavo Cerati immortalized. Booker grew up with his mother, Veronica Gutierrez (of Mexican descent), in Michigan. Away from his dad Melvin, who without much place in the NBA (where he only played a handful of games) sought better luck in Europe.

By the time the father retired and returned to the United States in 2008, with a teenage Devin, offered to go live with him. It was not easy: he left Michigan, where he moved among white majorities and was used to a certain lifestyle, to go with him to Mississippi; to Moss Point, a city that in addition to having been almost destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, led him to a neighborhood and a school of those where “respect is earned”, even when you are a child.

A little Devin Booker and his mom, Veronica, when the NBA was just that kid's dream.

A little Devin Booker and his mom, Veronica, when the NBA was just that kid’s dream.

The great key, both the young man and his father emphasize, was for Verónica to accept what was so difficult for any mother. It cost her (the boy too) horrors, but she knew her son could have a chance As an athlete, he knew that the boy longed for him and that being with his father, a former player, full time, could help him in that search for the dream.

The plan was successful in two ways: it strengthened the father-son relationship that for years had been sustained by mail or sporadically by phone and led the kid to the University of Kentucky, one of the most prestigious in the United States when it comes to basketball.

It took him one year in the Wildcats for, despite being the sixth man on the team, to win the election in the 13th place in the draft by Phoenix. Nor was that easy, although progress from college to the NBA seems like a truism: He went from playing in the -maybe- best of all to being part of the worst team on the big stage in 2015.

The Godfather

Determination was something Booker carried with him, and He let Kobe Bryant know the first time he had him in front of him, in a match in March 2016, when the Mamba was already heading for retirement: in his first 1 against 1, the kid he threw the crack a fade away, legendary stepping back throw.

At the time, Bryant didn’t say anything. But at the end of the game he faced it. Booker didn’t know what to expect. “You know what? I did the same to Michael Jordan the first time I faced him.”, Kobe blurted out, who invited him to his locker room. They ended up talking for 20 minutes -the kid thought it would be 2 or 3-, the Los Angeles Lakers He gave him his phone number and signed the match program and the shoes.

The sneakers that Kobe Bryant signed to Devin Booker after his first game against in the NBA.  Instagram photo

The sneakers that Kobe Bryant signed to Devin Booker after his first game against in the NBA. Instagram photo

“For the young man!” He wrote in one of them. In the other, meanwhile, he left another message: “For Book. Be legendary“. There goes Booker, five years later, ready to fulfill that request. When on Sunday night the Suns face Milwaukee in game 3 of the finals (from 21 in Argentina), the kid will try to stay one step away of the glory that Bryant knew so well.

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  4. Irresistible madness: Ibai Llanos exploded with joy with the title of ArgentinaThe Andes (Mendoza)
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Tianjin Haihe Media Group presents an extraordinary story about a TCM specialist and his battle against COVID-19 in that country

Tianjin Haihe Media Group presents an extraordinary story about a TCM specialist and his battle against COVID-19 in that country Tianjin Haihe Media Group presents an extraordinary story about a TCM specialist and his battle against COVID- 19 in that country

PR Newswire

TIANJIN, China, July 5, 2021

TIANJIN, China, July 5, 2021 / PRNewswire / – Zhang Boli, director of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China, was awarded the national honorary title “the People’s Hero” by the Chinese central government due to for his outstanding contribution to the country in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.

The decision was made to recognize individuals who have made outstanding contributions in the fight and to further their dedication and other noble qualities.

This short documentary was produced by Tianjin Haihe Media Group, which tells the story of Dr. Zhang in his battle against COVID-19 during the pandemic. In 2020, 72-year-old Zhang Boli helped the medical community recognize the value of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) by leading a team of experts to treat COVID-19 infections in Wuhan, China’s first line in the battle against the new coronavirus disease.

Zhang arrived in Wuhan, capital of central China’s Hubei Province, on January 27, which was the third day of the Chinese Lunar New Year and the fifth day of confinement in the megacity for pandemic control.

Zhang Boli and more than 300 specialists formed a traditional Chinese medicine medical team. They were installed in a makeshift hospital in Wuhan’s Jiangxia District, using traditional Chinese medicine decoctions along with other treatments such as massage, acupuncture, and physical exercises of Tai Chi and Baduanjin, a traditional form of aerobic exercise, to treat COVID patients. -19.

Through Zhang’s pioneering practices, traditional Chinese medicine treatments have been administered to 90 percent of COVID-19 patients in Wuhan, alleviating symptoms, slowing disease progression and boosting recovery.

Learn about his extraordinary story here: https://youtu.be/-ODsnxuR-VQ.

Logo: https://mma.prnewswire.com/media/1556228/Tianjin_Haihe_Media_Group_Logo.jpg

CONTACT: Jane Cheng Tel .: + 8610-68996566 Email: [email protected] GHEMMI Indonesia company

FUENTE Tianjin Haihe Media Group

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the incredible and sad story of Mary Mallon

Terms like “healthy carrier“, “propagator” O “epidemic“are very common today. However, they were coined by modern science during the last century thanks to the impressive history of Mary Mallon. A Northern Irishwoman who came to the United States in search of the American dream, but ended up infecting fifty people with typhoid fever.

It is key to note that finding the person responsible for an outbreak of typhoid fever in New York City in the early 1900s was instrumental in modern science understanding how diseases spread through asymptomatic carriers. In this case, she was the common element in a series of numerous contagion cases that puzzled the US authorities.

That is why she was nicknamed the “most dangerous woman in America.” She even had detractors who came to call her “Typhoid Mary“. Once it was detected that she was a carrier asymptomatic, that is, the person who carries the viruses or bacteria of a disease but who does not present symptoms, was quarantined and, after going back and forth, spent neither more nor less than 23 years isolated.

Clippings from the period portray Mary Mallon as “Typhoid Mary.”

First shoots

Mary Mallon He was born on September 23, 1869 in Northern Ireland, United Kingdom. He came to the United States in 1883, while still a teenager, to work as a cook Y domestic worker in New York and Long Island cities. At that time, the first infections of typhoid fever were not associated with it or its environment.

However, by August 1907 more and more cases began to appear. An outbreak of infections in the family Warren alerted the neighbors of Oyster Bay, a neighborhood where only the highborn could afford to spend the summer. Of course, taking with him a private army of domestic servants; maids, butlers, gardeners and cooks, among others.

It was the first time in history that there was an outbreak of typhoid fever in that place. The situation worried not only Mr. Warren, president of Lincoln Bank, but also the owner of the mansion that he rented, George Thompson, who lived on the rents of his luxurious properties. The landlord, of course, could not afford to have a disease ruin his business.

Mary Mallon was considered the most dangerous woman in the United States.

Mary Mallon was considered the most dangerous woman in the United States.

The detective”

So when almost 30 unexplained cases worried neighbors, George Thompson wanted to find the origin of all this. So he hired George Soper, one of the first North American sanitarians who specialized in hygiene conditions, epidemics and others. Although at first the doctor believed that everything was related to water and food, none of this turned out to be so.

There was something puzzling about this situation. Generally the typhoid fever it appeared in the suburbs or poor areas of New York and not in high society. But in addition, the presence of symptoms at the same time by members of the Warren family and the service personnel was not common. Since they are two different worlds and there was not much relationship between them.

Thus, Dr. Soper put himself in the shoes of a detective to find out how this disease had entered. Following the emergence of new cases at a Park Avenue home in Manhattan, Soper became suspicious of Mary Mallon, who had resigned as the Warren family cook and now works there. She was the nexus. But how did she spread if she wasn’t sick?

The cabin on Nort Brother Island where Mary Mallon lived.

The cabin on Nort Brother Island where Mary Mallon lived.

23 years in quarantine

Although at that time there were vaccines against some infectious diseases and there were advances in terms of epidemic phenomena, the concept of asymptomatic carrier, at least not in the United States. But the doctor managed to establish that the previous outbreaks had occurred in homes where Mary had also worked.

Once Soper was able to perform an exam on Mallon, he detected the presence of the bacteria in his stool. Salmonella typhi, which causes typhoid fever and is characterized by pain in the abdomen and head and increases in body temperature. Indeed, Mary was a carrier of the virus but had no symptoms. The case caused a stir in the New York media and the authorities made a decision.

After a few weeks, it was determined that they should take her to a medical center on a small island to undergo a quarantine period. She spent three years there, living alone in a nearby cabin where only food was brought to her. By that time the press already knew her as “Mary Tifoide“And everyone had an opinion on the matter. In 1910 she achieved her freedom on the condition that she never work as a cook again.

He worked in different places and under different names for five years without keeping his promise. In 1915 an outbreak of about 20 people was known in a Manhattan Hospital. Dr. Soper went to the place and recognized the handwriting of the Northern Irish woman in some files: she worked as a cook and used a false name. Mary Mallon was transferred to North Brother Island and passed 23 years in quarantine lonely. In 1932 he suffered a cerebrovascular accident that resulted in paralysis and died six years later, at the age of 69.

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