Deportations: careless talk (neue-deutschland.de)

Horst Seehofer (CSU)

Photo: Kay Nietfeld / dpa

It is a well-established pattern: if an act of violence occurs in which a foreigner is involved, calls for faster and easier deportations increase. This was also the case in the case of the presumably Islamist-motivated knife attack in Dresden at the beginning of October, in which one man was killed and another seriously injured. The suspect is a 20-year-old Syrian who is classified as an Islamist threat.

Federal Interior Minister Horst Seehofer (CSU) now wants to clarify – unsurprisingly – whether deportations to certain regions of Syria should be possible again in the future. “I will strongly advocate that we check whether it is not possible to deport to Syria in the pacified areas,” said Seehofer. But so far the assessment of the Foreign Office is different. From the point of view of the Federal Ministry of the Interior, the possibility of repatriation of criminals, endangered persons and “identity deceivers” should be sought if the security situation in Syria permits, the statement said on Friday.

Other Union politicians also support the demand. “Criminally convicted criminals have forfeited their right to stay in Germany, especially if they want to overthrow our free and democratic basic order,” said the North Rhine-Westphalian Interior Minister Herbert Reul (CDU). “We have to be able to deport such perpetrators immediately.” Baden-Württemberg’s Interior Minister Thomas Strobl (CDU), the chairman of the CSU Bundestag group, Alexander Dobrindt, and the CSU Bundestag member Michael Kuffer are also calling for the legislation to be amended.

Greens boss Robert Habeck points out pitfalls. He thinks it is “in principle correct to expel dangerous people to their countries of origin.” But many of the Islamist threats are just German citizens. Therefore expulsions are “not trivial,” according to Habeck. A Europe-wide coordinated procedure and clear take-back agreements are also required.

The Left Party is clearer in its criticism. “It is frightening how right-wing hardliners instrumentalise the knife attack in Dresden to pave the way for deportations to Syria,” said the left-wing member of the Bundestag Ulla Jelpke. Syria is not safe – not even for criminals. There should therefore be no deportations to the country. “The problem of Islamism does not go away if a perpetrator is deported,” said Jelpke. It is necessary to clarify the crime and its background in detail and to bring the alleged perpetrator to justice in Germany. Dropout and prevention programs should also be promoted.

The state refugee councils in Germany and Pro Asyl also reject deportations to Syria. “Our deepest condolences go to the relatives of the victim,” said Kai Weber from the Lower Saxony Refugee Council in Hanover. However, instead of the political instrumentalization of the victims by some interior ministers, a constitutional criminal procedure is necessary. Hate crime often strikes arbitrarily and must be prosecuted. The deportation of alleged threats to Syria is a “smoke candle” and does not contribute to security – neither in the Federal Republic nor elsewhere. The “frivolous talk” about supposedly safe areas to which Syrians could be deported is “negligent and endangering people,” it said in a statement. Every person deported to Syria must expect treatment and torture that are contrary to human rights.

The security situation in Syria remains tense. According to human rights activists, at least 78 rebels allied with Turkey were killed in Russian air strikes in the north-west of the country. Around 100 more were injured in the bombing of a military camp in Idlib province, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights announced on Monday. With agencies.

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In Libya, arrest of migrant smuggler will not stop human trafficking

The United Nations mission in Libya welcomed on October 15 the arrest the day before of Abd Al-Rahman Milad, alias “al-Bija” by forces affiliated with the so-called national unity government in Tripoli. “A major step towards the rule of law and the dismantling of criminal networks” she rejoiced in a statement.

Al-Bija, 30, was the powerful captain of the coast guard in Zawiya, a town some 50 kilometers west of Tripoli and one of the main departure points for migrant boats. Interpol had issued a notice against him after the Sanctions Committee of the United Nations Security Council had included him, in June 2018, on the list of six heads of networks involved in human trafficking and fuel smuggling in Libya. He was also under an arrest warrant issued by the Tripoli prosecution.

According to Libyan media, he was arrested near Tripoli at a police checkpoint. His arrest was not to the taste of the armed groups of Zawiya who remained loyal to this charismatic personality. The Libya Herald reports that several of them headed for Tripoli to express their displeasure and an exchange of gunfire was reported at a checkpoint.

Welcomed in Italy to negotiate an end to migratory flows

It seems that, although officially wanted, Al-Bija continued to come and go with the knowledge of all these years. “His arrest might just be a coup, will he be released any time soon?” “, asks Jalel Harchaoui, researcher at the Dutch institute for international relations Clingendael.

The Libya Herald also recalls that in 2017, Al-Bija visited Italy, at a time when Italian Interior Minister Marco Minniti, the Gentiloni government’s interior minister, was negotiating with Libyan interlocutors the terms of the arrest. migratory flows, with the tacit assent of the European Union.

Coastguards trained by the EU

“Zawiya’s coastguard, like others, has been trained and equipped to stop migrant boats at sea and bring them back by force to Libyan soil, rappelle Jalel Harchaoui. It was at this time that the practice of refoulement, incarceration and exploitation of migrants – sexual, for work, even torture – in a way industrialized ”.

According to the accounts of the European naval operation Irini, nearly half of those who left Libya are intercepted by the Libyan coast guard, including beyond the vast area of ​​search and rescue at sea (SAR) incumbent on in Libya, even in the Maltese SAR zones. According to Jalel Harchoui, the arrest of al-Bija will not stop this well-established system which was driven by the European Union.

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In the new Lesbos camp, the dreams and disillusions of refugees

The catastrophe was expected. When the rains first fell on October 8, the new Kara Tepe camp on the Greek island of Lesbos was flooded. More than 600 people had to be evacuated. In this new camp, without water, sanitation, drainage, battered by rain and wind, the life of the 8,500 asylum seekers – 2,500 have been transferred to the mainland in recent weeks – is worse than that of Moria completely devastated by fire a month ago.

→ LARGE FORMAT. Lesbos: after Moria’s hell, Kara Tepe’s nightmare

Moria, however, was known worldwide as hell. In this immense jungle, many shattered minds had not resisted the harshness of existence and the endless wait for asylum procedures. These hostile lands were fertile ground for violence. But life had also gained the upper hand, with its early fruit stalls, its bread ovens dug in the ground, its hairdressers, its self-managed schools and all its activities.

The energy, endurance, resourcefulness and solidarity of these people command respect. Fatemeh and Farhad, on site, Rouddy and Michel, now settled in Mytilene, the largest town on the island, are a few examples.

► Rouddy, the energy of music

“Refugee, it’s a label, like a tampon that is printed all over your body, but I don’t feel like a refugee inside. ” Rouddy releases an extraordinary energy. “We’re going to get Lesbos moving! “, ignites the former Congolese computer scientist. Every Monday evening, a few musicians come to play on the main square of Mytilene. They are members of RADMusic – for Refugee African Dance -, the group he created last winter, quickly joined by Koko, a compatriot who has toured concerts and festivals throughout Africa.

In the new Lesbos camp, the dreams and disillusions of the refugees

Congolese, Cameroonians, Iranians, Greeks, Germans, etc., have joined RADMusic. After a special coronavirus song, One meter away, the group recorded Freedom – words of Rouddy – thanks to the reception of the Greek association Siniparxi (“coexistence”).

“People are going mad in the camp, over-t-yl. Music reconstructs, it connects people and gives joy. “ She rebuilds him first and foremost. He was refused asylum. He appealed the decision, still pending.

“I was very sick, MSF took care of me, but I just have to think about my family one night and I have a relapse. ” His father, an opponent of Congolese President Kabila, in power from 2001 to 2019, was assassinated. “My family has been destroyed. “ His mother left for the border with Angola. He, the eldest, fled “To seek peace and security”.

For three years he has been in Greece, Rouddy has traveled the country with documents that allow him to move. He taught computer science in Athens for nine months. “In Greece, there is no work, only NGOs can hire us. “ He returned to Lesbos as a Lingala translator for MSF. “People here spat on me. But I also met some good people. “

► Farhad and his 800 kites

« Lhe children cannot even see me anymore, they are not allowed to come to my tent. “ Farhad is heavy-hearted. In the new military camp of Kara Tepe, the lone men were grouped together in tents of one hundred bunk beds surrounded by barbed wire. “We are separated from families; Afghan families on one side, African families on the other, other nationalities elsewhere; and us, the lonely men; it is not good to separate nationalities ”, sighs this Afghan man in his thirties.

The sight of thousands of children – there were more than 3,000 under the age of 12 in the camp before the fire – playing with trash cans had been unbearable to him when he arrived in Lesvos thirteen months ago. “I wanted to help them, to give them hope, so I cut bamboo and made kites with plastic bags. ” Success assured.

→ DEBATE. Migrants: Europe seeks common ground on asylum

Romain, a French volunteer, then comes to his aid to provide him with equipment. The kite activity is gaining momentum quickly. Workshops are organized in the two self-managed schools that existed in the camp, Tolou (“Sunrise”) and Wave of Hope (“wave of hope”). “For the Persian New Year, last March 21, with a thousand children we made 500 kites that flew at the same time! “

Second salvo on August 29, when 300 new kites fly in the sky of Moria and echo the hundred kites launched on the Breton beach of Douarnenez, in support of the children of the camp. Everything was destroyed by the fire. “We no longer have a school, no more equipment. We are waiting for an authorization to have a place to invite the children, but everything is prohibited because of the coronavirus. ” Tormented, Farhad is still awaiting his interview, which has been postponed several times, for his asylum application.

► Fatemeh, school dreams

Boxes of burnt pencils. The carcasses of chairs in bulk. A bed of molten glass jars. The charred remains of a tube of paint. A pile of books reduced to ashes. This charred backdrop is all that remains of the Wave of Hope self-administered school in Camp Moria. “All the guitars burned down. Nothing is left. It’s like my own house is gone. “

In the new Lesbos camp, the dreams and disillusions of refugees

Fatemeh spent his days there. “I felt at home. ” The 18-year-old Afghan girl did everything there. She took care of the reception, cleaning, took German lessons, guitar and painting and sometimes even taught rudiments of English to replace a teacher. “Moria, it was not hell as they say, life was really very difficult, but we had our activities, our distractions. In the new camp, we have nothing left. You know, we’re not doing well at all. “

→ READ. Christian organizations call on EU for solidarity with migrants

Administrative aberration, Fatemeh had, alone, the green light to be transferred to Athens on September 29, after sixteen months spent in Lesbos. But not his mother or his little brother, who nevertheless also obtained asylum (his father is deceased). As for his 22-year-old big brother, he is the subject of a separate procedure as an adult and his case remains pending. Fatemeh suddenly gave up on leaving …

In Moria, she wants to run a new school with other girls. “I love learning so much! I have never been to school. I grew up in Iran where Afghan refugees did not go to school, then when we went to Turkey we were expelled to Afghanistan where I could not go to school either. I have spotted two places in the camp where we could recreate a school, but we need permission. “

► Michel, the African “chef”

“I was well in my country. I had a plot, a car, a salary. I had a good life. “ If he could, Michel would go back to “Congo Kinshasa” (DR-Congo), where he had to abandon his wife and children. “I will find them one day”, he wants to believe.

Michel is the assumed name of this Congolese giant who fears for his life. “I’m afraid of being sued. Poor migrants could be bought for 500 € to kill people. In the Moria camp, there was a lot of violence. At night we couldn’t sleep because of the fights. Men have died for a phone or something. “

In the new Lesbos camp, the dreams and disillusions of refugees

In his country, this television journalist was kidnapped and assaulted for having witnessed scenes he should not have seen. His parents were murdered by a militia. “I have evidence, scars, photos. “ On August 26, 2020, Greece granted him refugee status after eight months in Lesbos. But in the process, she removed the financial aid from him, under a new law. And she has not yet granted him freedom of movement. “I am waiting for permission to leave the island. I will have to wait months more, penniless, to obtain identity documents to leave the country. “

In the meantime, many Africans come to greet him. It is because with his stature, his authority and his charisma, Michel has established himself as a leader. “We Africans are suffering a lot, we need help. So I went to church, knocked on NGO doors. I had this courage, it is not easy. ” Since then, he is the person of trust who acts as a link between the NGOs and the African minority, who distributes food and basic necessities in the camp.

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Landmarks: The Lesbos camp

In 2015, 500,000 migrants landed on Lesbos. In 2020 (until September 20), there were 4,337 new arrivals.

End 2019, le camp de Moria had more than 25,000 people.

Before the camp fire, September 9 and 10, 2020, there were 14,000 refugees and asylum seekers in Lesbos, including more than 11,700 in the camp.

→ MAINTENANCE. Fr Maurice Joyeux: “We had to expect the Lesbos camp to end in flames”

Since then, 406 unaccompanied minors have been transferred to Thessaloniki and must be hosted by different states of the European Union.

About 1,400 refugees were also transferred to the mainland September 28 and October 1. Germany has committed to welcoming 1,500, France 500.

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Refugees in Armenia: shelter in a luxury hotel

The Nagorno-Karabakh war is driving more and more people to Armenia. The capital Yerevan is bursting at the seams. Accommodation is in short supply.

This shell struck on October 14th near Martuni in Nagorno-Karabakh Foto: Sergei Bobylev/Itar-Tass/imago

BERLIN taz | The Nova Hotel Yerevan has been overbooked for more than two weeks. But the four-star hotel right in the city center of the Armenian capital does not make a profit – on the contrary. The hotel management has squeezed extra beds, couches, and mattresses into the rooms so they can accommodate three times more guests than normal. About 100 people currently live in the boutique hotel. Everyone fled the Nagorno-Karabakh war.

At the end of September 2020, the conflict between Azerbaijan and Armenia escalated – once again. It’s the toughest fights in decades. So far, more than 604 soldiers have been killed on the Armenian side. Azerbaijan has not yet provided any information about the victims and keeps the number of its own losses under lock and key.

The territorial conflict over the Nagorno-Karabakh area, now inhabited by Armenians, which was part of the Republic of Azerbaijan during the Soviet era, has been smoldering for over 30 years.

Nagorno Karabakh was home to around 150,000 people before the recent fighting broke out. Many villages are now deserted. The men are at the front. Women and children hide in bunkers in the capital, Stepanakert.

Narine Davtyan, Hotelmanagerin

“We are overwhelmed, but we do what we can”

Thousands of residents have fled to Armenia. Many people there are trying to cope with the new situation on their own. They rent apartments or have moved into their relatives’ holiday homes.

Many Armenians have also taken in refugees at home. Users who either need a room or want to make a room available can contact Facebook. Some hotels also offer their rooms.

The Nova Hotel Yerevan reported one day after the start of the fighting on September 27th and has been accommodating women, children and the elderly ever since.

“We are overwhelmed, but we do what we can, and we do it with all our hearts,” says Narine Davtyan. The 25-year-old is the manager of the hotel, which belongs to a family who moved to Armenia from the USA two years ago. Citizens also volunteer to help, says Davtyan. They collected clothes and toiletries for the hotel residents. Some restaurants provided packed lunches and other groceries free of charge.

Limited resources

How long can this go on? “Our resources are limited and we will run into problems soon,” says Narine Davtyan. “If the government can’t find a fundamental solution, at some point we won’t be able to continue our voluntary work,” she says. Humanitarian aid from abroad would also be an important support.

Yerevan is already completely overloaded. It has become impossible to rent an apartment. So that refugees do not all crowd into the capital, the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs is trying to find accommodation for the newcomers in the regions. However, there is only capacity there in public institutions. Some families are currently staying in schools.

In the city of Charentsawan, about 40 kilometers from Yerevan, around 400 families are staying and all of them are packed in a very small space. 20 people live together in a four-room apartment.

The 64-year-old Rosa Amirjan now also lives here. Their sons and grandchildren fight on the front lines. She left her chickens and cows in a stable in the garden of her house in Nagorno-Karabakh. “It doesn’t matter if my house is razed or not, I want to go back,” she says. She doesn’t want to say more about the war. “We’re waiting,” she says. Everyone is waiting for peace in this apartment, a 22-year-old with her husband, several women, a pregnant woman and many small children and babies.

No special funding programs

There are still no special funding programs for the refugees from Nagorno-Karabakh. Armenia is concentrating all of its resources on war – time, personnel and money. “We will only be able to deal systematically with the real social problems after a peace agreement,” said Sona Martirosyan, press spokeswoman for the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs to the taz.

It doesn’t just depend on the situation at the front. In case of defeat, the people of Armenia stay. In the event of a victory, they will not be able to return to their homes in Nagorno-Karabakh anyway because almost everything is destroyed.

Martirosyan has already registered 600 voluntary workers for reconstruction work in Nagorno Karabakh. “We have to rebuild everything and do it as quickly as possible,” she says. What if Nagorno-Karabakh is lost for the Armenians? Martirosyan would rather not comment on this scenario.

Meanwhile, more and more people are on the run. As early as the early 1990s, when the war first broke out, different estimates suggest that between 25,000 and 50,000 people were killed on both sides and over 1.1 million were displaced from their hometowns. How many will there be this time?

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The doctors: “‘cry for love’ is the ‘men are pigs’ of the Antifa”

Ka German band has been censored more often. Canceled, as they say today. Now the doctors are back. The big talk about what you can still sing. About gays in the AfD, the world conspiracy and personal hygiene.

WORLD: In the past, what is now called “Cancel Culture” came from the right, conservatives didn’t like “Claudia” from the doctors. Today, more conservatives claim that the bans come more from the left. You used to like to max it out, didn’t you?

Farin Urlaub: Yes. But the indexes have also made us more skilled.

Beautiful B: No. We made our songs about sex with animals and incest. Then that was checked.

WORLD: When you last released your complete oeuvre, more than 40 hours of music on 33 albums, I noticed a few strange things about censorship and self-censorship.

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Refugees in Germany descend for the first time since 2011

After nine years in a row of continuous increase in the number of refugees hosted by Germany, the trend has been reversed for the first time since 2011, according to data from the federal Ministry of the Interior revealed by the Neue Osnabrücker Zeitung newspaper. A total of 1.77 million people who have fled their countries of origin with different residence status were hosted in Germany this summer, 62,000 less than at the end of 2019. As recognized refugees, 1.3 million are hosted in this country. people, about 50,000 fewer than six months earlier. Another 450,000 are asylum seekers who are still processing their recognition as refugees or tolerated persons, who, despite not having their application recognized, remain in an authorized manner in Germany. Their number has dropped by 15,000 people.

The vast majority of refugees missing from the statistics has voluntarily left Germany in the first half of the yearsaid the German Ministry of the Interior. The march coincides with the coronavirus epidemic, which has also caused an appreciable setback in the entry of new asylum seekers into the country. Germany had around 400,000 refugees in 2011, the number of which increased slightly until 2015 and 2016. This is when a large wave of asylum seekers took place, most of whom arrived via the so-called Balkan route. More than a million people were then welcomed by the German authorities. The maximum level of reception was registered at the end of 2019 with 1.83 million people coming from countries involved in armed conflicts, mostly Syrian, Iraqi or Afghan.

The opposition criticized the current restrictive policy of the federal government in the reception of refugees when the data became known. “We have room, the figures say so. And at the same time there are tens of thousands of people seeking asylum in precarious and humiliating conditions “surviving in countries like Greece, overwhelmed by the problem of refugees, said Ulla Jelpke, an expert on migration from the Left party. Germany “as a rich country in the center of Europe” cannot ignore its responsibility to protect refugees and hide “behind European barbed wire, primary reception camps and the rejection practices of EU member countries with borders. outside, ”Japke said.

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Record number of migrants arriving in the Canary Islands | NOW

The number of refugees from Africa to the Canary Islands has risen sharply in recent days. In 48 hours, more than a thousand migrants made the crossing, a number that has not been observed in ten years.

Most of the migrants were discovered in crowded boats off the coast and brought ashore.

The Spanish government announced new measures this week. The route from West Africa to the Canary Islands has been gaining popularity again for several years. An earlier peak was the year 2006, when more than 30,000 migrants reached the Spanish archipelago.

This year, about 7,500 migrants from Africa arrived in the Canary Islands. That is almost three times as much as last year so far.

Canary Islands are close to the West African coast

The Canary Islands are 100 kilometers from the West African coast. However, many of the refugees and other migrants are said to have left Senegal, more than 1,000 kilometers away. If the islands are missed, ships often get into trouble due to the rough open ocean.

The total number of migrants who die during the dangerous crossing is not known. Spanish media do report that at least 250 people have already drowned this year. Rescue ships have to take action regularly to help the often shaky boats.

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Italian coast guard arrests “Alan Kurdi” again – politics

The ship with which the organization Sea-Eye wants to rescue refugees from distress in the Mediterranean is not allowed to leave the port of Olbia in Sardinia. Again because of technical “irregularities”.

The Italian authorities have the private German rescue ship Alan Kurdi Arrested in a port – again. As the coast guard reported on Friday evening, the ship of the sea rescue organization Sea-Eye is no longer allowed to leave the port in Olbia in Sardinia.

The reason: “Irregularities” were found during technical controls that could endanger the safety of crew and migrants on board, explained the Italian coast guard. The ship also offers sufficient equipment for only 20 people. During the “systematic search and rescue operations” in the Mediterranean, however, significantly more people were on board.

The chairman of the operating association Sea-Eye, Gorden Isler, described the action of the Italian authorities as “scandalous”. He announced that he would file a suit. Because: “The renewed determination is purely politically motivated and endangers human life.”

The Alan Kurdi had been detained in the port on a previous Mediterranean mission in Palermo, Sicily, in May. At that time, similar points were criticized and a trip to a repair yard in Spain was allowed, wrote the coast guard. “We found out today that these irregularities have not been remedied.” Isler explained that Spanish and German specialist authorities had confirmed that it was free of defects.

In the tug of war between rescuers and Italian authorities, the country has repeatedly withdrawn ships from service. The organizations always complain that the technical reasons are put forward. Basically, the government in Rome had only a few days ago defused the anti-migration laws and reduced the fines for sea rescuers who enter ports without permission.

The Alan Kurdi brought 125 migrants to the port of Olbia with official authorization at the end of September. Many refugees start their dangerous journeys in small boats across the Mediterranean to Europe from Libya and Tunisia.

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Europe seeks common ground on asylum

Fifteen days after the Moria camp fire in Lesbos, Greece, the European Commission ended up proposing, on September 23, a reform of migration policies that had been rejected many times. She defends a “Acceptable compromise” for the 27, very divided on the assistance to be brought to the countries of arrival, in the south of Europe.

→ EDITORIAL. A pact without a vision

Since the migration crisis of 2015, the countries of the Visegrad group (Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia) have refused the relocation of asylum seekers on their territory. The European executive proposes to go back on five European regulations and directives and to overhaul the system on the basis of two “Pillars”.

On the one hand, introduce procedures “More efficient and faster”, including for returns, by means of a “Pre-entry” in the EU which would allow only migrants eligible for asylum to be retained.

The other pillar crowns the principle “Fair sharing of responsibility and solidarity” towards the countries of arrival, by means of “Flexible contributions” which would leave the Member States the choice between accepting asylum seekers, paying financial aid, providing administrative support, etc. This aid would be based on “A voluntary basis” but would become “Strict and necessary” during a crisis, following a particular influx, or rescue operations at sea.

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► Should we speed up the return of migrants?

“Yes, provided that fundamental rights are respected”

Sylvie Guillaume, S&D MEP, expert on migration issues

“The question of shortening procedures and speeding up returns is not taboo, because it is not acceptable to leave asylum seekers for years in camps, waiting for a hypothetical answer.

→ READ. NGO boat with 125 migrants on board heads for Marseille

The reform, as I understand it, proposes to link the “asylum” and “return” procedures, whereas they are two procedures, in principle, distinct. People would be placed on their arrival in a sort of waiting zone, a bit like what is done in international airports in France, with a pre-examination of the situations, where only people eligible for asylum would have the right to enter European territory. The others would have a vocation to leave.

This would have the merit of shortening the deadlines, but fundamental rights must still be respected. Will migrants benefit from a suspensive appeal? Where will they be installed? And do we not run the risk of seeing situations of massive administrative detention appear? For the moment, all these points remain unclear. Deportation rates are bad in the European Union, largely because countries of origin do not issue the consular passes necessary on their return.

→ ANALYSIS. Immigration: more migrants locked up, relative efficiency of expulsions

To convince them, the EU intends to balance cooperation and legal immigration, which can work, there have been a few examples that have worked well bilaterally, for example between Spain and Morocco. However, I am afraid of removal measures that do not favor what works best, that is to say, voluntary return assistance, with social and financial support. I doubt that all these questions, which are bound to be debated in the European Parliament, can be resolved very quickly. “

“This is not the key to migration management”

Marie de Somer, researcher specializing in migration at the European Policy Center, in Brussels

“I do not think that we should necessarily speed up returns, because such an acceleration would not go without the risk that asylum requests will not be properly considered. On the other hand, we must, of course, invest more so that the conditions for returns – if they have to be implemented – are the best, the most dignified possible.

→ PORTRAIT. “Carola Rackete”, a scientist who never gives up

In this area, in fact, much remains to be done, both in terms of respect for human rights and of relations with third countries. In these countries, there is a lack of incentives to re-welcome on their soil those who have left. Few agreements are in place. However, often these repatriations weigh heavily on economies, especially in Africa.

Moreover, those who consider returns as the panacea in terms of migration management, who highlight the need to increase the rate – and this is also the case of the European Commission – these often forget how much to return people in their homes can be difficult. Knowing where a migrant comes from, if he has no papers, is sometimes complicated. And we have to be sure that we do not violate international law by returning someone who is entitled to asylum.

It must be accepted that, in certain cases, migrants cannot be “returned” because of purely legal difficulties. It is therefore necessary to have the structural capacities to accommodate them. It is also on this level that we must progress at the international level. When it comes to returns, it is important that the rights of individuals are respected at all times, and that everyone can access asylum procedures safely. This is the condition for this “Human approach” for which the European Commission pleads in its new pact for asylum and migration. “

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Does the principle of “compulsory solidarity” have its chances?

“A pragmatic solution that breaks the deadlock”

Fabienne Keller, MEP Renew Europe, rapporteur on the reform of the Dublin regulation

“The European Commission has proposed a pragmatic solution which consists in making “obligatory” the solidarity of all Member States with the countries of first entry if the latter are “under pressure”. She understood that if she proposed a single modality for solidarity, it would offer a blocking subject to the countries of Visegrad. She therefore tried to get around this state of affairs.

→ READ. Germany to welcome 1,553 migrants from Greek islands

I would have preferred more homogeneous solidarity, with Member States all participating in the same way in the effort. But putting a doomed proposition on the table would have made no sense. We must prioritize overall consistency. This proposal is a response to a deadlock that has been visible for years. Because, within the 27, the perception of the subject and the red lines are different. The history of migration, the perception of the issues or the experience is not the same depending on whether you are a country of first entry like Greece or Italy, a country of secondary migration like France or Germany, or a country where there is no migration at all.

Now, a lot of clarification will have to be made: what is meant by “pression” migratory? How can we ensure that asylum applications will be processed in a maximum of twelve weeks? How to best organize the reception areas? The Moria camp fire has shown us that the current situation is intolerable, it is not at all the Europe we want. On the contrary, Europe must be able to make progress on asylum and migration, have a clear mechanism – with predictable rules, on which all the States will have agreed -, organize the relocation of refugees as well as possible and facilitate their integration. This pact proposed by the European Commission seems to me to be a good basis for achieving this. “

“The question of internal solidarity within the EU remains unresolved”

Virginie Guiraudon, research director at CNRS, specialist in migration policies

“The European Commission has put a lot of energy into inventing terminology to satisfy member states with diametrically opposed positions. But the “Compulsory solidarity” in reality translates into great freedom on the part of European capitals hostile to the reception of asylum seekers. Austria or the countries of the Visegrad group may very well choose, in compensation, to put resources into border surveillance, or to contribute to grouped return flights. This proposal definitively buries the reform proposal of 2015, which proposed a distribution key for asylum seekers in the countries of the European Union.

→ READ. For the pope, borders must be “windows” on others

This way of getting around the problem is quite clever, but the Commission has no control over this highly sensitive subject, which has become the political instrument of leaders at national level. The President of the European Commission announced during her State of the Union address on September 16 that she would “abolish” the Dublin Regulation, the keystone of the current system which places the responsibility for the asylum request on the country of arrival. Either, but the notion of “Country of arrival” in the EU remains, so that the issue of internal solidarity, once asylum seekers enter the EU, remains unresolved.

I still see progress in the establishment of a voluntary solidarity mechanism, even if fundamentally it only concerns seven to ten EU countries which have already participated in relocations after the arrival of a rescue boat. This is a reinforced cooperation that will avoid haggling on a case-by-case basis, with survivors waiting at sea while a solution is improvised. I am afraid, on the other hand, that the 12,000 migrants from Lesbos will not get an answer to their situation. The reform could take years to pass. “

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Breathless “Dublin regulation”

Signed in 2013, the “Dublin III regulation” places the responsibility for examining an asylum application on the first country of entry into Europe. Each country can ignore this regulation and decide to take care of an asylum seeker.

Regulation crystallizes tensions since the 2015 migration crisis. It exposed its flaws and angered the countries on the front lines, which felt abandoned by
l’Europe.

In five years, the number of irregular arrivals in the EU has fallen, to reach 140,000 in 2019. While 90% of migrants in 2015 had refugee status, two-thirds are currently not entitled to international protection.

The number of “dublines” – passed through a first EU country before filing an asylum application in another – has exploded. In France, they were more than 35,000 in 2019, out of 138,000 asylum seekers.

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Countries want to take refugee admission to court if necessary (neue-deutschland.de)

Protest by migrants on Lesbos in mid-September

Photo: dpa / AP / Petros Giannakouris

Berlin. Politicians from the Greens, the Left Party and the SPD want to enforce the admission of more refugees from Greece through so-called country admission programs, if necessary in court. In a statement submitted to the German Press Agency, which was signed by the Berlin SPD state executive, the left-wing parliamentary group in the Thuringian state parliament and the state executive of the Greens in Bremen, it says: “The legal action must also be taken.”

The statement continues: »The devastating fire in the Moria refugee camp left over 12,000 people homeless. The fires are the last sign of the failure of the refugee and migration policy at the European external borders. “

A European solution to safeguard human rights is not in sight and it will not be quickly achievable. “An alliance of solidarity must go ahead. The Federal Government’s previous commitments are insufficient. “

The admission by the Federal Republic of Germany must be increased substantially, demand the 17 signatory parliamentary groups, state boards and youth organizations of almost all government parties from Berlin, Bremen and Thuringia. The Thuringian SPD is not one of the signatories.

Getting there made difficult
Berlin wants to take in refugees from Moria, but many problems only start after they arrive

The federal government should absorb more, and more receptive states should no longer be slowed down. The willingness to help of numerous municipalities and a broad civil society, which has existed for months, would be emphasized by Federal Interior Minister Horst Seehofer (CSU)
ignored and blocked, it says in a corresponding message. dpa / nd

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