“Respecting Notre-Dame means respecting the innovation present at its genesis”

La Croix: Why did you offer a New Year’s concert in a virtual Notre-Dame cathedral?

Jean Michel Jarre : Notre-Dame is a strong symbol of the Church and, beyond that, one of the jewels of the heritage which connects us to each other. With the fire, the cathedral was weakened as we ourselves are today with this pandemic.

→ READ. For the New Year, a concert by Jean-Michel Jarre in digitized Notre-Dame

I found it relevant to celebrate the New Year and its message of hope by connecting it to a cathedral that we want to recover quickly, like ours. The mayor of Paris Anne Hidalgo liked this idea of ​​resilience and resistance and wanted Paris to send this message to the whole world.

What will the concert look like?

JM. J. : Those who are equipped with a virtual headset will be able to immerse themselves in the virtual cathedral and attend the concert by means of an avatar. Me, I will be both physically present in Studio Gabriel, in the center of Paris, and virtually present, via my avatar, in the cathedral. I would have sensors on me, which will allow me to play as if I were in the cathedral, whose facade has been specially modeled for the occasion.

I would like to share with those who are worried that this concert carries the deepest respect for what the cathedral is, both religiously and heritage. He will not fall into the anecdote, will not project figurative images on the cathedral.

The scenography will be abstract and geometric. I like to remember that those who built it in the Middle Ages were visionaries and futurists. Their research on the balance of volumes, stained glass, acoustics were revolutionary. In the 21st century, respecting Notre-Dame also means respecting the innovation present at its genesis.

→ THE FACTS. Notre-Dame de Paris: images from Jean-Michel Jarre’s New Year’s concert

Do you plan to give a spiritual dimension to your show?

JM. J. : Music has always had a spiritual dimension for me. I remember my meeting with John Paul II, when I did the concert for his coming to Lyon (in 1986, Editor’s note), he told me (with his accent!): “ I love your laser harp that touches the sky “. Much has been said about the relationship of spirituality to modern music, electronic, classical or others. I carry this dimension within me, even if the music of December 31 must be festive.

Have you been inspired by the long musical tradition created by Notre-Dame?

JM. J. : At the opening of the concert, I placed the sounds of the great organs of Notre-Dame, which I modified and rearranged with a very electro side. But I’m keeping my DNA, I’m not going to do anything special and fall into the caricature of integrating Gregorian sounds. Even though I love Gregorian chant!

→ LARGE FORMAT. Notre-Dame de Paris is preparing for the major restoration project

For this concert, I was very interested in the acoustics of Notre-Dame. I used Ircam software to reconstruct the reverberation of the cathedral, while having the ability to control it, because as soon as we play more rhythmic music, percussions for example, the sounds get blurred in such a building. With this software, we were able to reduce the reverberation of the bass part of the orchestra and keep the fullness of the volume on everything that is melodic. It works very well.

Are there things that you forbid yourself, even though Notre-Dame will be virtual?

JM. J. : The avatars will have to be dressed correctly and I will not be alone in the cathedral, that would have been arrogant. I will not be in front of the altar, nor in the center, but on the side of the people, in the central aisle. Avatars will be able to dance, as is done in some American churches. It is important to celebrate the transition to 2021 in a joyful way. The Church needs it too.

→ READ. Notre-Dame: Roselyne Bachelot refutes any modification of the stained glass windows

What is your personal connection to Notre-Dame?

JM. J. : I remember visiting the cathedral as a child and being very impressed by its majestic side, its extraordinary strength, which almost scared me. I was only able to formulate it after the fact, but it was the perfect symmetry of the monument that struck me. It gave me the feeling of something futuristic. It is not for nothing that the Gothic influences science fiction. Notre-Dame makes the link between the past and the future. It’s a spaceship! Notre-Dame is also for me that of the work of Victor Hugo, where it becomes the backdrop for the social crisis of an eternal and popular Paris.


Michel Onfray: My 500 hours of death with Corona

The coronavirus doesn’t just cause existential pain. It dominates people in their identity. The philosopher Michel Onfray felt like a mindless creature for 21 days. In the beginning and in the end he even saw the twilight of his own death.

I am cold as a corpse, I know that, because I kissed the cheeks of loved ones after they died. I see myself still alive as a corpse and those who love me kiss me one last time. A living corpse, alive and dead, dead alive… Nobody’s cold in the car, just me.


Michel Foucault: The lecture that changed our thinking forever

Foucault develops concern about the power of the ‘wild’ discourse from the circumstances of his own speech: he would like not to have to begin to have arrived in the discourse before he has to speak. In retrospect it becomes clear where this fear comes from, as he says, as seen, that the truth has something to be taken for granted from the inside and only reveals its threat potential when viewed from the outside.

Last but not least, the institutions, including those before which Foucault is now speaking, serve to tame this fear. But what if it were exactly the other way around? If all institutions were not the external instances of control over the discourse, but represented places where discourse becomes possible. Does it exist at all – outside of theoretical abstraction the Discourse, a discourse in and of itself that would precede all social practice? Isn’t all speech always already included in situations in which it fulfills certain functions?


“For de Gaulle, the dream had to cross politics”

The cross. You published this biography of Charles de Gaulle and you have just published a book of memories on your childhood. In 1945, at 8 years old, what vision did you have of the General?

Michel Winock : I remember seeing him cheered by the crowd in a convertible car on the Champs-Élysées. It was June 18, 1945. With my brothers and sisters, we had come from Arcueil to participate in the great anniversary celebration of the call of June 18. There was an extraordinary euphoria!

→ CHRONICLES. De Gaulle, an extraordinary story

My family was Catholic and conservative. In 1940, Pétain’s photo was displayed with us, but it was replaced during the war – around 1942, I think – by that of General de Gaulle. At home, we listened to Radio Londres every night, hunched over my father’s wonderful nine-bulb radio station. De Gaulle was a hero for us.

In 1958, you were 21 when de Gaulle was recalled to power and installed the Ve Republic. How has your outlook on him evolved?

M. W. : In 1958, we are in the Algerian war and I am a student activist in favor of independence. I am hostile to the return of De Gaulle, who is returning to power with the support of the army. There was an aspect of illegality that the Republican, Democratic and Socialist left – not to mention the Communists – could not accept. I was on Pierre Mendès France’s side. Quickly, I understood that there were no other solutions, but I voted “no” in the 1958 referendum, like a last-ditch…

→ READ. De Gaulle, Genevoix: for Emmanuel Macron, the opportunity to “become president”

And in May 68?

M. W. : In 1968, I was 31 years old and I was a high school history teacher and lecturer at Sciences-Po. I live the “Events” in happiness, seeing the assertion of a principle that is dear to me, that of the autonomy of people – in family, political, social relations… – and the principle of federation against vertical, Jacobin politics. In all areas, new social relations were invented, undermining the patriarchal, hierarchical, authoritarian model.

De Gaulle, despite his greatness, represented this model, even if he was a democrat, as he showed by renouncing power after his failure in the 1969 referendum. At the time, one of the slogans against him was: “Ten years is enough! “ I shared this idea, without being an opponent of De Gaulle. There was a certain charm about him that had come to correct my hostility in 1958 …

We commemorate the 50th anniversary of his death. How do the French today view it?

M. W. : There is a form of longing for a prestigious power. The nostalgia for a leader who was respected, esteemed and, for many, loved, whose popularity rating – which still greatly exceeded 50% of favorable opinions – is the dream of current presidents. The relationship with De Gaulle also goes hand in hand with a certain image of France, that of the Trente Glorieuses, marked by industrial development and the equipment of households by car, television, refrigerator… De Gaulle played a role in economic policy of those years, but he was also the great beneficiary of a prosperous period, for which the French are also nostalgic.

Hasn’t it become an indisputable benchmark?

M. W. : Absolutely. The most extraordinary thing is that even Marine Le Pen claims to be his, even though she comes from the Pétainist right, “French Algeria” and xenophobia that he has always fought. Being picked up by your enemies is a sign!

The extreme right claims him in the name of his defense of national identity against Europe. However, it must be remembered that De Gaulle was European. He was against the idea of ​​federation, but in favor of a confederation, a union of states. And De Gaulle was not a nationalist. Nationalism, he reproached, is defending one’s country against others. He defends the nations, their right to independence and freedom. Its idea of ​​national independence is not reserved for France. He defends it for all peoples.

Can we say that he was the last great French Catholic Head of State?

M. W. : The Second World War, with the engagement of many Catholics in the Resistance, led by a Catholic leader, marks a great moment for the reintegration of Catholics into the Republic. De Gaulle carried this and, at the same time, he perfectly assumed the secular nature of the French state. He respects secularism and he will not manifest his faith during major religious ceremonies, where he does not take Communion, except exceptionally, as in Moscow in 1966.

Is his permanent desire to unite the French people a trace of his Catholicism?

M. W. : Yes, this idea is very Catholic. For a very long time, Catholics hated politics, accused of sowing division while the Catholic faith carries an idea of ​​unanimity. De Gaulle’s hostility towards political parties comes in part from there. But it is also a Jacobin idea. And let’s not forget that De Gaulle was also a soldier of 1914, marked by the Sacred Union. He always had this idea of ​​bringing the French together. The great paradox is that his idea of ​​electing the President of the Republic by direct universal suffrage will, on the contrary, create bipartisanship, by cutting France in two during the second round.

What to remember from his style of government?

M. W. : In the collective imagination, he is first of all the honest and incorruptible man. In a mediocre Republic, where corruption remains common, this reference to his honesty is complete. Then, De Gaulle understood perfectly that the dream had to cross politics. He said : “With chimeras, we do not play politics, but without chimeras, we do nothing. “ He combines a great sense of reality and great daring. It’s a “Realistic dreamer”, as Romain Gary said.

Finally, we can not forget that he was a brilliant character. His press conferences were magnificent theater numbers. He appears there as a first-rate actor, accepting to wear make-up to appear on television, to remove his glasses, learning his carefully written texts by heart …

Despite everything, isn’t his way of exercising power dated?

M. W. : Indeed, there is an obsolete aspect in the verticality of power as it has exercised it. It was acceptable during the Algerian war, but sixty years later, it seems obsolete. The body of citizens is no longer the same. The French are now mostly educated, they no longer accept that decrees fall from above. This is why the style of the Ve République has something archaic and abnormal in comparison with other liberal democracies. At the same time, you have to realize that we are an extremely difficult country to govern. In France, the union is weak in relation to the forces of division: ideologies, inheritances, parties, personal quarrels …

The French have an extraordinary ability to say no, to criticize power, to disobey. They are not Democrats, they are rebels. They do not know how to negotiate, are incapable of compromise. For all these reasons, Gaullian verticality has some virtues: it keeps governments in place which govern. Somehow, despite its flaws in democracy, this Ve Republic is holding up. It’s too presidential, too personal, too vertical, but we can democratize it.


“Islamophobia”: “Our continent has suicidally bowed to the madmen of God”

“Islamophobia” is a very topical battle term. It is often and reflexively used to outlaw criticism of acts of violence in the name of Islam, the oppression of women, homosexuals, ethnic minorities and other religions in Islamic cultures. The French writer and essayist Pascal Bruckner has for years been opposed to the fashionable term, which he believes is used politically to protect an anti-democratic and violent ideology. In his treatise “Imagined Racism – Islamophobia and Guilt” (Edition Tiamat, 240 pp., 24 €) the Parisian intellectual explores the historical causes for the worldwide success of the homicide argument.


When the error of the philosopher Michel Onfray on the Covid-19 arouses the mockery of Internet users (video)

On CNews, the French philosopher has advanced an enormity about the coronavirus. This did not escape the journalist on the set, nor the Internet users who hijacked Michel Onfray’s assertion via the hashtag #JoueLaCommeOnfray.

On CNews, Michel Onfray showed that he did not really master the name Covid-19. On set against Laurence Ferrari for the morning show of October 14, the French philosopher made a mistake … which was not pinned on social networks until Monday, October 19. He believed that the management of the coronavirus should be made easier by the experience we have with previous viruses.

« There, we are in an emergency, so we tinker. We say good, Covid-19 is that there have been 18 previously. We will see how those worked “, He blurted out. There, Laurence Ferrari reminded him that if the Covid-19 is called that way, it is in relation to the year 2019, and not to a 19th version of the Covid. The philosopher recovered: “It was 2019, was it the year? But anyway, there were others. I believe SARS is part of the Covid, if I understand correctly. You tell yourself that it existed, it was taken care of ”.

Too late, as the Huffington Post pins. On Twitter, many Internet users reacted to the hashtag #JoueLaCommeOnfray and hijacked Michel Onfray’s assertion. And the least we can say is that they amused the gallery. Small top 10 of the best valves pinned on the web.


Míchel: I don’t regret having left Pumas

Even if Pumas be as a leader in the GuarD1anes 2020 being one of the best teams in the tournament, the Spanish Míchel González, He does not regret having left the team within hours of starting the contest and on the contrary, he said he was surprised that the University was left with Juan Manuel Iturbe, one of the figures of the current team of Andrés Lillini, due to how expensive the player is.

The Spanish, in an interview with Fox Sports, revealed that he never had problems off the field with the Paraguayan and, on the contrary, the board agreed that he should not use him in the team, so they sent him six months on loan to Pachuca, as the idea was to sell it and thus alleviate the club’s very affected finances.

“Iturbe was in Pachuca, things did not go quite right for him (in Clausura 2020). And he has always seemed to me to be a fairly important player, but for the idea we had of reshaping the squad, the situation went through an economic one of players who logically have a high contract.

“But in no football case, I have no problem with him, among other things because he was one of the players who most affectionately said goodbye to me, surely thinking that he would have more opportunities later.”


The Spanish DT is pleased that Pumas is in the first place, but remains firm that University does not have the financial resources to fight for a title due to the vast number of other teams; This will be seen as the Leaguesaid the strategist.

“I do not regret (having left); Pumas is in a championship (at the top), around there it was demonstrated with (David) Patiño that it can exist (in the first places), but to maintain a team as big as Pumas and with as much fans as Pumas in the elite, much more consistency is needed and that also happens due to an economic situation that the club cannot maintain right now and that is not easy, fight against the greats, we will see it as that the championship is getting closer to the Liguilla “.


On the other hand, the coach also highlighted the great role that Alfredo Talavera has had in the team and considered him the first University leader in several years.

“There is a circumstance that I do not know if it is being valued a lot in Mexico, that for the first time in that dressing room or at least in the time that I have followed Pumas and I’ve been a coach there is a leader on the field and outside; that’s talavera“.


The abbey of Mont Saint-Michel wakes up

The walks in the streets of Mont Saint Michel can again culminate in the gothic Wonder. Monday 15 June, the famous abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel has welcomed its first visitors, after more than two months of closure due to the epidemic of coronavirus.

→ TO READ. Second wave of re-opening for national monuments

Until the end of the month of August, the abbey will be open from 9 h 30 to 18 h 30, in the strict observance of the safety instructions. Wearing a mask is mandatory as early as 11 years and the route has been marked in order to comply with the rules of distancing. A gauge of visitors reduced has been put in place, limited to” a little less than 1 500 visitors per day “says the Centre des monuments nationaux (CMN), in charge of the building. And the itinerary of the visit is done in a unique sense.

In order to manage the flow of tourists on this site that has welcomed over 1.4 million people in 2019 and that is the most visited of France in the regions, the Centre des monuments nationaux has chosen not to re-open the ticket office on site. The purchase of tickets is required in advance, either via the Internet site of the abbey (abbaye-mont-saint-michel.fr), or from the offices of the Tourist Office of Mont-Saint-Michel Normandy and reseller partners. Each visitor is given a tour slot. In addition, the guided tours are cancelled. The reopening of the site represents a major issue for the SPC that assesses at 50 million euros, the losses relating to the crisis of the Covid 19.

Wearing a mask is mandatory in the village

Confined for two months, the Mont-Saint-Michel had returned to life with the return of the visitors, and the re-opening of its shops, outside cafes and restaurants, on the 11th of may. Because of the health crisis, specific measures had been put in place on the rock, with a unique sense of movement in the village, in order to avoid crossings of people. This sense of movement has since been lifted and the curious can again walk the streets of the Mount freely, but wearing a mask is still required in the village.

Other famous monuments of the French may have re-opened on Monday 15 June, including the arc de Triomphe, the Pantheon, and the Castle of Vincennes in Île-de-France. The Centre des monuments nationaux has released to the public Friday, June 12, the timing of re-openings of the monuments of its network, which is expected to be fully operational on 23 June, with the final re-openings of the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris and of the Gallo-roman site of Sanxay (Vienne).


Santander League: La Quinta del Buitre, Sergio Ramos, Fernando Torres or Iago Aspas appeared thanks to the crisis | LaLiga Santander 2019

The Quinta del Buitre was a product of the crisis. It saysMchel, a member of one of the most significant groups in Spanish football, in the 1980s. Madrid was going through a very delicate period economically. They gave us the opportunity because they had no choice. I am convinced that otherwise the Quinta would not have appeared as it did, adds the former Real Madrid player, currently at the head of the Pumas, in Mexico. The quarry as a solution to a specific crisis has been repeated in other cases, Sevilla, Celta or Atltico. Now, however, a conjuncture is looming, a consequence of the pandemic, which will affect the entire sector. A unique occasion. Mchel’s question is whether the quarry is ready, because it is not taken care of in all the clubs as it was then.

It is clear that this situation will represent an opportunity, but it will be necessary to see how many can take advantage of it for a matter of level, says Mchel, back to Madrid for the break of the Mexican league. After the effects of the last crisis, the clubs in Spain became economically balanced and this has allowed them to have money to invest in transfers. I am not saying that they have neglected the quarry because of this, but also because the culture has been lost. When we were in Castilla, most of the subsidiaries played in Segunda. Now you have to look for them in Segunda B, regrets who was the coach of the white subsidiary and responsible for the Madrid youth team.

J knows of crisisoaqun Caparrs, who arrived at a Seville sunk in Second and loaded with debts.MonchiAnd I had to impose the figure of the ‘zero cost footballer’, and for this we had to bring in young players in formation, and accelerate those we had in the quarry, recalls the technician, who takes the reins of the team from Armenia.

Sergio RamosandKingsThey were two of the players who went up to the first team and whose subsequent sale[al Real Madrid y al Arsenal, respectivamente]It would allow Sevilla to make good money and begin to recover financially, recalls the Utreran coach. Many others will follow, such asAntoito, the missingAntonio Puerta,Capelor, later,Jess Navas. A trend that Sevilla knew how to alternate with Monchi’s skillful acquisitions, either due to his contribution to the team or the generation of capital gains. The model of current Seville, in short, was generated thanks to making virtue of necessity.

Caparrs is somewhat more optimistic than Mchel: I think that in a few months we will see players we did not know and some of them will make their way. They will be the generation of Covid-19. In charge of the sevillista quarry continuesPablo Blanco, former legendary player of the club and a sensible man. Not only the economic crises have meant opportunities for the quarry, but also the sports ones. They are a push, he says. In front of a base football that has borne good results, he believes that Spain continues to work well, although not all the clubs are on the same line. Blanco agrees with Mchel in highlighting Real Sociedad as one of the teams that benefits the most.

If the coaches dare, I see footballers who can give a very good level. I also think that they will be necessary, because everything indicates that there will be more injuries and five changes can be made. We have loaned asCarlos Fernndez(Granada) orBryan(Legans), who may be part of Sevilla’s squad next year, in addition to others who come,Alfonso Pastor, Pablo Prez, Juanlu, Lara…, continues the person in charge of the Sevilla team, for whom there is a factor that can favor the performance of the youngest in these circumstances. Playing without the public, without that pressure, can make them feel more uninhibited, he adds.

Madrid, for example, play in the field of the subsidiary, although the jump to the first team is difficult for its youth squads. The club has opted for a successful recruitment of young talents in the market, such asRodrigoorReinier, forwards of Ral’s subsidiary, who add competition to that already signings for the first team. The consolidatedFede Valverdetoday it is the model.

Since his arrival at Camp Nou,Quique Setinhas given minutes toRiqui Puig, the result of a leaked quarry. The club has sold players from the house for its salary balance, but has acquired one of the most promising youngsters, the CanaryPedri. In the Atlantic,Simeoneuses youth squads asCamelorRiquelmefor specific situations, because the physical requirement of the equipment makes them necessary. Continuity is another thing in a club that, at the youth level, has one of the best batches of Spanish football.

This Attic has been in heaven for years, not in hell where the beardless man made his wayFernando Torres. El Nio became a man at once thanks to a total crisis, economic, sports and institutional, and the best manager of the absurd,Luis Aragons.

Mchel’s son and captain of Malaga,Adrin Gonzlez, took to AFE the proposal to expand the quota of four footballers beyond number 25 present in the lineups. The union must transfer it to the Federation. An emergency solution for a bankrupt Malaga, this may be the case now for many other clubs. In fact, it is in the most modest teams, with less capacity to generate income, where the needs are greatest.

For some in that segment, the quarry was the salvation. This is the case of Celta, who entered the bankruptcy in the 2007/08 season. The arrival ofCarlos Mourioimposed the economy of own resources on the team to the presidency, carried out by the hand ofEusebius, in second. AppearedYoel, Hugo Mallo, Oubiaand of course,Iago Aspas. In the team that returned to Primera, under the command ofPaco HerreraSeven players were already playing. Between 2006 and 2017, the sale of players from the house reported to Celta 40.2 million euros. The quarry, then, took him out of the crisis, returned him to his place and paid the bill, in excess. It was the perfect antibody.

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