Patricia Highsmith 100th Birthday: Playing with Demons

Patricia Highsmith would have turned 100 on January 19th. She was an author who was convinced that anyone could become a murderer.

Patricia Highsmith in October 1989 at her home in Locarno, Switzerland Photo: Sophie Bassouls / image

She took the liberty of being angry when she wanted to. In their works anyway, but also, as many people have said, in real life. Patricia Highsmith is said to have made plans to murder her stepfather at the age of eight. Even as an adult, she made no secret of her obsessive aversions to all sorts of things and, above all, to many people.

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Although politically left-wing, she was anti-Semitic and racist at the same time. She didn’t like dogs, flowers, or children. She considered women to be inferior to men – but wanted them sexually. She tried men too, in principle would have liked to marry one and was even engaged once.

The pressure of conformity of the times must have played an enormous role in this agonizing self-search and search for a partner. An attempt to “normalize” oneself sexually with the help of psychoanalysis failed. No wonder, because 12-year-old Patricia already felt like a boy in the body of a girl.

Love relationships – mostly with women – Highsmith had many over the course of her life, many of which assumed obsessive traits. Stalking was also one of her bad habits. An encounter with a fascinating woman, whom she reenacted for a long time (and probably in vain) in real life, inspired the novel “The Price of Salt”, which she published in 1952 under a pseudonym. It was not until 1990 that it was reissued under its own name.

Mutual love hate relationship

That was still not a direct commitment to being a lesbian; but Patricia Highsmith has never gotten closer to an official coming-out.

Your childhood wasn’t easy. At first, the child Patricia, who grew up mainly with her grandmother, moved with mother and stepfather (her parents had divorced before she was born) from Texas to New York at the age of six. There, too, the mother, who must have had a rather restless personality structure, did not come to rest.

Frequent moves and partner changes also affected the life of the daughter, who had a strong love-hate relationship with her mother throughout her life. It was based on reciprocity: both women are said to have kept lists of each other’s misconduct.

Patricia Highsmith began writing in high school, but she also showed talent in the visual arts at an early age. At the renowned Barnard College she studied English literature as well as the subject “English composition”, ie creative writing, and then lived for many years with the help of regular work as a comic author.

Hitchcock filmed “Strangers on the Train”

She no longer needed to earn a living when, in 1950, after she had already written two other novels and never finished, her first novel was published. “Strangers on a Train” (Eng. “Two strangers on the train”) was a great success. The fact that Alfred Hitchcock immediately decided to film the material (with a princely rewarded Raymond Chandler failing to make a script out of it) ensured that Highsmith became famous.

However, she has continued to enjoy great fame as an author more in Europe than in the USA. In her home country she was more perceived as a genre writer; and since Highsmith’s novels, despite all the murders that take place in them, are by no means genre-conforming, the crime readership was more skeptical of their psychologically cryptic stories. Highsmith only found an American publisher for “Edith’s Diary,” which does not even have a murder, when the novel was already published in Europe.

The author lived in Europe from 1963, but moved every few years. A time in Italy was followed by four years in England, then 14 years in France, and in the early 1980s she moved to Switzerland. In Ticino she had a house built for her that looked so unwelcoming from the outside that a friend called it “Hitler’s Bunker”. In 1995 she died in her adopted Swiss home.

She wrote five Ripley novels

The most famous of Highsmith’s fictional characters is also American in Europe: The name Patricia Highsmith is not so closely linked to any of the other characters she invented as to Tom Ripley, the multiple murderer without morals who should not let go of his author. She wrote five Ripley novels altogether, whereby the shocking cold-bloodedness of the young Tom, who kills a friend in order to be able to assume his identity, is overlaid in the course of the other novels by the hardships that Ripley has to expose as an established killer and middle-aged art forger to defend his carefully constructed double life.

She thinks Ripley is “amusing”, said its inventor, and found his popularity (the material has already been filmed several times and is now also to become a series) very easy to explain: Ripley, who was only 26 in the first part, only dreams of the same things as other young people: having plenty of money, a bit of glamor and dolce vita. Other people were just reluctant to walk over dead bodies to achieve these goals. The author is said to have made fun of it, sometimes signing as “Tom Ripley”.

The Diogenes Verlag in Zurich, where the German translations of Highsmith’s books have been published for many years, have not only published new editions of several novels for the 100th birthday, but are also planning a first German edition of the author’s diaries as a special coup for autumn this year. In addition, a volume with early stories has just been published under the title “Ladies”, many of them also for the first time in German.

Literary cruelty

If you read all these stories in a row that Patricia Highsmith wrote as a very young woman (between the ages of 15 and 27), the later creator of the psychopathic Tom Ripley is not really recognizable in most of them. What is missing is the consistent literary cruelty that Highsmith displayed in her novels and which consists not least of all in the fact that she denies her readers any opportunity to identify with her less sympathetic protagonists.

The heroes of these early tales are different. There are not only “ladies”, but also a few men, but this gender distribution is also something special, because in her novels, with the exception of “Ediths Tagebuch”, Highsmith consistently uses male main characters. In these stories, on the other hand, a woman is even allowed to become a murderer (or at least harbor real murderous intentions) and thus at least temporarily abandon the function of a female appendage to a man. Another is a loving nanny and a dangerous pyromaniac at the same time.

However, many of the stories are more about turning points in the inconspicuous existence of their protagonists, such as the one about a capable middle-aged office lady who has to help the neighboring family in a crisis and cannot go to work for days, which finally gives her boss the opportunity understand how much she means to him.

The uncanny creeps in

One would hardly believe that this romantic secretary’s tale comes from Patricia Highsmith – just like the story of a secret couple who meet at lunchtime to hold hands intimately on a bench and are watched suspiciously by a woman from better circles. However, both texts reveal a very precise look at the peculiarities of American society in the forties.

The uncanny has already crept into other stories: For example, when the friendship between a man and a little girl is described, which suddenly loses all innocence when the man realizes what other people might think of him. And in “The Snail Researcher” you can find out (in very unsavory pictures) where it can lead to breeding snails at home and leaving them unattended for too long.

By the way, Patricia Highsmith pursued the hobby of snail breeding herself – and shares it with the protagonist of her novel “Deep Water”, which will certainly attract special attention again soon, because there is also a remake of it (with Ben Affleck in the Main role), which is slated to hit theaters this year. “Deep Waters” is about the hell that marriage can become – and about the monsters that may slumber in apparently cultured people.

Murder without scruples

The protagonist of this story also murders (and his wife’s lovers) without being morally scrupulous, and only regrets that he is unable to tell his six-year-old daughter about his terrible deeds: because the child with his still Unsettled Moral Compass is very disappointed that his father is not, as other children have heard, a murderer. For the little girl, a murderer is synonymous with the hero of a story.

This little girl’s name is not Patricia, but she is very similar: Beatrice. In this secondary figure of the only child neglected by her easy-going mother, traits of the author herself have entered. How much of herself is in the main character, in the educated, sophisticated publisher and psychopath Vic, who outwardly endures his wife’s antics with universally admired equanimity, can only be speculation.

But just reading this novel, which was written in 1957, in comparison with the early stories, makes it clear that Patricia Highsmith has come quite a long way to develop her consistently amoral narrative mode.

To quarrel with sexuality

It is certainly not too far-fetched to ascribe some income to her psychoanalyst (who was probably a man back then, in the early 1950s). It is true that he may not have succeeded in turning the young writer, who struggles with her sexuality, into a heteronormative, married average American woman.

But that the “talented Miss Highsmith” (the title of the Highsmith biography by Joan Schenkar) brought the demons slumbering inside her to the surface to be able to play with them literarily was possibly unintentional, but in retrospect but quite a beneficial side effect of that therapeutic treatment.


This person is dangerous “(daily newspaper Junge Welt)

imago images / Olaf Schuelke

Your appeal hearing will take place on February 10th. What exactly are you being accused of?

In May 2017 the Heidelberg AfD invited to an election campaign event in the public rooms of the city library – in the hall named after the Jewish poet Hilde Domin, of all places. I was in the foyer with many others for a while before the admission. After Rüdiger Klos, member of the state parliament, noticed that I was one of the interested parties, he banned me from the house. With reference to the public of the gathering and the venue, I refused to leave and was then carried out by the police. A little later I received a penalty order for trespassing, which was then confirmed in a hearing before the local court.

Does that mean you were only carried out of the building because of your known anti-fascist stance?

Yes. The court confirmed my legal opinion that it was a public meeting that must also be accessible to critics of the AfD. However, this basic right to freedom of assembly does not apply to me as a “well-known ringleader of the Heidelberg Left” if it is right-wing events. The justification given by the judge was that my mere presence could incite other leftists to prevent the gathering. It is not necessary for me to be active in any way.

At the first trial date, there were extensive admission controls and a strong police presence. Is this common practice in Heidelberg?

No, that was last seen in this form in Heidelberg in the 1970s. Visitors had to be searched several times and submit their IDs. Armed police officers were posted between me and the audience. The signal was abundantly clear: this person is dangerous! The judgment was then largely verbatim with the court police order, with which these measures were justified. One could put it pointedly: the police were allowed to dictate the wording of the judgment before the start of the negotiations.

The fact that the same measures are ordered during the appeal hearing should not necessarily be a good sign.

That is also the aspect of judgment that I find really threatening, and not just for me. This is no longer about any act that could be lawful or illegal, not even about belonging to an unpopular political group. It is about the judicial determination of a “politically dangerous person”, and on this basis I am denied the exercise of fundamental rights such as the right to freedom of assembly.

Otherwise, too, the first procedure caused astonishment. What was that?

Just a few days before the hearing, the judge was completely unexpectedly changed. Only after the verdict did we find out that the new chairman was the daughter-in-law of AfD politician Albrecht Glaser, who repeatedly drew attention to himself through racist attacks. Since then, the judge Glaser has been responsible for me and covers me with a whole series of really absurd penalty orders that are still pending trial.

Unions and the Red Aid are demanding your acquittal. Is there any further support?

The VVN is also very committed to me, as is the action committee of those previously affected by the radical decree. On Tuesday, a third of the municipal councils passed a declaration of solidarity. In fact, the verdict here in Heidelberg caused outrage among many people. It is about several things: There is the abuse of public spaces by the AfD, which on the other hand shies away from any real public. There is the mockery of the memory of the writer Hilde Domin. And finally there is the grotesque caricature that the state security and court are drafting of me and trying to legally establish. Heidelberg is not a big city. Many people know me and know that the image of the “demagogue who is dangerous to the public” has precious little to do with me.


New satirical novel by David Schalko – Culture

Of course, this is almost too good to be true. The Austrian writer and filmmaker David Schalko, who finally became known in Germany in 2011 as the inventor, screenwriter and director of the brilliant satirical series “Braunschlag”, has written a new satirical novel – and the setting is Bad Gastein. That place in the Hohe Tauern, which was once famous for its thermal springs and in the 19th century finally became the glamorous summer spa in Europe, with majestic Belle Époque hotel buildings that fit in this size with Vienna and Berlin, but actually not one small village on an alpine slope. Emperor Franz I of Austria and the Prussian Emperor Wilhelm I negotiated and recovered here and with them the entire noble and diplomatic elite of Europe, including their entourage.

The industrial magnates soon came: Thyssen, Krupp, Opel, Siemens, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt; and the most famous writers: Heinrich Mann, William Somerset Maugham. And it went on for a long time: in 1909, the Grand Hotel de l’Europe opened, one of the largest and most modern luxury hotels on the continent at the time. After the wars it got harder, but the invention of winter tourism helped, and in the fifties Hollywood stars like Billy Wilder, Tyrone Power and Charles Laughton resided in Straubinger Hof, directly across from Wilhelm’s old bathing palace.

In the seventies, however, many of the old magnificent buildings were no longer renovated, also because there was simply no space for the urgently needed parking spaces for ski guests who came with their own car and for those who stayed at the place, which in normal years has more than half a million overnight stays , lives to this day. Above the old town center, new hotels were built for a new mass audience, in the town center one legendary house after another soon closed – and fell into disrepair. Even the “Kongresshaus”, a brutalist concrete colossus in the middle of town, completed in 1974, is rotting away today. Also because the municipality sold the old building to a Viennese investor in need, but he did not invest, but speculated and left them empty. The really big party became the classic provincial farce.

The best way to tell of abysses is when you can indulge yourself with a guilty conscience

Whereby the houses are still hanging on the hillside as one of the most spectacular and weirdest backdrops in the Alps and – of course – the really clever ones came from Berlin and Vienna, made famous design hotels out of a few ruins, and an urban hipster hungry for the extraordinary. Offering the audience eerily beautiful historical tours through the glamor of yore in addition to luxury wellness.

You have to tell all of this in a little more detail because David Schalko’s new novel “Bad Regina” is deliberately written out of this echo chamber of past European glory and written into the shabby backdrop of today. In addition, it shouldn’t be surprising that the 48-year-old Viennese wrote good parts of the book as a guest in one of the design hotels. Because the abysses of the homely, small-minded megalomania that humans carry within themselves, can only be told half as entertainingly if one cannot let it go very well with a bad conscience.

28th Annual Palm Springs International Film Festival Film Screenings & Events

Humanity in the face of futility: David Schalko.

(Photo: Vivien Killilea / AFP)

The flourishing mass winter sports resort Gastein does not play a role in “Bad Regina”. Small distortion in the recognizable. In the novel, the decline of the place is almost complete, the party is really over, there are only 46 residents left, and whoever still has a house to sell, sells it to a seedy real estate entrepreneur of Chinese origin named Chen: “It was a curse about Bad Regina. And this curse was called Chen. None of the remaining people knew him. Nobody knew what he was up to. But everyone accepted his offer. ” Only Othmar, who – in keeping with the desolate scenery – is not exactly in the best shape either, does not want to accept the sale of his homeland and wants to find out what “the Chinese” are up to with the place.

Home is wherever one involuntarily returns again and again

Othmar of all people. Until the end of the nineties he managed the most famous party club in the Alps, the “Kraken”. Today he lives, plagued by gout, on the disability pension of the former British star DJ Alpha, who had an accident while skiing stoned with Othmar shortly after his appearance at Kraken and since then, paraplegic sitting in a wheelchair in a coma, slumbering in front of him: “Despite his undignified condition, Othmar had preserved his dignity. Selma came every two weeks and restored him.”

The speed and precision, the dialogical wit and the laconicity with which the situation and the staff are outlined on the first 30 or 40 pages is great literary satirical art that reveals the highly talented screenwriter and experienced director.


David Schalko: Bad Regina. Novel. Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 2021. 400 pages, 24 euros.

And as far as the level of absurdity is concerned – the search for the motives of Chen that drives the plot of the book is only just beginning. After that, it just gets crazier and crazier until the end. With devotion to detail, Schalko leads you through the depravity of the remaining inhabitants, who are soon united by the disgust for Chen and “the shitty Chinese” who “believe they can buy the whole world”. Whereby the impotent helplessness with which they proceed is told over and over again in a touching, compassionate way: “Only later did he understand that home was there to which one repeatedly unwillingly returned.”

That was also the great strength of “Braunschlag”, it is actually the great strength of the Schalko gaze, which, recognizable even with the most monstrous joke, is not primarily interested in its ridiculousness, but in its humanity in the face of the depressing futility of existence. Above all, he has laconic sadness that the meanest dog is still fate.

As a reader, however, one is also a little wistful about the fact that all of this is told a little too long, too wild and too confusing. The predecessor “Schwere Bones”, a historical grotesque about the Viennese underworld of the post-war period, is certainly the better made book. The plot of “Bad Regina” is so rich in crazy twists and turns, flashbacks, characters and surprises that soon you are unfortunately not that surprised anymore, but rather annoyed. Which makes reading increasingly tedious after 100 pages at the latest. Despite all the terrific scenes and dialogues.

In the end, the 400 pages of this book read like a hastily decorated, not quite finished script of a series. On the one hand. On the other hand, you would of course watch this series immediately if it had filmed David Schalko. If only because of the setting and its history.


Frédéric Perrot, for a forgotten hour

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A first novel at the border of thriller, drama and suspense. An effective story full of twists and turns. Frédéric Perrot publishes “Pour une hour oubliée”, published by Mialet-Barrault.

When you open this book, there is no other way to get rid of it than to devour it to the end, and share the torments of the main character. And the least we can say is that there are many. Could he do otherwise than lie to his companion? Will he manage to save his marriage, his reputation, his honor, the car dealership he runs? Who is this journalist who comes to delve into her past, and reveal her terrible secret to the world? Above all, will he succeed in recovering the memory of that strange hour that turned his life upside down?

When he emerged from a numb sleep, a woman was at his feet, dead. He has no recollection of what happened. How to deal with a guilt that he ended up accepting without understanding? Is he really the murderer whom justice has condemned? If so why did he kill? And if not, who is the real culprit? What questions, what suspense, what adventures and what twists and turns in this first novel which poses another question, terrifying too: what if the same thing happened to us? “For a forgotten hour”, the first novel by Frédéric Perrot was published by Mialet-Barrault editions.

On the menu of this Café Gourmand:

– Sébastien Jedor present Medicine Man Orchestra, a griot / electro group that aims to do music therapy. RFI is a partner via RFI Labo.

– Marjorie Bertin take us to see a show (almost) alive with Titon and Aurora. An 18th century opera ballet, conducted by William Christie and staged by Basil Twist, recorded at the Opéra Comique for Medici TV, an internet television channel. The show can be seen for free by following the link:

– Amélie Beaucour met the talented Emmanuel Guibert for his novel Mike, published by Gallimard editions. A very personal story of friendship that will lead him to the bedside of one of his sick friends when death threatens to separate them at any moment.

– Alain Pilot met Emilee, a Franco-British singer, songwriter and producer. She presents her first mini-album Extra Ordinary.


cartoonists in support of Xavier Gorce

The designer has left The world after the questioning of one of his caricatures. Asked by Le Figaro, his colleagues Kak (L’Opinion), Ransom (Le Parisien – Today in France), Espé (former of Humanity), Deligne (The cross, The Montagnand …) and Boll (The echoes) deplore a new victory for political correctness.

“This resignation comes after the publication, Tuesday January 19, in the newsletter The World Brief, of a drawing by Xavier Gorce that we should not have published ”. Here is what we can read in a press release published on Wednesday January 20 on the website of World . Tuesday, a caricature dealing with incest and transidentity, produced by the cartoonist of Integrable, had been published in the morning newsletter of the great evening daily. Vilified on social networks, then released by the management of World, Xavier Gorce announced, on Twitter, to end his collaboration with the daily, for which he had worked since the 1990s.

The controversy arose from two penguins discussing, quietly installed on the ice floe, the necessary degree of kinship to determine incest. Trying in an offbeat way to deal with a serious and omnipresent subject since Camille Kouchner’s revelations concerning her stepfather, Olivier Duhamel. Judging “disproportionate” relentlessness

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Brigitte Bardot sent back to the Arras court after shooting the hunters

On the site of her foundation, the actress published in October 2019 a short indictment against hunting enthusiasts and the president of the FNC, Willy Schraen. The latter filed a complaint for insults.

«These subhumans of an abject cowardice to drunken trolls“. In an editorial published on the site of her foundation in October 2019, Brigitte Bardot severely scratched the hunters and their president of their Federation since 2016, Willy Schraen, which she attacked in unfriendly terms. “They (the hunters, Editor’s note) carry within them the genes of a cruel barbarity inherited from our primitive ancestorsShe added.

As revealed The voice of the North , Willy Schraen and the National Federation of Hunters filed a complaint for insults in January 2020. The procedure led to the indictment of Brigitte Bardot on October 20, then on December 21 the public prosecutor dismissed the former muse of Jean-Luc Godard before the criminal court.

The judgment is expected in Arras for February 9. Still according to the regional daily, Brigitte Bardot should not however go there and will be represented by her lawyer, Maître Kelidjian. The facts having been noted on the internet, the hearing could be held anywhere in France. Willy Schraen residing in the Pas-de-Calais would therefore have chosen a court of his department, the Parisian authorities are already crumbling under this kind of business.

This possible conviction should not tremble Brigitte Bardot. The latter has already been sentenced five times by the courts, in particular for comments of a racist nature.


Audiobook – With mockery close to the present – Munich

Audio book:Close to the present with a lust for ridicule

Franziska zu Reventlow can be recognized in many of her stories, such as “The Count’s Dairy Shop”. Illustration: Tom Meilhammer

“The lodging house for the swaying globe” brings together texts by Franziska zu Reventlow.

From Antje Weber


Amanda Gorman “The Hill We Climb”: The Poem in Its Words – Culture

Amanda Gorman: “The Hill We Climb”

When day comes, we ask ourselves,

where can we find light in this never-ending shade?

The loss we carry,

a sea we must wade.

We’ve braved the belly of the beast.

We’ve learned that quiet isn’t always peace.

And the norms and notions

of what just is, isn’t always just-ice.

And yet the dawn is ours

before we knew it.

Somehow we do it.

Somehow we’ve weathered and witnessed

a nation that isn’t broken,

but simply unfinished.

We, the successors of a country and a time

where a skinny Black girl

descended from slaves and raised by a single mother

can dream of becoming president

only to find herself reciting for one.

And yes, we are far from polished,

far from pristine,

but that doesn’t mean

we are striving to form a union that is perfect.

We are striving to forge our union with purpose.

To compose a country, committed to all cultures, colors, characters, and conditions of man.

And so we lift our gaze, not to what stands between us

but what stands before us.

We close the divide because we know to put our future first,

we must first put our differences aside.

We lay down our arms

so we can reach out our arms

to one another.

We seek harm to none and harmony for all.

Let the globe, if nothing else, say, this is true:

That even as we grieved, we grew.

That even as we hurt, we hoped.

That even as we tired, we tried.

That we’ll forever be tied together, victorious.

Not because we will never again know defeat,

but because we will never again sow division.

Scripture tells us to envision

that everyone shall sit under their own vine and fig tree

and no one shall make them afraid.

If we’re to live up to our own time,

then victory won’t lie in the blade, but in all the bridges we’ve made.

That is the promise to glade

The hill we climb.

If only we dare

It’s because being American is more than a pride we inherit.

It’s the past we step into

and how we repair it.

We’ve seen a force that would shatter or nation, rather than share it.

Would destroy our country if it meant delaying democracy.

And this effort very nearly succeeded.

But while democracy can be periodically delayed,

it can never be permanently defeated.

In this truth,

in this faith we trust

For while we have our eyes on the future,

history has its eyes on us.

This is the era of just redemption.

We feared at its inception

We did not feel prepared to be the heirs

of of such a terrifying hour,

but within it, we found the power

to author a new chapter.

To offer hope and laughter to ourselves.

So while once we asked,

how could we possibly prevail over catastrophe?

Now we assert

how could catastrophe possibly prevail over us?

We will not march back to what was,

but move to what shall be

a country that is bruised but whole

benevolent, but bold,

fierce, and free.

We will not be turned around

or interrupted by intimidation

because we know our inaction and inertia

will be the inheritance of the next generation.

Our blunders become their burdens,

but one thing is certain.

If we merged mercy with might,

and might with right,

then love becomes our legacy, and change our children’s birthright.

So let us leave behind a country

better than the one we were left with

Every breath, my bronze-pounded chest.

We will raise this wounded world into a wondrous one.

We will rise from the gold-limbed hills of the West.

We will rise from the windswept Northeast

where our forefathers first realized revolution.

We will rise from the lake-rimmed cities of the midwestern states.

We will rise from the sunbaked South.

We will rebuild, reconcile and recover

and every known nook of our nation.

And every corner called our country.

Our people diverse and beautiful will emerge,

battered and beautiful.

When day comes, we step out of the shade

aflame and unafraid

The new dawn blooms as we free it.

For there was always light.

If only we’re brave enough to see it.

If only we’re brave enough to be it.


In Dijon, discovery in a chapel of a disturbing message written 165 years ago

Dated August 10, 1856, the handwritten text was found on the construction site of the future Cité de la gastronomie. Stuck behind a stone, it was in perfect condition.

«In this chapel being in repair worked the sieur GodardThese words left by a plasterer in 1856 were discovered last week on the construction site of the future Cité de la gastronomie in Dijon. From one restoration to another, a mason came across the handwritten text, a century and a half later, by dislodging a stone in a wall of the Sainte-Croix-de-Jerusalem chapel, built in the 15th century in the Burgundian capital. .

“I was in the process of making a bleeding in the wall to pass through the electrical ducts. In an old scaffolding hole I saw a rock move and behind I found the paper folded in six», Tells AFP Victorien Coille, of the Dufraigne company in Autun. A double-sided sheet and perfectly preserved from photographs published Tuesday by the regional daily The Public Good who revealed this discovery.

A native of Moloy north of Dijon, Nicolas Godard indicates that he was first a sailor, “fired from the steam frigate L’Orinoco after campaigning in Crimea at the age of 18“. This conflict opposed the Russian Empire, from 1853 to 1856, to a coalition formed by the Ottoman Empire, France, the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Sardinia. “Whoever puts a stop to the fury of the waves also knows how to stop wicked plots», Adds Sieur Godard, citing a tirade by Jean Racine in Athalie. The names of other workers who probably worked in the chapel follow.

“In the old craft guilds, there has always been a desire to leave a mark, as in the stonemasons who signed their works”

Bassir Amiri, municipal councilor in charge of Archives and Cultural Heritage

Then a date, August 10, 1856. On the back of the sheet, the address of a shop and this final mention: “At when these letters are written, the greatest misery exists in Dijon.»How to explain the presence of this word? “In the old craft guilds, there has always been a desire to leave a mark, as in the stonemasons who signed their works.», Explains Bassir Amiri, municipal councilor in charge of Archives and Cultural Heritage.

Victorien Coille, 37 years old, twenty of whom are professional, confirms: on an apprenticeship, he happened to seal a bottle with a word inside. And he thinks of replacing a message in the wall of the chapel before filling the hole. The Dijon services studied the manuscript and found the birth certificate of Sieur Godard in 1838. “We can see that he is a cultured person, it is moving this dialogue which is established between two workers through the ages», Adds the elected official. The document will be deposited in the municipal archives, where it will be searchable by individuals, and digitized to be available on their website.

SEE ALSO – Almost 100 intact sarcophagi, more than 2,000 years old, discovered in Egypt


Alain Frèrejean, the great speeches of the presidents of the United States

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Historian Alain Frèrejean presents 52 major speeches by American presidents, from George Washington to Donald Trump. Reflections of the great currents of American history, they reveal in a revealing way the stakes of the electoral campaign of 2020.

On this investiture day in the White House, it is through the history of the United States, and also that of the world, that we take you today. A story in words, since it is through words, those of presidents, that the historian Alain Frerejean will guide us. From those of Thomas Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence to those of Donald Trump, passing by George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Reagan or Barack Obama, many others, back to a few speeches that tell America. “The great speeches of the presidents of the United States”, by Alain Frèrejean is available from Archidoc.

At the end of the program, the music chronicle ofAlain Pilot. He presents “Tonus”, the 4th album of Old School Family, released by Pleins Poumons Productions / Take It Easy Agency.