In Greece, the deputies of Golden Dawn guilty of belonging to a “criminal organization”

In front of the Athens courthouse, Irini Kondaridou, a teacher who had observed a work stoppage to come and demonstrate, cannot hold back tears of joy. “After the slaps taken all these years of austerity, this is the first good news in this country, she cries. The first which makes us hope that something can move in the right direction. “

→ THE FACTS. In Greece, verdict in sight for neo-Nazis of Golden Dawn

Moments earlier, the Criminal Court delivered its verdict in one of the most followed trials in recent years in Greece. A long-running trial: more than five years and 400 hearings, some of them very trying, 68 defendants, 153 witnesses, several dozen lawyers, a file with a volume of 1.5 terabytes …

Golden Dawn can no longer claim to be a respectable party

According to the court decision handed down on Wednesday, October 7, the entire parliamentary group of Golden Dawn, as it was elected in 2012, constitutes a criminal organization, guilty of murders, organizing pogroms, thefts, assaults, assassination attempts, and carrying weapons. Although it was, for seven years, the third political force in the country, sending several deputies to the European Parliament, the neo-Nazi nebula can no longer claim to be a respectable political party.

The investigation against Golden Dawn began after the assassination of Pavlos Fyssas, a 34-year-old anti-fascist rapper stabbed in September 2013 by Georgios Roupakias, a party cadre who confessed to the crime. While the assault sections of Golden Dawn had for years multiplied attacks against migrants, trade unionists, journalists and left-wing activists, it was not until the death of this rapper that the conservative government of the time launched the legal proceedings which resulted in the arrest of the party leadership.

Most defendants face five to fifteen years in prison

On Wednesday morning, the announcement of the verdict was followed by thunderous applause in the courtroom, and shouts of joy outside the building, where thousands of people were gathered. The most radical threw stones, Molotov cocktails at the police, overwhelmingly present, who responded with tear gas canisters, irritating gases and jets of water.

→ THE FACTS. Desecrated Jewish cemetery in Greece on trial against Golden Dawn neo-Nazis

With the exception of the direct assassin of Pavlos Fyssas, who faces life imprisonment, the other defendants face five to fifteen years in prison. “The message is now clear: imposing your law with batons and knives leads to prison even for legally elected deputies”, welcomed Me Thanassis Kabayiannis, a lawyer for the civil party whose pleadings had so marked the spirits that it was put on a play performed at sold-out.

→ DOCUMENTARY. Behind the Scenes of the Greek Neo-Nazi Golden Dawn Party

For Loucas Stamellos, an activist involved in the dissemination of the trial findings, “This verdict will not put a stop to racism and the extreme right in the country, but it puts out of harm’s way the assault sections. Any other verdict would have been understood as a green light for their return to the streets ”.

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Greek Justice rules that Golden Dawn is a criminal organization

The Athens Court of Appeal has ruled that the neo-Nazi Golden Dawn party is a criminal organization at the end of a process that has lasted for more than five years and the result of which has been greeted with applause by the around 20,000 people who had gathered. on the streets of the Greek capital.

The criminal investigation began after the September 2013 murder of 34-year-old rapper Fyssas Pavlos, known by the stage name Killah P., who was stabbed to death by a man who worked in the cafeteria in Las Vegas. party offices.

More than 60 members of the ultra-rightist formation have sat on the bench, including its leader, Nikolaos Michaloliakos, who is therefore responsible for running a criminal organization. The court has also found the alleged perpetrator of the murder of the rapper, Giorgos Roupakias, guilty.

The crowd before the appeal court, including former Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras, hailed the verdicts. The mother of Fyssas Pavlos was also present at this mobilization, excited after learning of the sentence, according to public television ERT.

Golden Dawn became the third parliamentary force in the country with 18 of the 300 seats in Parliament, from where it denounced that this investigation is a judicial persecution against its members. However, in the last parliamentary elections in Greece, the formation failed to exceed the 3 percent of the votes it needed to obtain representation.

Unrest

In front of the courts, supporters of Golden Dawn and the extreme left have gathered, who after hearing the court’s decision have staged a confrontation with the Hellenic Police.

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European justice reframes massive data collection

Why was European justice seized on this issue?

French digital freedoms defense organizations, including La Quadrature du Net and associative access providers, challenged the legality of French law before the courts of the European Union (EU).

Their approach was joined by Belgian and British referrals which asked the same question for their own country: can States order telecom operators to mass collect connection and location data?

In France, since the intelligence law of 2015, passed in a context of rising Islamist terrorism, the interception, collection and storage of data (location, communication, images, IP addresses, emails, etc.) are possible on simple authorization of the Prime Minister, without the prior authorization of a judge or an independent authority. Internet service providers are required to keep the connection data of all users for one year.

What did the European judges answer?

The court of Justice “Confirms that Union law precludes national regulations requiring a provider of electronic communications services, for the purposes of combating infringements in general or safeguarding national security”.

Judges prohibit “The generalized and undifferentiated transmission or storage of data relating to traffic and location”. On the other hand, exceptions are foreseen in the event of “Serious threat” for national security, provided that the use of the data is limited in time to the “Strictly necessary”.

In a 2016 judgment called “Tele2”, the CJEU had already ruled that providers could not be imposed an obligation to collect and store traffic data and location data. The States concerned contested this decision, on the grounds that national security “Remains the sole responsibility of each Member State”, according to European law.

What are the implications of this decision?

In reaction to the decision of the CJEU, the Quadrature du Net evokes a “victorious defeat”. “If the Court affirms that France can no longer impose this general retention of connection data, it reveals a certain number of important exception regimes” who “Will inevitably lead to abuse”, let the organization know.

The judgment nevertheless sets a framework. Even in exceptional cases, the“Interference with fundamental rights must be accompanied by effective guarantees and supervised by a judge or an independent administrative authority”, said the judges. French magistrates and intelligence services, who were watching the decision, will still be able to rely on targeted investigations. But they are now ordered to discard the information obtained by massive data collections.

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In Greece, verdict in sight for neo-Nazis of Golden Dawn

“We are told that we do not have the right to speak, nor to mobilize or to multiply interventions to remind the Criminal Court that the verdict it will deliver this Wednesday is crucial. That it will determine the future of Greek society ”.

Thanasis Kabayiannis, lawyer for the civil party in the river trial (more than five years of hearings, 68 accused, 153 witnesses, several dozen lawyers, a file with a volume of 1.5 terabytes) of the management and dozens of members of the neo-Nazi Golden Dawn party, does not spare. ” Me, he continues, I say that not only do we have this right, but that in addition we must do it, we must remain vigilant and maintain the pressure until the last moment ».

A pleading set up as a play

With a dozen other lawyers for the victims of Golden Dawn, Thanasis Kabayiannis has been traveling the country for several weeks to call for mobilization, this Wednesday, October 7, before the Athens Court of Appeal.

→ THE FACTS. In Greece, final hearing for the trial of the neo-Nazis of Golden Dawn

This Wednesday, October 7, it must finally deliver the verdict, eagerly awaited after five and a half years of trial, against the entire parliamentary group of Golden Dawn as it was elected in 2012, as well as many of its executives and financial support. His remarkable argument, “With bees or with wolves”, has even been put on a play that has been sold out for several days.

The investigation against Golden Dawn began after the assassination of Pavlos Fyssas, a 34-year-old anti-fascist rapper stabbed in September 2013 by Georgios Roupakias, a party cadre who confessed to the crime. As the Golden Dawn assault sections have multiplied, with impunity for years, the often deadly attacks against migrants, trade unionists, journalists and left-wing activists, in the streets of Athens and in several major cities in the country, it was only when Pavlos Fyssas was killed that the Conservative government of the day launched legal proceedings which resulted in the arrest of the party leadership. The rapper is indeed a white Greek, a kind of “boy next door”, with whom all Greeks have been able to identify.

Party or criminal organization?

After more than 400 hearings, some of them very trying, the Court must rule not on the guilt of Georgios Roupakias, acquired even by the defense, but on the very nature of the formation of Golden Dawn. Is this a legal party, as defended by the prosecutor who asked for the release of all the accused, except Roupakias himself for whom she requested life imprisonment? Or is it a criminal organization, as defended by the civil party, which requested the sentence of 10 to 15 years imprisonment for all the accused?

“The strictly hierarchical military character, where the orders emanating from the founder of Golden Dawn, Nikos Michaloliakos, were executed by second hands like Roupakias after the middle managers relayed them, has been established without any possible doubt”, underlines one of the two lawyers of the Fyssas family, Chryssa Papadopoulou. “Their conviction is the only possible outcome, if the Tribunal wants to keep its dignity”, adds Eleftheria Tombatzoglou, second lawyer of the family.

→ DOCUMENTARY. Behind the scenes of the Greek neo-Nazi Golden Dawn party

For the defense, the guilt of all the accused is impossible: “This would mean that the Greeks voted for a criminal organization and that they are therefore guilty”, explains Vasso Mpatatzi, lawyer for the former deputy of Golden Dawn, Efstathios Boukouras.

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The Rosgvardia commented on the detention of the former deputy head of the department

Former deputy head of Rosgvardia Sergei Mileiko was fired last year. This was announced by the official representative of the department, Valery Gribakin, commenting on information in the media about his detention on suspicion of fraud.

Gribakin clarified that Mileiko has not held a leading position in the federal service since the summer of 2019. He also said that a check was carried out against the former employee, after which he was dismissed from his post and fired, writes RIA Novosti.

Earlier it became known that Mileyko was detained. The military investigation opened a criminal case under Article 159 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation (“Fraud”). This was announced by a source in law enforcement agencies, noting that the investigation intends to petition for the election of a preventive measure against Mileiko in the form of detention.

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American justice launches its offensive against Google

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The American justice passes to the attack against the giants of the net: it launched yesterday Tuesday, October 20 an extremely rare legal procedure against Google, prosecuted for abuse of a dominant position. What to shake its hegemony?

What to call into question the small arrangements between friends, passed by these mastodons become so powerful, so rich that they have the means to erect impassable partitions for the competitors. If the Google search engine, which is at the heart of the procedure, is popular with users, it is of course because it is efficient, but it is also because it is often the only tool available. Automatically delivered by default in the Android universe which Google owns but also in the Apple IOS universe.

Known facts. What we know less and that the American investigators put forward is the confidential contract concluded between the two firms to maintain the de facto exclusivity of Google at all costs. Its parent company Alphabet is paying dearly for this: $ 11 billion a year to be the default option on all the devices of the firm at the apple say the investigators. According to the Wall Street journal, it is on this link that the indictment focuses.

This agreement is decisive for the revenues of these two companies?

Eleven billion dollars a year is a big sum for Google, it represents a third of its profits, but the game is worth the candle since half of the traffic generated by its engine comes from Apple devices. If this juicy channel were to dry up, it would trigger the red alert, they say within the group. The goal for Google is of course to eliminate rivals, no matter how small. The Bing engine, for example, which belongs to Microsoft and which today holds 7% of the American market while Google concentrates 88% of searches. For Apple this arrangement is a significant source of income: $ 11 billion is about 15 to 20% of its profits. If Google defends itself by asserting that its service is free for the user, it fails to declare that it is paying dearly to protect its backyard.

Could Google be dismantled?

This option is on the table, if American justice succeeds. This is not necessarily enough to put an end to these unfair practices. The search engine could very well be bought by another giant of the net powerful enough to enter into equivalent markets, notes Eric Léandri, one of the founders of the French engine. Qwant. For this internet entrepreneur (activist of an open and safe internet for users with his new company Altrnativ) the procedure will already bring a little air to the smaller players, allow them to exist, in the shadow of this mastodon. During the procedure, Google’s investments are frozen, which will allow young shoots to develop without fear of a takeover. This is exactly what happened in the last abuse of dominance proceeding launched in the United States. It was in 1998, against Microsoft. And this has benefited Google and its Chrome browser.

American justice goes on the attack on the eve of the presidential election, its approach also has political motivations ?

The fight against Silicon Valley and its multinationals has always been the credo of Donald Trump, annoyed by their criticisms. Democrats are also worried about the supremacy of these old start-ups. Many other proceedings and investigations are underway against Google and against other internet giants. GAFA, Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon and Microsoft weigh more than 7,000 billion dollars, their market value has more than tripled in 5 years. Yesterday at the stock market, their prices did not flinch.

►In short

An agreement on the Common Agricultural Policy has just been reached between the 27

After marathon discussions, the Agriculture Ministers of the 27 have agreed on the largest European budget, the greenest budget in European history. The ball is now in the court of the European Parliament, which is voting on the text today.

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US authorities sue Google for abuse of dominant position

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The American justice system and 11 states filed this Tuesday, October 20, a complaint against Google for abuse of a dominant position in the field of search and online advertising, the result of a year of investigation which also targeted Facebook and Apple.

In the United States, the Department of Justice and the main federal competition authority (FTC) filed on Tuesday, October 20, a complaint for abuse of dominant position in the field of research and online advertising. Eleven states, all Republicans, have joined in this process. They accuse Google of illegally maintaining its monopoly on online research, in particular through exclusive commercial agreements that lock in competition. Google, for example, paid billions of dollars to Apple to have its search engine appear by default on iPhones.

According to the Department of Justice, these practices harm users, advertisers and small businesses by giving them less choice, higher ad prices and lower quality. ” If we let Google continue its practices, we will lose the next wave of innovators The time has come to restore competition in this vital industry “, Estimates the Department of Justice in its press release. The American authorities are calling for structural changes, which could lead to the dismantling of the Californian giant, indicates our correspondent in Washington, Anne Corpet.

The US administration has made this issue a hobbyhorse by launching a series of surveys over a year ago targeting the practices of Google, Amazon, Apple and Facebook. Its leaders were auditioned this summer by members of Congress.

The Alphabet subsidiary reacted on Twitter by denouncing serious shortcomings in the complaint. ” If the customer chooses Google, it is by choice and not by lack of alternative », Defends the company.

The European authorities had already ruled last year by imposing a fine of 4.3 billion euros on the Alphabet group for unfair practices. Not enough to thrill the giant, capitalized at 800 billion dollars. The procedure launched by the US government could take years. But her strength is that she enjoys wide support.

In California, the timing of this complaint raises questions about his political motivations two weeks before the presidential election, when Republicans accuse the tech giants of an anti-Trump bias. But these lawsuits are also welcomed on the left or many elected officials have been asking for the dismantling of the digital giants for two years, starting with Google but also Facebook.

It is in any case the most important legal action in more than 20 years carried out by the American federal government against one of its giants of new technologies. The last such action was taken 22 years ago against Microsoft. It had ended in an amicable settlement.

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neo-Nazi Golden Dawn leader sentenced to 13 years in prison

After a trial of more than five years, the verdict is in. The leader of the neo-Nazi Golden Dawn party, Nikos Michaloliakos, negationist and admirer of National Socialism, was sentenced on Wednesday October 14 to 13 years in prison by the Athens Criminal Court. She found him guilty of having directed a “Criminal organization”.

→ READ. In Greece, verdict in sight for neo-Nazis of Golden Dawn

Among the six other paramilitary party executives, MEP Ioannis Lagos and former member of Golden Dawn also receives 13 years in prison. His parliamentary immunity must be lifted by the European Parliament, at the request of Greece, once an arrest warrant has been issued.

Life imprisonment for the murderer of rapper Pavlos Fyssas

The criminal court also followed the prosecutor’s requisitions by sentencing to 13 years in prison the former party spokesperson Ilias Kassidiaris and the deputy Christos Pappas, right-hand man of Michaloliakos. She imposed the same sentence on two other party leaders found guilty of “Direction of criminal organization” : former deputies Ilias Panagiotaros and Georgios Germenis.

Only Artemis Matthaiopoulos, the ex-son-in-law of Michaloliakos, was sentenced to ten years in prison, below the requisitions of the prosecutor. The court also sentenced Yorgos Roupakias, member of Golden Dawn, to life imprisonment for the assassination of anti-fascist rapper Pavlos Fyssas, in 2013. The murder of the left-wing activist on the night of September 18, 2013, had shocked Greece in the midst of the financial crisis, and had forced the authorities to prosecute the neo-Nazi party.

A “historic” verdict

On Monday, October 12, the Athens Criminal Court rejected all mitigating circumstances likely to ease the prison sentences incurred by the leaders of the neo-Nazi party. After five and a half years of hearings, the court unanimously qualified last week the paramilitary party of“Criminal organization”, a verdict described as“Historical” by the President of the Republic and a whole fringe of the Greek political class.

She established the guilt of Golden Dawn in several crimes, including the murder of Pavlos Fyssas, but also that of Pakistani Sahzat Luckman in 2013, as well as the assault on Egyptian fishermen in 2012 and communist trade unionists in 2013. More ‘about fifty of the 68 accused were convicted of various crimes: leading a criminal organization, murder, assault, illegal possession of weapons. 11 were acquitted.

→ READ. Behind the scenes of the Greek neo-Nazi Golden Dawn party

This trial-river gradually led to the decline of Golden Dawn, the third political force in 2015, which did not obtain any seat in Parliament in the last legislative elections in July 2019.

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Magistrates want illicit enrichment in the law once and for all | Justice

The Government’s anti-corruption strategy was under public consultation until this week
Nélson Garrido (archive)

Magistrates’ unions want to take advantage of the anti-corruption strategy that the Government has submitted to public discussion to see illicit enrichment being, once and for all, a crime. However, in the 78 pages that make up the proposal prepared by a group of lawyers at the request of the Ministry of Justice, there is not a single word on the subject.

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