hope to be cured with gene therapy

After great progress in the survival of patients, research has tackled a challenge: repairing the gene causing the disease.

“We are really living a period of revolution. For a long time, we explained to families: gene therapy is the great hope, the future… Now we are there. Until now, the symptoms of the disease have been treated. Now we can treat its cause ”, rejoices the Pr Vincent Laugel, pediatric neurologist at the Strasbourg University Hospital. The success of the treatment by gene therapy of another rare disease whose prognosis it revolutionized, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), pave the way: a single injection of Zolgensma is enough to cure children (around 120 per year in France) formerly doomed.

Rare genetic disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (or Duchenne muscular dystrophy, DMD), the most common genetic neuromuscular disease, affects approximately 1 in 3,300 boys and almost no girls. It is due to the mutation of a gene on the X chromosome encoding a protein, dystrophin, essential for the functioning of muscles. Located under the cell membrane

This article is for subscribers only. You have 80% left to discover.

Subscribe: 1 € the first month

Can be canceled at any time

Already subscribed? Log in

.

Jupiter has a date with Saturn

INFOGRAPHICS – It is a spectacle which has not occurred with such ardor since Louis XIII. In the sky at the beginning of December, the two giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, will meet until they seem to merge.

Since this summer Jupiter and Saturn are getting closer and closer. In a few days, on December 21, 2020, around 6.30 p.m., at nightfall, the two largest planets in the solar system will appear so close, that they will hardly form a single bright spot in the twilight sky. An extraordinary spectacle to be seen with the naked eye, above

This article is for subscribers only. You still have 86% to discover.

Subscribe: 1 € the first month

Can be canceled at any time

Already subscribed? Log in

.

Italy, Tunisians’ route to France

Reserved for subscribers

INFOGRAPHIC – While the most migrants arrive in Sicily, Tunisians do not stay in Italy.

In Agrigento (Sicily), 500 Tunisians were released by the Italian government with the obligation to return home on their own within five days. Alan David Scifo/ROPI-REA/Alan David Scifo/ROPI-REA

Rome

The Nice attack, perpetrated on October 29 by a Tunisian who had disembarked five weeks earlier in Lampedusa, revealed the porosity of the EU’s borders at a time when Europe claims to have closed them in the name of the fight against the Covid. And in particular the massive arrivals since last July from Tunisia, where today come nearly 40% of the people who, from Lampedusa to the various ports of Sicily, land on the Italian coasts with makeshift boats. This time, specifies the researcher on migration at ISPI Matteo Villa, “83% of Tunisians, and not mostly nationals of sub-Saharan Africa as before the Covid”. Driven by the tourism crisis which brought down the Tunisian economy, they are four times more likely than in 2019 to try their luck illegally, and four times more than the second group, from Bangladesh.

Upon arrival at the Lampedusa hotspot, they are registered

This article is for subscribers only. You have 85% left to discover.

Subscribe: 1 € the first month

Can be canceled at any time

Already subscribed? Log in

.

which are the most advanced laboratories?

INFOGRAPHICS – The WHO has currently identified 48 vaccine candidates in clinical trials in humans around the world. Among them, 11 have already reached phase 3. Update on this planetary battle.

Around the world, laboratories have started to develop vaccines against the coronavirus, which are often the result of international cooperation.

Thanks to our dashboard, find out which vaccine candidates are the most advanced and which are less advanced:

How many vaccines in the pipes?

In its last point dated November 12, the World Health Organization (WHO) lists 48 “vaccine candidates” in clinical trials on humans around the world. Eleven are in the last stage, phase 3, where the effectiveness of the vaccine is measured on a large scale on tens of thousands of volunteers spread over several continents.

Among these eleven, the announcements of Pfizer / BioNtec and Moderna were considered very encouraging by the international scientific community, which sees in it a great reason for hope to curb this epidemic, which has already resulted in the deaths of more than 1 , 3 million inhabitants in the world. However, details are still lacking, these announcements having been made by press release, without there being a publication in a scientific journal.

The 37 others are still in phase 1/2 which aims above all to assess the safety of the product or in phase 2 where the question of efficacy is already being explored. To speed up the process, several laboratories have decided to carry out tests of several phases simultaneously – phase 1 and 2 for example.

Among these many candidates, some have already obtained authorizations and / or orders. Find out more about the situation in the table below:

To see also – What is called a vaccine that is 90% reliable?

.

a slower decline than during the first wave

DECRYPTION – The epidemic situation is improving, but it would take about a month to achieve the objectives set by Emmanuel Macron.

“The situation is still very fragile”, indicates Clémentine Prieur, teacher-researcher at the University of Grenoble Alpes at the Jean Kuntzmann Laboratory. LIONEL BONAVENTURE / AFP

In his speech on October 28, the President of the Republic, Emmanuel Macron, set a ceiling at 5,000 new contaminations per day to consider deconfinement. An objective recalled by Jérôme Salomon, Director General of Health, during a press point organized on Tuesday, November 17, while announcing 12,587 new cases confirmed by PCR that day. “In view of the current trajectories, we should arrive at this level of contamination during the second half of December, judge Pierrick Tranouez, specialist in modeling at the Litis laboratory at the University of Rouen-Normandy. There is however a source of uncertainty, for several days many cases have been confirmed by antigenic tests, which until yesterday were not included in the total data. A deficit which can distort the trajectory of the curve a little. ”

“The situation is still very fragile,” adds Clémentine Prieur, Teacher-researcher at the University of Grenoble Alpes in the Laboratory.

This article is for subscribers only. You have 81% left to discover.

Subscribe: 1 € the first month

Can be canceled at any time

.

what are the most contaminating places?

DECRYPTION – An American study succeeded in quantifying the risks of infection linked to the places and businesses frequented.

Fitness centers are among the most risky places.
Fitness centers are among the most risky places. 259170883/Yakov – stock.adobe.com

What are the most effective measures to control the Covid epidemic, once out of containment? An American study published in the journal Nature combined mobility data to determine high places of contamination in major US metropolises, during the first wave of the epidemic in the United States. These are the movements of 98 million Americans between their place of life and different types of commerce that were analyzed and dissected by a team led by Serina Chang, modeler at Stanford University. As the study focused on mobile phone users, it was not possible for scientists to detail the role of schools and nursing homes.

First lesson, the vast majority of contamination is linked to a small number of places. Restaurants are by far the biggest potential hotbeds, ahead of gyms, cafes, bars, and hotels. So if the city of Chicago

This article is for subscribers only. You have 76% left to discover.

Subscribe: 1 € the first month

Cancellable at any time

.

How are drug risks monitored?

DECRYPTION – The detection of adverse effects of health products is the role of pharmacovigilance centers. A system sometimes criticized, but essential.

“Adverse drug reactions represent the fourth leading cause of death in industrialized countries, more numerous than myocardial infarctions and more expensive than total management of diabetes.” 303653911/candy1812 – stock.adobe.com

Who, among the patients, knows that paracetamol is the leading cause of drug-induced liver transplant in France? Or that ibuprofen is toxic to the fetus? Like any drug, these products, widely used in self-medication because they are known to be safe, can be responsible for serious side effects. Gold “Adverse drug reactions are the fourth leading cause of death in industrialized countries, more numerous than myocardial infarctions and more costly than total management of diabetes”, recalls the Pr Jean-Louis Montastruc, head of the regional pharmacovigilance center of the Toulouse University Hospital. What we forget too often.

And how to do otherwise? Drugs are always presented under their best profile, that of efficacy. But all, without exception, have two aspects: effectiveness on the one hand, undesirable effects on the other. A drug will always be evaluated by balancing the benefits and the

This article is for subscribers only. You have 84% left to discover.

Subscribe: 1 € the first month

Cancellable at any time

.

the Institut Pasteur models the possible effects of reconfinement

INFOGRAPHICS – Le Figaro was able to consult the latest models from the Institut Pasteur, led by Simon Cauchemez, member of the Scientific Council.

During the first containment, the reproduction rate of the virus had fallen from 2.9 to 0.7 before rising above 1 after deconfinement.
During the first containment, the reproduction rate of the virus had fallen from 2.9 to 0.7 before rising above 1 after deconfinement. Stevanovic Igor/Bits and Splits – stock.adobe.com

What impact will the new containment have on the circulation of the virus? If the first mobility data already show a significant reduction in trips, without reaching the historically low levels recorded in the spring, it is far too early to know its impact on the epidemic curves. Several scenarios are however explored in the latest models of the Institut Pasteur, piloted by Simon Cauchemez (member of the Scientific Council) and that Le Figaro was able to consult.

During the first confinement, the reproduction rate of the virus, the famous parameter R0 which characterizes the theoretical dynamics of the virus’s propagation in a non-immune population, had fallen from 2.9 to 0.7 before rising above 1 after deconfinement. At the end of October, this R0 parameter was now between 1.45 and 1.85 depending on the region, according to these new models based on hospitalization data. This is twice as much as during

This article is for subscribers only. You have 76% left to discover.

Subscribe: 1 € the first month

Cancellable at any time

.

how the polls got it wrong

FIG DATA – Big losers in the 2016 presidential election, the polling institutes seem to have again entangled the algorithms for this vintage 2020. Decryption.

After the resounding failure of the polls in 2016, the gap between the latest polls and the admittedly provisional results is once again significant in 2020 in many states.
After the resounding failure of the polls in 2016, the gap between the latest polls and the admittedly provisional results is once again significant in 2020 in many states. Figaro study

In the United States, polls and forecasts are now an indispensable part of the media treatment of politics. The mainstream media are putting a lot of effort into developing predictive systems that can deliver the most cutting edge information to their audiences.

This notably made the fame of Nate Silver, creator of the Fivethirtyeight site (538 in English, like the number of members of the electoral college which designates the President of the United States). A former sabermetrician – a statistician who specializes in baseball – he emerged on the political analysis scene thanks to the sophistication of his predictive models in presidential elections.

The quack of 2016

The mechanics seized up in 2016. All analysts then anticipate a victory for Hillary Clinton. In the “newsrooms”, it is consternation as the victory of Donald Trump takes shape.

The media, required to do their mea culpa, nevertheless point to the misinterpretation of the figures

This article is for subscribers only. You have 75% left to discover.

Subscribe: 1 € the first month

Cancellable at any time

.

The thousand unknowns of faecal transplantation to repair the microbiota

INFOGRAPHIC – The subject of many works, the technique struggles to prove its worth apart from «It’s hard».

Among the means of restoring the balance of the flora is the transplantation of faecal microbiota (TMF), or
Among the means of restoring the balance of the flora is the transplantation of faecal microbiota (TMF), or
“Fecal transplant”, which involves transferring stools taken from a healthy individual into the intestines of a patient.
312008058 / Rasi – stock.adobe.com

Little by little, the intestinal flora reveals its secrets. A full-fledged organ housed in our digestive tract, it weighs 1 to 2 kg and is made up of several billion bacteria, viruses and fungi. An ecosystem as unique as our fingerprints, essential for the functioning of the body. When it is disturbed, the whole body toasts: digestive diseases, psychiatric disorders, obesity or even allergies are linked to an alteration of the microbiota.

Restoring the integrity of this microbiota would therefore make it possible to cure, or prevent, these pathologies. And among the means to restore the balance of the flora is the transplantation of faecal microbiota (TMF), or “Fecal transplant”, which involves transferring stools taken from a healthy individual into the intestines of a patient. It is one of the oldest treatments in the world: Chinese writings from the IVe century relate the medicinal virtues of a certain “Yellow soup” against severe diarrhea or poisoning

This article is for subscribers only. You have 90% left to discover.

Subscribe: 1 € the first month

Cancellable at any time

.