SARS-CoV-2 mutations do not increase its transmission capacity

R.I.

Madrid

Updated:

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No, SARS-CoV-2 does not have a higher transmission capacity. None of the currently documented mutations in the coronavirus appear to increase its transmissibility in humans, according to a study published today in “Nature Communications.”

Researchers at the University of London (Great Britain) reached this conclusion after analyzing the virus genomes of more than 46,000 people with Covid-19 from 99 countries.

‘The number of SARS-CoV-2 genomes that are generated for scientific research is staggering. At the beginning of the pandemic we realized that we needed new approaches to analyze huge amounts of data in near real time to identify new mutations in the virus that could affect its transmission or the severity of symptoms, “he explains Lucy van Dorp.

“Fortunately, we found that none of these mutations are causing Covid-19 to spread more rapidly, but we must remain vigilant and continue to monitor new mutations, particularly as vaccines are released.”

Coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2 are a type of RNA virus, which can develop mutations in three different ways: by mistake, by copying errors during viral replication, through interactions with other viruses that infect the same cell (recombination or rearrangement), or it may be induced by host RNA modification systems that are part of the host’s immunity (eg, a person’s own immune system).

Most mutations are neutral, while others can be beneficial or detrimental to the virus. Both neutral and advantageous mutations may become more common as they are transmitted to descendant viruses.

In collaboration with the Université de la Réunion and the University of Oxford, they analyzed a global dataset of virus genomes of 46,723 people with Covid-19, collected until the end of July 2020.

Researchers have identified 12,706 mutations in SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19. Exists for 398 mutations strong evidence that they have occurred repeatedly and independently. Of those, the researchers focused on 185 mutations that have occurred at least three times independently during the course of the pandemic.

To test whether mutations increase virus transmission, the researchers modeled the evolutionary tree of the virus and analyzed whether a particular mutation was becoming increasingly common within a given branch of the evolutionary tree, that is, testing whether, after a mutation develops a virus first, the offspring of that virus outnumber the closely related SARS-CoV-2 viruses without that particular mutation.

However, they found that the most common mutations are neutral for the virus. This includes a mutation in the spike protein of the virus called D614G, which has been widely reported as a common mutation that can make the virus more transmittable. The new evidence finds that this mutation is, in fact, not associated with a significant increase in transmission.

The researchers found no evidence that any of the common mutations are increasing the transmissibility of the virus.

Furthermore, the study has found that most of the common mutations appear to have been induced by the human immune system, rather than being the result of the virus adapting to its new human host. This situation is in contrast to another analysis by the same team of what happened when SARS-CoV-2 then jumped from humans to farm minks.

“When we analyzed the genomes of viruses from mink, we were surprised to see the same mutation appear over and over again in different mink farms, despite the fact that these same mutations had rarely been observed before in humans,” says the researcher.

It is to be expected that a virus will mutate and eventually drift into different lineages as it becomes more common in human populations, but this does not necessarily imply that lineages will emerge that are more transmissible or harmful.

“The virus appears to be well adapted for human-to-human transmission, and may have already reached its optimal fitness in the human host when it was identified as a new virus,” says van Dorp.

The researchers caution that the imminent introduction of vaccines is likely to put new selective pressures on the virus to escape recognition by the human immune system. This can lead to the emergence of vaccine escape mutants, but the researchers say they can be quickly identified, allowing vaccines to be updated in time if necessary.

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BBVA Research warns of the inevitable rise in non-performing loans | Companies

BBVA Research assures that the increase in non-performing loans will be inevitable after the withdrawal of government support to address the impact of the health crisis and warns that some banks will have problems, therefore calling for further development and strengthening of the resolution framework and its application.

The entity’s analysis team underlines the “fast and coordinated” response of the monetary, fiscal and regulatory authorities, which has been key to addressing the consequences of the Covid-19 crisis, Although the uncertainty that hangs over the lifting of the measures is very high and demands to address its effects.

“A premature elimination poses a risk to recovery”, BBVA Research indicates in a recent report analyzing the impact of the pandemic in the banking sector, which has received the shock with solid capital levels and high accumulation of liquidity and cash, but with a weak profitability, especially the entities of the developed countries.

In this way, it warns that the way in which countries face to private sector indebtedness will be key to the consequences that can leave the coronavirus crisis. In the opinion of the experts of BBVA Research, it will be necessary to properly distinguish between businesses and viable debts, of the non-viable ones.

It also asks that the impact be shared between public institutions and private, as well as the creation of more efficient extrajudicial frameworks or the adaptation of the insolvency laws and bankruptcy proceedings. “The main objective should be to avoid the deterioration of the banks,” he says.

Likewise, it considers that other measures could be the creation of management platforms for these doubtful assets and restructuring, as well as such as the conversion of debt into equity. “There are significant challenges ahead “, picks up the document.

Digital challenges

In another vein, BBVA Research refers to the acceleration of the digitization processes that Covid-19 has brought, which allows for banks to make their way to new opportunities that reduce costs and increase income. However, this new scenario must be accompanied of new ways to measure and assess risks.

Furthermore, digitization is leading to the emergence of new digital platforms that are entering the financial business. “The a level playing field must be high on the regulators’ agenda prudential and competition policies “, highlight the experts from BBVA’s analysis area.

Along these lines, he considers that the sector fintech will expand at a rate much faster after the pandemic, also driven by sandbox financial instruments, such as the one recently approved in Spain, an instrument it is expected to encourage the entry of these new competitors.

Regarding big tech, BBVA Research warns that they have the size, technical knowledge and ability to go into business banking, despite the fact that until now they have only been interested in consumer activity or payment solutions.

Business concentration

In this new context, BBVA Research has referred to the concentration banking as one of the levers to increase efficiency and improve the profitability of the sector. In fact, it stresses that regulators are favoring this path as a method to strengthen entities and maintain financial stability.

In this case, it raises the possibility of the banks merging in search of two goals. On the one hand, to raise revenue and improve diversification and, on the other, to reduce costs and improve
cost effectiveness.

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Arrests increased to six in connection with the Nice attack

After the last two arrests reported this Sunday, there are already six individuals under police disposition in relation to last Thursday’s attack on a church in Nice, in the south of France: the author and five men who are being questioned .

One of those arrested on Friday is a 35-year-old individual who was in direct contact with the terrorist. The second arrested on Friday is 33 years old and lived with the previous suspect. The third is a 47-year-old man who is being held for questioning. The last two detainees are two men aged 25 and 63 respectively. Both were present at the home of a man previously arrested in Grasse on Saturday, reports BFMTV.

The latest detainee is precisely the suspect, a Tunisian who entered France illegally shortly before the attack. He is seriously injured and is in a hospital.

A total of three people died as a result of the “Islamist terrorist attack” on Thursday at the Notre Dame de Nice. All the victims had deep cuts on their necks and one of them was practically beheaded, according to the Prosecutor’s Office.

The alleged perpetrator of the attack was shot by security forces and was evacuated to a hospital with a serious prognosis after his arrest. The anti-terrorist prosecutor, Jean-François Ricard, explained that “the alleged perpetrator of the attack does not appear in the fingerprint records nor was he on the radar of the French intelligence services.”

Ricard said that the alleged attacker is of Tunisian origin and is 21 years old and that he would have arrived in France after passing through the Italian island of Lampedusa at the end of September. He also indicated that the first investigations indicate that the individual arrived at the Nice train station at around 7 a.m., where he changed his clothes.

Once outside the station, he walked about 400 meters to the basilica, which he would have entered at approximately 8.30. There he would have remained just over half an hour, before committing the crime and trying to flee on the left side.

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Arrests increased to six in connection with the Nice attack

After the last two arrests reported this Sunday, there are already six individuals under police disposition in relation to last Thursday’s attack on a church in Nice, in the south of France: the author and five men who are being questioned .

One of those arrested on Friday is a 35-year-old individual who was in direct contact with the terrorist. The second arrested on Friday is 33 years old and lived with the previous suspect. The third is a 47-year-old man who is being held for questioning. The last two detainees are two men aged 25 and 63 respectively. Both were present at the home of a man previously arrested in Grasse on Saturday, reports BFMTV.

The latest detainee is precisely the suspect, a Tunisian who entered France illegally shortly before the attack. He is seriously injured and is in a hospital.

A total of three people died as a result of the “Islamist terrorist attack” on Thursday at the Basilica of Notre Dame de Nice. All the victims had deep cuts on their necks and one of them was practically beheaded, according to the Prosecutor’s Office.

The alleged perpetrator of the attack was wounded by gunshots by the security forces and was evacuated to a hospital with a serious prognosis after his arrest. The anti-terrorist prosecutor, Jean-François Ricard, explained that “the alleged perpetrator of the attack does not appear in the fingerprint records nor was he on the radar of the French intelligence services.”

Ricard said that the alleged attacker is of Tunisian origin and is 21 years old and that he would have arrived in France after passing through the Italian island of Lampedusa at the end of September. Likewise, it indicated that the first investigations indicate that the individual arrived at the Nice train station around 7 a.m., where he changed his clothes.

Once outside the station, he walked about 400 meters to the basilica, which he would have entered at approximately 8.30. He would have stayed there for just over half an hour, before committing the crime and trying to flee on the left side.

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Food Delivery App Doordash Prepares IPO and Reveals Revenue Increase in Pandemic – Business – 11/14/2020

The application of food delivery at home By Dash, one of the most used of United States, revealed this Friday to the stock market regulator that it increased its income considerably during the pandemic, although it registers losses, in the face of an IPO that is expected at the end of this year.

By Dash, founded in 2013 and based in San francisco California), entered US $ 1,916 million in the first nine months of 2020, more than four times what it achieved in the same period of 2019, as indicated in preparatory documents for an IPO directed to the Securities Market Commission (SEC, in English).

This strong increase in turnover, which coincides with the phase of confinements in the US and the lifesaving option for restaurants to offer their food at home during the months of stoppage, has allowed them to reduce their accumulated losses from US $ 534 million in the first nine months of 2019 up to US $ 149 million.

The company noted that it employs 1 million “Dashers” (deliverymen) and has 18 million clients.

By Dash highlighted that it employs 1 million “Dashers” (dealers) – many of whom are of immigrant origin, especially Hispanics – and have 18 million clients.

Regarding the employment model of its distributors, who are not employees with a full-time contract, the company told the regulator that one of its greatest challenges is to “attract and retain them” and considered that if they are “reclassified as employees under federal law or state “, the business would be” adversely affected. “

The firm is considered a “unicorn”, with a private market valuation of around US $ 16 billion.

DoorDash has not specified its IPO date, but plans to list on the NYSE under the label DASH with three different types of shares depending on their voting rights.

The firm is considered a “unicorn”, with a private market valuation around US $ 16,000 million, and follows in the footsteps of rivals such as Uber – which has the food delivery business Uber Eats – and GrubHub.

According to specialized media, it is one of the most anticipated stock debuts of the year along with those of Airbnb, Roblox and Wish.

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The Bank of Spain prevents the increase in “zombie” companies

Pablo Hernández de Cos, Governor of the Bank of Spain.  |  EP

Pablo Hernández de Cos, Governor of the Bank of Spain. | EP

The Bank of Spain affirms in a document in which it analyzes the insolvency procedures that if the bankruptcy moratorium approved due to the covid crisis is prolonged in time, it can contribute to a greater survival of unviable companies or “zombies” that, without Financial support measures such as bank refinancing will eventually disappear in a short period of time. The Spanish Government established a bankruptcy moratorium for all debtors (companies and individuals). Specifically, the obligation of debtors to request bankruptcy (voluntary bankruptcy) was suspended until December 31, 2020 and prevented their creditors from making the request before this date (necessary bankruptcy).

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Healthcare premiums 2021: high premiums and large differences

CZ

CZ is increasing the premiums for all 3 of its health insurance policies. Last year, CZ was the only one of the 4 major insurers (CZ, Menzis, VGZ and Zilveren Kruis) to lower the premiums of all 3 insurance policies.

The premium increase of the reimbursement policy is particularly striking. In 2021 you will pay more than € 11 more per month for this. That is the highest increase in premium among the big 4 health insurers.

The premiums for 2021

  • Select in-kind policy: € 123.10 per month (2020: € 114.95)
  • Normal policy in kind: € 129.60 per month (2020: € 120.95)
  • Refund policy: € 138.50 per month (2020: € 127.45)

Menzis

The premiums of the most popular policy in kind and Menzis’ reimbursement policy will cost € 7 more per month in 2021. The select in-kind policy increases by € 6 on a monthly basis. The Menzis reimbursement policy is therefore the most expensive insurance of the big 4. The select policy in kind is the cheapest.

The premiums for 2021

  • Select in-kind policy: € 117 per month (2020: € 111)
  • Normal policy in kind: € 130 per month (2020: € 123)
  • Refund policy: € 140 per month (2020: € 133)

VGZ

VGZ will increase the premiums for both insurance policies by € 4.50 on a monthly basis. VGZ’s policy in kind is therefore the cheapest regular policy in kind of the 4.

The premiums for 2021

  • Naturapolis: € 124.45 per month (2020: € 119.95)
  • Refund policy: € 132.20 per month (2020: € 127.70)

Silver Cross

Zilveren Kruis increases the premiums of the budget policy and those of the reimbursement policy by € 5 on a monthly basis. The in-kind policy will cost € 3 more per month.

The premiums for 2021

  • Budgetpolis: €120,95 (2019: €115,95)
  • Naturapolis: €128,45 (2019: €125,45)
  • Restitutiepolis: € 139.95 (2019: € ​​134.95)

Compare health insurance policies

Are you sitting well or are you switching? With the Healthcare Comparer you will find the healthcare insurance that suits you best in a few steps. Compare on coverage, price and quality and decide whether you are still in the right place.

To the Care Comparer

Care comparator

Other insurers

Premium increases are not reserved for the 4 major insurers. All other health insurers are also raising premiums, except for Besured. Besured’s net premium will decrease from € 115.25 in 2020 to € 114.85 in 2020.

Traditionally, the DSW premium was announced a week after Budget Day. This will increase by € 6.50 on a monthly basis in 2021: from € 118 in 2020 to € 124.50 in 2021.

Most expensive and cheapest

The cheapest insurance of 2021 is ZEKUR’s budget policy, with a monthly premium of € 105.95.

The most expensive health insurance in 2021 is that of the Amersfoortse. For the reimbursement policy of this insurer you pay € 147.95 a month in 2021. That makes the difference between the most expensive and cheapest basic insurance € 42 per month. Please note: in one case you have a budget policy for this, in the other case a refund policy.

View the full premium overview for the basic insurance policies of 2021 here.

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Retirements: the December increase will be by decree and would be between 6% and 7%

In 10 days the Government must have defined the fourth increase by decree of retirements, pensions and other social benefits that will govern during the next three months that go from December to February 2021. Meanwhile, the first increase next year, in March, is expected to arise from the mobility formula approved by the National Congress in the coming weeks, which will take into account thea variation in wages and tax collection of the period July-December 2019.

It is estimated that the increase by decree of December could be around 6/7% and it would be superior to that of the mobility formula suspended with the Emergency law that shows for December-February a rise of just 4.48%.

This percentage arises from adding the two components of this formula: 70% of the variation in the Retail Price Index. (IPC) of INDEC in the second quarter of this year (it was 5.3%), and 30% of the increase recorded in the same period in the Average Taxable Remuneration of Stable Workers (RIPTE) (2,6%).

As of September, inflation in 9 months it was 22.3%. And the increases by decree were between 3.75% and 12.96% according to the ranges of assets, in March, from 6.12% in June and 7.5% in September, not counting the extraordinary bonuses that the lowest earners received and that were not included in the assets.

Those increases give a cumulative, between 18.3 and 28.8%. Thus, the lowest pensions were able to cut a part of the loss of 2018 and 2019, while the median and highest assets fell even more. In those two years, the fall in pensions and other social benefits in relation to inflation was 19.5%.

In any case, the three increases made this year were lower than those of the suspended formula that September would have thrown a 35,96%. In March (11.56%), June (10.89%) and September (9.88%).

The balance for the year will now depend on the effective increase granted in December and the inflation rates for the last part of the year, which are on the rise.

In total mobility includes 18 million profit among retirees, non-contributory pensions, family allowances, AUH and PUAM (Pension for the Elderly).

GB

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More than 3.3 thousand people were cured of coronavirus in Moscow in a day :: Society :: RBC

Over the past day, 3341 patients have been cured of coronavirus in Moscow, the operational headquarters reports.

According to Anastasia Rakova, Deputy Mayor for Social Development, the number of people who have recovered from coronavirus in the capital has increased to 314,791.

Over the past day, 52 people have died in Moscow, who were diagnosed with coronavirus. In total, 6,820 people died in the capital during the pandemic.

In Moscow, due to the epidemiological situation, reserve coronavirus hospitals have opened. The largest of them is located in the Kommunarka district in New Moscow. According to the mayor Sergei Sobyanin, the reserve corps will operate until the end of the pandemic.

The spread of the coronavirus Covid-19 in the regions of Russia

Number of confirmed cases of infection

Source: Federal and regional headquarters for the fight against the virus

Data for Russia i

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13 deaths from Covid in Sardinia, deaths boom – Sardinia

325 new cases and positive number increases in hospital, +26

A total of 9,431 cases of positive Covid-19 have been ascertained in Sardinia since the beginning of the emergency. In the latest update of the Regional Crisis Unit, 325 new cases are recorded, 220 detected through screening activities and 105 from suspected diagnosis. There are also 13 victims (there are 227 in all), the highest figure recorded so far in the island. In total, 267,615 swabs were performed with an increase of 3,323 tests. 349 patients are currently hospitalized in non-intensive wards (26 more than yesterday’s figure), while the number of patients in intensive care is 39 (-1).

There are 5,667 people in home isolation. The progressive number of positive cases includes 3,099 (+68) patients recovered, plus another 50 clinically recovered.

Of the 9,431 positive cases ascertained overall, 1,885 (+89) were detected in the Metropolitan City of Cagliari, 1,509 (+43) in Southern Sardinia, 846 (+70) in Oristano, 1,211 (+3) in Nuoro, 3,980 (+120) in Sassari.

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