Less glyphosate in the fields soon

Already banned for individuals and communities, the use of glyphosate will also be banned or, at the very least, restricted for some of its agricultural and forestry uses.

This is the consequence of the results of a study published Friday, October 9 by ANSES, the health security agency, which for two years to seek to evaluate non-chemical alternatives to this herbicide, the most used in the world but also the most controversial.

Four agricultural areas concerned

To do this, the agency reviewed each use of the product in four fields of application – viticulture, fruit trees, field crops and forestry -, relying in particular on work already carried out by the National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and the Environment (INRAE).

Result: according to ANSES, “Alternatives to the use of this herbicide are already commonly used without presenting any major practical or economic disadvantage”, mainly the use of manual or mechanical means to weed.

This finding led the agency to ban the use of glyphosate in four cases: in viticulture, between rows of vines; in arboriculture, between rows of fruit trees; in field crops, when the plot has been plowed; in the forest, for root canal devitalization.

Exceptions for “technical dead ends”

On the other hand, exceptions are foreseen in the event of“Technical dead ends”, when mechanical weed control is not possible. This is the case with steeply sloping vines, terraces or on stony soils; strips for harvesting fruit on the ground or bushy crops; in field crops, situations where the control of weeds (“weeds”) is regulated and compulsory; in the forest, for the maintenance of stand plots and forest nurseries.

→ READ. An organic farm vandalized with glyphosate

In these cases, the use of glyphosate remains authorized. However, ANSES sharply reduced, each time, the maximum dose authorized so far, from 80% for uses in viticulture to 60% for fruit orchards or field crops.

So-called soil conservation agriculture (ACS) receives special treatment. This practice, which does away with deep plowing to better preserve the soil, is still very dependent on glyphosate. And will remain so, since it continues to be authorized in this case.

Skeptical NGOs

Likewise, ANSES is giving up banning the use of glyphosate in non-agricultural areas – for weeding railways, highways or airport runways, for example – because this could have “Significant consequences for the safety of operators and users”.

It now remains to make these prohibitions and restrictions effective. The agency has given itself six months to update its marketing authorization or renewal policy. “This limitation of conditions of use and doses per hectare will help reduce the quantities of glyphosate used in France from 2021”, she assures.

→ MAINTENANCE. Alternatives to neonicotinoids: Julien Denormandie promises “an unprecedented research effort”

The promise leaves environmental activists skeptical. “The results of this study are very disappointing. The progress proposed in trompe l’oeil, denounces Générations Futures. “This report freezes a significant number of uses of glyphosate for a very long time. Sign of a renunciation of a real exit from glyphosate despite the promises ”.

Controversial toxicity

In November 2017, President Macron set the objective of eliminating most of the uses of glyphosate in 2021, for a total ban in 2023. To date, this herbicide remains the second most used phytosanitary in France with 9,700 tonnes of active substance sold in 2018, compared to 8,800 the previous year.

Its impact on human health remains controversial. In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), an agency of the World Health Organization, classified it as “Probable carcinogen”. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and several other regulatory agencies have, on the contrary, concluded that glyphosate does not present a risk under the conditions of authorized use.

ANSES was to finance a large study to reassess the toxicity of this product before the re-examination of its authorization at European level, scheduled for 2022. But a gloomy case of conflict of interest has stopped this work.

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can you sell your own information?

It’s a little clip circulating on social networks. We see a student in front of a computer screen while, from a desk, men in black observe him. A supervisor launches: “He’s looking for a motorcycle license… Contact all the insurance companies and you sell it to me for no less than 100 €! ”

The clip ends with this question: “Are you sick of the Internet giants making money off your back?” “ It invites the user to “Take back control” all in “Earning money”. This clip is an advertisement for Tadata, a website that launched last January.

3 to 5 € each time the data is used

Created by two former communicators, Alexandre Vanadia and Laurent Pomies, it offers 15-25 year olds the opportunity to register to sell their personal data to advertisers. However, this idea is strongly contested by an association, the Internet Society, which alerted the Cnil (National Commission for Informatics and Liberties).

The latter conducted the investigation and ruled that the service was not in breach of the European Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) as long as users are “Clearly informed of the type of data transmitted, of the identity of the recipient advertisers” and that they have the possibility to unsubscribe at any time. The CNIL decided on October 6 to close the proceedings against Tadata without taking any sanctions.

Tadata traffic “Transparency” and “Equity”, with income “From 3 to 5 € each time the data is used”. However, it specifies that this amount is not “Not guaranteed”. “The user chooses whether they agree to be called on the phone or to receive e-mails. We do not collect any data on his cell phone. We post questionnaires on the site and he answers them if he wishes. It is only this data that is likely to be sold to advertisers ”, assures Laurent Pomies. The site targets young people, who may be interested in low pay. At cruising speed, he thinks he can reverse “30 to 40 € per month” to registrants.

Data, inalienable?

The Internet Society remains hostile to the service because it considers personal data to remain “Inalienable”, just as it is forbidden in France to sell organs. Nicolas Chagny, president of the association, also believes that this service can “Create an asymmetry”: the richest people will be able to protect their privacy while the most insecure will be pushed to sell their data.

Conversely, Free Generation is more favorable. He believes that the Internet user should be considered as the owner of his data. “Today, large platforms are already selling the personal data of their users, underlines Maxime Sbaihi, director of this think tank. Internet users should therefore be able to negotiate the price, grant a license for their use or refuse it. “

In fact, the service offered by Tadata has one virtue: it enables young people to realize the value of their data and the fact that they are now sold multiple times. However, it remains to be seen whether they are ready to receive a shower of additional business proposals, what is the real status of this data that we produce every time we go on the Internet, and especially who can benefit from it.

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dividends soar, impact on employment uncertain

Three years after its vote in Parliament, the reduction in the taxation of heritage is still debated. And it’s not about to stop.

→ READ. Emmanuel Macron, a policy blurred by the abolition of the ISF

In a report published Thursday, October 8, the committee responsible for evaluating the impact of the transformation of the solidarity tax on wealth (ISF) into tax on real estate wealth (IFI) and the implementation of the flat-rate levy unique (PFU) recognizes that in many areas the results remain “Parcel”. And already warns that the economic crisis linked to the coronavirus epidemic will make “Even more complex the medium-term assessment of the effects of the 2018 reform”.

Soaring dividends

With a little more hindsight, this second expert report, piloted by France Stratégie, however, makes it possible to measure the reaction of economic players a little more precisely. In terms of dividends, in particular, the movements were marked. Dividend distributions, which had been slowed down in recent years, have skyrocketed due to the lower tax rate allowed by the PFU. The wealthiest wealthy households have benefited the most. The richest 0.1% of households thus received two-thirds of the total dividends distributed in 2018, against “only” half previously.

For public finances, however, this surge in dividends was a good surprise. Despite the lower rate introduced by the PFU, the increase in dividends combined with the increase in the CSG voted at the same time made it possible to collect 600 million euros in additional revenue, Bercy calculates.

Return of the “exiles”

The second rather positive lesson comes from the effect of the reforms on tax exile. This one did more than flex. A fact ” significant “, the committee notes. Pointing “A number of departures which has been divided by four and a number of returns which is increasing”, Bercy sees this as proof that these reforms have succeeded in “Bring France closer to international standards” in terms of capital taxation, thus enhancing its attractiveness.

On the other hand, other aspects of the report make Bercy much less smile. In particular that of the evaluation of the concrete effects of the reform on the French economy. Like last year, the committee recognizes that its work still does not allow “To estimate whether the abolition of the ISF allowed a reorientation of the savings of the taxpayers concerned towards the financing of companies”.

Bercy takes time

This finding is obviously embarrassing for the government, even though it was the main objective assigned to this flagship reform at the start of the five-year term. If the evaluation committee hopes to see more clearly next year, it also recognizes that the economic crisis will come to upset the entire economic landscape.

This persistent difficulty in evaluating the result of the tax reduction granted to the better-off does not however call into question the conviction displayed by Bercy. “The effect of tax reforms on investment takes time and is not noticeable until several years later”, pleads the cabinet of Bruno Le Maire, still convinced “That in the medium term these measures will benefit the entire population by strengthening investment and therefore employment”.

While the crisis has awakened those who demand greater participation of the better-off, the government is keen not to allow the debate to flourish. Bercy therefore categorically refutes any idea of ​​a possible return of the ISF: “In the context of the crisis, there is no question of returning to fiscal instability which would be detrimental to our attractiveness, to investment and therefore ultimately to employment. “

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« PFU » et « IFI »

The single flat-rate levy (PFU) tax at the rate of 30% on capital income, i.e. 12.8% for tax purposes and 17.2% for the CSG. Before the introduction of this “flat tax” in 2018, income from assets was added to income from work and taxed together according to the income tax scale. A much less favorable situation for wealthy households.

Real estate wealth tax (IFI) has replaced since 2018 the ISF (Solidarity Wealth Tax) whose thresholds and rates it takes but with a reduced base to real estate only. The ISF was paid by about 360,000 taxpayers, the IFI by only 120,000.

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who are these invisible unemployed?

“When employees are fired in packages in large units where the unions are well established, it brings the media, but it does not represent much compared to the mass of people concerned”, remarks Pierre-Édouard Magnan, president of the National Movement for the Unemployed and Precarious (MNCP), for whom “The drama is playing out in small businesses, among employees on short contracts and the self-employed, who are less well armed”.

→ ANALYSIS. The recovery is shaping a two-speed France

While the attention of public opinion and public authorities is focused on the employment protection plans (PSE) which affect large companies, the positions eliminated in this context amounted to 65,000 between the beginning of March and the end of September, a tiny part of the wave of job losses. According to INSEE, 715,000 jobs were destroyed in the first half of the year, and this figure could reach 900,000 by the end of the year, according to Unédic.

Interim, CDD: fragile recovery

The destruction primarily concerned short contracts, in large companies but also in smaller structures. The survey by the Confederation of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (CPME) published on September 28 thus shows that most of the workforce reductions consisted of “Non-replacement of employees leaving the company” (retirement, resignation), in the same proportion as “The non-renewal of fixed-term contracts” (CDD, interim), two reasons three times more cited than the use of layoffs.

→ MAINTENANCE. Health crisis: “Employees on permanent contracts generally kept their jobs and their income”

“When the situation is uncertain, the interim is the first tap that is closed, and the first that one reopens in the event of a takeover”, confirms Véronique Revillod, Deputy Secretary General of the Federation of CFDT Services.

The number of temporary workers plunged dramatically in the first quarter, dropping from 790,000 at the end of 2019 to 470,000 at the end of the first quarter of 2020. According to the latest barometer from Prism’Emploi, which brings together professionals in the sector, Temporary workforce fell by 20% between August 2019 and August 2020, affecting all categories, both unskilled workers and managers and intermediate professions. “Temporary work is far from only affecting warehouse logistics operators”, adds Véronique Revillod.

The forgotten support plans

Among the invisible unemployed are also people belonging to the sectors most affected by health measures, who normally alternate short contracts (“extras”, CDD) and periods of unemployment. “We represent 10% of the working population, but nothing is done for us”, laments Ahcène Azem, one of the founders of the Collective of precarious hotels, restaurants and events (CPHRE). Created in March, it intends to draw attention to the fate of “Intermittent work”, who do not benefit from partial unemployment or from a specific support plan.

→ EXPLANATION. Unemployment insurance reform is back on the table

The collective supported the bill proposed by François Ruffin, deputy of rebellious France, consisting in establishing “A blank year for temporary workers and extras », Presented by the elected on September 29. The idea is to expand the system provided for intermittent entertainment workers: they have obtained the extension of their rights to compensation until the end of August 2021. However, they are only about 120,000 out of a total population of temporary workers, seasonal workers and “extras” estimated at 2.2 million people by the CPHRE.

Cooks, butlers and tour guides thus exhaust their rights, for lack of being able to work: “The days go by, the debts accumulate, their daily allowances melt like snow in the sun and others slide towards the RSA”, deplores the collective. Who calls for the abandonment of the reform of unemployment insurance, which provides for an extension of the duration necessary to open rights, and whose implementation has been postponed to January 1.

The independent unknown

Moreover, the official count of the unemployed does not include the entire population of the self-employed (self-employed, freelancers, etc.) which suffers from a total or almost total loss of activity, without appearing in the statistics. This is the case of Ophélie Naudin, micro-entrepreneur in events based in Burgundy, who is disillusioned: “2019 had been an exceptional year, I was called every two days for a new mission, now … it’s simple, over the next two months, I will work six days”, she calculates.

With savings aside, Ophélie does not intend to give up her activity, but this is not the case with other independents, “Who survive with the solidarity fund and barely € 5,000 in cash”. Even though she thinks the government will eventually adopt a support plan, she can only see that “In the profession, many are considering retraining”.

Increase in training

These retraining strategies can already be observed in the increase in enrollments in training: the statistics service of the Ministry of Labor noted in its September memorandum, “An increase of 47% compared to the previous year”. This is corroborated by an employment center advisor from a Seine-et-Marne branch: “I contacted the organizations in advance and I was surprised to see the training courses filled so quickly: many people are wondering about their professional future. “ So many people who do not appear for the moment, in the categories of job seekers in active search, but who will return to the job market later.

When bad news bursts in, some people give up all research and escape public service radars. A situation which the association “Transition”, located in Béarn, is trying to remedy. This has set up a network of ” sensors “In order to identify the” invisible unemployed »Via local merchants and real estate or banking agencies.

Faced with an increase in unemployment, Pôle emploi will recruit

When the “Sensor” identifies a difficult situation (a difficulty in paying rent for example), he suggests to the person in difficulty to get in touch with the association. “It is indeed volunteering, and not reporting”, underlines Ludovic Lezyn, project manager. The latter then meets the person “In order to offer several orientations and to recreate a path to employment, over a shorter or longer period depending on the profiles “. About twenty structures of this type are present for the moment on the territory, in the form of experimentation.

Risk of social crisis

The risk that precarious and intermittent employees slide towards social minima and poverty was underlined by the Secours populaire, which warned of the high number of new beneficiaries it welcomed this year. Same tone at the Federation of Solidarity Actors, including the Director General, Florent Guéguen, estimated that “The reaction of the public authorities is very weak” in front of the “wave of poverty which falls on the country”. In addition to the reinforcements planned for Pôle emploi (in the form of 3,000 to 5,000 fixed-term contracts), Jean Castex must present measures to combat poverty on October 17, the world day for the rejection of poverty.

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Ever shorter contracts

Ltemporary employment contracts (interim and fixed-term contracts) took off from 1976.

Share in total employment of these contracts increased especially between 1982 and 2000 (+ 6.7 points).

They represent today more than 9 out of 10 hires.

Lour share in total employment rose from 5% in the early 1980s to 13.5% in 2018.

Parmi the CDD, contracts of less than three months, and particularly those of less than one month, over the last fifteen years represent a growing share of all hires made over one year.

Source: Major transformations in the labor market in France since the early 1960s, Olivier Marchand and Claude Minni, Economics and statistics, December 2019.

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Five months of negotiations for the Bridgestone site in Béthune

After the emotion, it’s time for negotiation. Three weeks after the announcement, by Bridgestone, of its intention to close its Béthune site, discussions between the unions and the management of the Japanese tire manufacturer begin this Tuesday, October 6 to specify the future of its 863 employees.

Union, “for the benefit of all”

These negotiations started two days after a “silent march” which brought together more than a thousand people between the factory and the Town Hall. The demonstration, launched by the municipality, was devoid of banners of political or union colors. The participants expressed their concern, oscillating between sadness and the desire to fight.

→ REPORT. Bridgestone: the State wants to conduct a second opinion on alternatives to the closure

All is not over. The management will have to deal with a united inter-union, bringing together the CGT, CFDT, FO, Sud Chimie, CFTC, CFE-CGC and UNSA. ” Better, for the benefit of all », Notes a spokesperson for CFE-CGC. A change of mood compared to last year: in February 2019, after four months of discussions, the trade unions had not issued the same opinion on the collective performance agreement proposed by management, which contained an increase 2.5 hours of weekly working time without salary increase. In May 2019, 60% of employees had chosen to reject the agreement.

Three options, according to the intersyndicale

« Discussions with management to define the terms of the negotiations went well, notes the union leader. It was agreed that they would last five months, instead of the four planned “. He adds that when an employee presents a fairly precise professional project (promise of employment, contract of at least six months, etc.), management ” do not block “The employee, while committing to what he will receive” the same severance pay »If, in February 2021, a social plan was decided.

→ THE FACTS. Bridgestone closes its Béthune plant, Bruno Le Maire says he is outraged

The inter-union intends not to come to that and defends two other options. One would be the takeover of the site by another tire player or another manufacturer. The other would consist, with the help of the State, in forcing Bridgestone to reverse its decision and to invest in the site.

In view of the number of employees concerned, the public authorities came forward as soon as the closure was announced, Xavier Bertrand, president of the Hauts-de-France Region, in the lead, closely followed by the ministers of industry and work. The State mandated Accenture to establish alternative solutions to simply closing the site. Expertise additional to that commissioned by the inter-union, via the social and economic committee and entrusted to the Syndex firm.

Taking over a site

« In these circumstances, we can only negotiate on one scenario, comments Maître Étienne Pujol, lawyer in labor law. Employees, with the support of the State and local communities, would obviously have an interest in Bridgestone investing. But the State cannot do everything in the face of a private investor, who can highlight the degraded competitiveness of the European tire market compared to Asian competition, as well as the failure of the signature on the collective performance agreement. a year and a half ago ».

“Bridgestone probably financially anticipated the consequences of the plant closure », Points out Étienne Pujol, who also points out that the takeover of a site by another company does not always receive the consent of the one who leaves it. ” Last year, for example, Ford refused to take over its Blanquefort plant », Recalls the lawyer. With the costs of a failed site takeover flowing back to the company that sold it, Bridgestone is likely to think twice if an opportunity is presented to it.

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the state pockets nearly 2.8 billion euros

The allocation of the first 5G frequencies to French operators brought in 2.786 billion euros to the State, announced on Thursday 1is October Arcep, the telecoms regulator.

Initially scheduled for April but postponed due to the Covid-19 pandemic, these auctions have enabled operators (Orange, SFR, Bouygues Telecom, Free) to acquire 11 « blocs » of frequencies now unused.

→ EXPLANATION. 5G: can we speak of a technological breakthrough?

Before this auction, the four operators had each obtained a block of 50 megahertz (MHz) in the frequency band from 3.4 to 3.8 gigahertz (GHz) on the electromagnetic spectrum, at a fixed price of 350 million euros .

Orange won the largest share of « blocs » stake

An operator could not acquire more than 100 MHz in total. And it is Orange which won most of the frequencies with, in the end, 90 MHz of spectrum, against 80 MHz for SFR and 70 MHz each for Bouygues Telecom and Free.

This main auction will be followed by a positioning auction ” in October “ allowing operators to choose whether they prefer to be located in the center of the band or at its ends, more susceptible to interference with other services.

→ READ. The French 5G market seriously obscured for Huawei

Upcoming environmental measures

Industry and security, the global challenges of 5G

“5G is an important technology as part of the recovery strategy” government, insisted the Secretary of State for digital Cédric O, recalling the delay of France in the deployment of the new generation of mobile network, already launched in “30 countries in the world”, especially among the big European neighbors (Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain).

→ DEBATE. Do we need 5G?

The first generation of mobile telephony made it possible to make calls, 2G to add text, 3G to start sending images and 4G to develop mobile internet and video uses. Ultimately, 5G must offer higher speeds and connect everything that cannot currently be.

The first commercialization of services will begin in some cities at the end of the year.

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anger on the Friday menu in bars and restaurants

This Friday, October 2, exasperation will be one of the main lunch dishes in many cafes and restaurants across France. The representative organizations of the sector have joined the call launched by the Bordeaux chef Alain Etchebest and the Girondine section of the Union des métiers et des industries de l’hôtellerie (Umih) for the organization of a minute of protest every Fridays at 11:45 a.m.

Professionals are invited to leave their establishments with their employees while making noise ” with a distinctive sign, symbol of mourning for our professions: cap, T-shirt, mask, banner, armband, etc. » « We don’t want to be begging or paid by the state, said the national president of Umih, quoted in a press release. One message to the government: let us work! »

→ CONTEXT. Coronavirus: what to remember from Olivier Véran’s announcements

The Syndicate of Independents (SDI) even asked all independent professionals, ” whatever their sector of activity », To wear a black armband …

No additional screw turn

Restaurants and cafes in the Aix-Marseille metropolis have been closed since September 26 and for a fortnight due to the coronavirus epidemic. The appeal filed by restaurateurs and the Provence-Alpes-Côte D’Azur region was also rejected on September 30 by the administrative court of Marseille. Note that Provence Tourisme, which depends on the Bouches-du-Rhône department, launched the 1is October the operation “Support your restaurant”, by offering 6,000 “passes” for € 50 to spend in partner restaurants.

→ READ. Anger is mounting over Covid-19 restrictions

In other zones of alert on the circulation of the virus as in Paris, Lille, Bordeaux or even Rennes or Nice, the cafes must lower the curtain at 10 pm and the restaurants at 12:30 am In his conference, Thursday, October 1 , the Minister of Health, Olivier Véran, did not exclude that the bars of the capital and the inner suburbs are closed if the health indicators confirm their deterioration.

Regarding restaurants, the minister explained that representatives of the profession had made proposals to strengthen protective measures. We know that some unions are thinking about taking a temperature at the entrance of establishments or a register that would allow customers to be contacted. If these measures were validated, restaurants could escape a total closure in high alert zones.

Clusters or not clusters?

« Our establishments are far from being at the origin of many clusters unlike family reunions or between students in apartments for example ”, explained last week the vice-president of Umih, Hervé Bécam, in the columns of The cross.

According to the union, the early closure of bars, the vast majority of which would apply the health protocol developed to be allowed to reopen in early June 2020, would only move customers to private spaces such as apartments where the situation would be. more dangerous.

For its part, the government has announced several financial support measures to help closed or restricted establishments to start with a solidarity fund increased from € 1,500 to € 10,000 per month. Likewise, partial unemployment at 100%, which was to end on November 1, has been extended until the end of the year, including for cafes, restaurants or hotels that do not close.

Still, the sector also points to the problem of rents or the standoff with insurers on compensation for loss of turnover. He especially insisted on the catastrophic financial situation of the establishments. According to Umih, 15% of them could close by the end of the year, or even 30% in the Paris region.

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Insurers want a “public private partnership” to cover the pandemic risk

“With the pandemic risk, we are reaching the limit of what we can insure”, believes Alban de Mailly Nesle, director of risks and investments of the Axa group. Insurance against business interruption linked to infectious diseases could well emerge in France “Within a few months”. But that will only be possible “As part of a public private partnership”.

→ ANALYSIS. Containment: the tussle between restaurateurs and insurers continues

“This could be done if part of the risk is borne by the insurers but if, beyond a certain threshold, the community takes over”, explains Alban de Mailly Nesle.

The head of Axa spoke on the sidelines of the presentation of the 2020 report on “Future risks”, an annual publication of the group which tries to see coming the new risks that insurers must prepare to cover in the future.

In this seventh edition of the report, it is hardly surprising to see that in 2020 the risk from infectious diseases comes first (when it only came eighth in 2019). Then come the risk related to climatic events (first last year) and that related to computer attacks.

Restaurant owners in conflict with their insurer

The coverage of losses caused by the pandemic has been the subject for several months, in France, of a legal standoff between restaurateurs and insurers. Several owners of cafes and restaurants have attacked their insurer claiming that certain clauses of their contract were illegal and that they were entitled to compensation for their operating loss during confinement.

Covid-19, insurers in the storm

At first instance, the courts of Paris, Tarascon and Rennes ruled in favor of restaurateurs, while those of Toulouse and Bourg-en-Bresse ruled in favor of insurers. In several cases, Axa preferred to conclude a financial agreement to put an end to the procedure.

Beyond these individual cases, the resolution of which could take several years, therefore arises the question of the creation in France of a specific contract to insure the pandemic risk. The State and the insurers have created a working group on the subject.

A risk that affects the whole planet simultaneously

The French number two in the sector took the opportunity of the presentation of this report to outline its position on this subject. Axa believes that the pandemic risk is more difficult to insure than the climate risk: “A storm affects only part of the planet at a time. It is therefore possible to spread the risk, explains Alban de Mailly Nesle. On the other hand, a pandemic can be an event that affects the whole planet simultaneously. But no insurer wants to be exposed to unlimited risk ”.

→ MAINTENANCE. New insurance “epidemic”: “We must not rush and create a wobbly regime”

According to the French Insurance Federation, the operating losses of all French companies due to the containment linked to Covid-19 amount to 147 billion euros. It would therefore take more than 250 years of contributions, on the basis of a 12% surcharge on contracts covering damage to professional property, to compensate for these losses.

For Axa, as for all insurance and reinsurance companies, the risk is too high and it is therefore necessary, beyond a certain threshold, for the State to become the insurer of last resort, so that the pandemic guarantee could see the light of day.

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Bpifrance offers the French to invest in unlisted companies

How to encourage the investment of the French in unlisted companies? It is to this question, recurrent and prior to the crisis born from the coronavirus pandemic, that Bpifrance is confronted by launching, Thursday 1is October, the Bpifrance Entreprises 1 Fund, intended for individuals.

A fund of funds

To buy shares in this mutual fund, you have to invest at least 5,000 €, a relatively moderate amount compared to those usually required in the world of “private equity” (capital investment). ” We are not inventing a new product, but making it accessible beyond a minority of informed investors »Explains Nicolas Dufourcq, CEO of Bpifrance.

The fund contains capital shares of 1,500 companies, already invested by 145 private funds of which Bpifrance is a partner, and which it has financed since 2005: family SMEs, start-ups, etc. Their average workforce is less than 200 people. ” The capital is not guaranteed, but the risk of the investment is distributed across all sectors, regions and territories of the French economy », Continues Nicolas Dufourcq.

In gestation for several years

Individuals have one year to subscribe to this mutual fund, which has been developed for several years. Its value, 95 million euros, corresponds to that of the other half of the fund, sold in September to two institutional buyers. “The uncertainties of the crisis have therefore been included in this price”, insists Benjamin Paternot, head of the fund department of Bpifrance.

The life of the fund is six years, extendable to seven. If the investor chooses not to receive a distribution on capital gains on disposal during the first five years, he is exempt from capital gains tax. . Prudent, Bpifrance announces targeting an annual return between 5 and 7%.

The fund will be marketed through a digital platform, 123 IM, but also through traditional networks: banks, insurance companies, wealth management advisor, etc. Depending on the commercial success of its first Business Fund, Bpifrance plans to launch a second generation next year.

“The State in the oven and in the mill”

« In times of crisis, the state shows that it is in the oven and in the mill, notes Philippe Crevel, director of the Cercle de l’épargne. Through Bpifrance, it does the work usually performed by bankers and insurers », Which propose to invest in unlisted companies, through PEA-PME or mutual funds in innovation (FCPI).

Even though the € 5,000 ticket is much lower than that of institutional investors, “ we stay in a niche market “, Recalls Philippe Crevel, for whom the product should not” a lot to move the lines »Savings. He also wonders how Bpifrance will manage it to achieve the promised returns. ” It is possible that the companies supported by the fund are a little pressurized, he emphasizes, because every investor hopes that his money brings him back ».

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Teleworking, a solution to streamline transport in the Paris region

Millions of travelers every day, at very high frequency and at hundreds of stops in urban areas! This is what specialists call, in technical-Anglo-Saxon language, the mass transit, made up of rail networks (trains, subways, RER, and other tramways). Only a few European metropolises can claim such a situation, and this is the case in the Paris region.

With 2 billion passengers per year, almost ten times the number of people taking off or landing in a French airport, the Île-de-France mass transit network is even at 3e world rank, behind those of Tokyo and Seoul, and ahead of those of Shanghai, London and New York. In normal times, the coronavirus crisis has disrupted traffic.

→ MAINTENANCE. “The use of public transport will not return to normal this year”

Transilien SNCF (Île-de-France trains) presented on September 29 a study carried out in particular with the Mass Transit Academy (a training school created by the SNCF and its subsidiary Keolis) and the Paris Region Institute to insist on the crucial role of these networks in the economic development of the region and the challenge of the coronavirus on their attendance.

68% of employment in 6% of the territory

With its more than 12 million inhabitants and its 6 million jobs, the region is the leading employment area and the leading economic zone in Europe. And every day, at least in ordinary times, more than a third of home-work trips and two-thirds of home-higher education trips are made with these networks. That is 6 million trips.

The importance of these flows is explained in particular by a geographical feature: 68% of regional employment is concentrated in 6% of the Ile-de-France area – while that of housing is much more dispersed.

To observe these flows, the study focused on four sections of major axes of movement of suburban trains of the SNCF: Argenteuil-Colombes-Paris, Aulnay-sous-Bois-Paris, Juvisy-Vallée de l’Orge -Paris and Cergy-Pontoise-La Défense. By studying the GPS tracks (made anonymous) of a panel of 700,000 people in March 2020, we were able to establish that the rail networks represented between 66 and 80% of trips during rush hour on these sections.

Attendance at 60% of normal

If the September data are not yet complete, specialists estimate that the use of rail networks has now returned to 60 or 70% of what it was at the same time last year. “The use of the car would have returned to normal, explains Jérôme Bertrand, from the Paris Region Institute. One of the hypotheses is that teleworkers today used public transport more than car users before the crisis. “

For those in charge of the SNCF, it is precisely the occasion to push the teleworking approach in the companies to improve the quality of service in transport when frequentation returns.

Taking an assumption of two days of teleworking per week, for people whose employment allows it, the study estimates that there would be between 6 and 13% fewer travelers at peak hours. If the figure seems unimpressive, the quality of service would be considerably improved. “It’s a bit like the car, said Jérôme Bertrand. It only takes a few fewer vehicles to streamline an entire network. “

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