Stroke signs can appear 10 years beforehand

Researchers have investigated whether a person’s risk of stroke can be predicted at an early stage. Which abnormalities indicate an impending event – and who is particularly at risk.

Every year around 270,000 people in Germany suffer a stroke. The risk is primarily determined by age, gender and concomitant diseases. A recent study by Dutch researchers now suggests that people long before their first stroke Show signs of it. So can the disease be predicted in the future?

For several years, researchers from Erasmus University Rotterdam have followed people who completed voluntary physical and cognitive examinations every four years between 1990 and 2016:

  • The cognitive tests included memory training and the measurement of reaction times.
  • In the physical tests, participants had to evaluate their ability to master basic activities of daily living, including shopping, cooking, cleaning or managing finances.

Study: Stroke Signs Start Earlier Than Previously Thought

For the study, now published in the English-language journal “Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry”, a total of data from more than 14,000 participants aged 45 and over was evaluated. During the study period, 1,662 participants already suffered a first stroke at an average age of 80 years.

The analysis showed that these stroke patients showed the first signs up to ten years before the disease. Above all, their cognitive performance declined significantly more than in people who did not have a stroke. The stroke patients experienced more rapid mental decline. Their ability to do everyday tasks was also reduced two to three years before the stroke.

The results are corroborated by observations from previous studies that found deterioration in cognitive abilities and everyday functioning four to six years before the stroke. According to the Dutch researchers, however, the mental signs can set in much earlier.

Stroke risk: those who are particularly at risk

According to the study, there are indications that three groups of people in particular are more likely to be affected by strokes: These include women, people with lower academic degrees and people with a gene that already has dementia is associated. After the stroke, the performance of these patients continued to deteriorate.

“The accelerated decline in cognition and daily performance before a stroke suggests that people with a future stroke suffer from an accumulation of damage within the brain years before the acute event,” said study author Dr. Alis Heshmatollah from Erasmus University in an interview with the Daily Mail.

Typical stroke symptoms at a glance
1. Visual disturbances: The restricted field of vision is typical. Those affected often overlook objects that are in their left field of vision. Spatial vision can also be affected. Double images and disorientation are the result.
2. Speech disorders: The person concerned speaks haltingly or choppily. Often syllables or letters are twisted. Total loss of speech is also possible.
3. Symptoms of paralysis and numbness: The paralysis mostly affects the facial muscles, but can extend over the entire side of the body. The cheek, mouth, or eyelids may droop. There is often numbness or tingling in the arm and leg.
4. a headache: Often times, a stroke causes bleeding in the brain. These can cause very severe headaches, nausea, and vomiting.
5. Dizziness and unsteady gait: Dizziness and a staggering gait are not sure signs of a stroke, but when combined with other symptoms, they can be warning signs.

Take warning signals seriously and take active countermeasures

According to the researchers, people at high risk of stroke could be identified if they show cognitive deterioration in middle adulthood and on an ongoing basis. The early warning signals should prompt targeted therapy. These include, for example, lifestyle adjustments (diet, exercise, smoking) or the use of medication.

One of the biggest stroke risk factors is, for example high blood pressure. If this is treated properly, the risk of stroke and dementia can be reduced.

Important NOTE: The information is in no way a substitute for professional advice or treatment by trained and recognized doctors. The contents of t-online cannot and must not be used to independently make diagnoses or start treatments.

.

Stroke signs can appear 10 years beforehand

Researchers have investigated whether a person’s risk of stroke can be predicted at an early stage. Which abnormalities indicate an impending event – and who is particularly at risk.

Every year around 270,000 people in Germany suffer a stroke. The risk is primarily determined by age, gender and concomitant diseases. A recent study by Dutch researchers now suggests that people long before their first stroke Show signs of it. So can the disease be predicted in the future?

For several years, researchers from Erasmus University Rotterdam have followed people who completed voluntary physical and cognitive examinations every four years between 1990 and 2016:

  • The cognitive tests included memory training and the measurement of reaction times.
  • In the physical tests, participants had to evaluate their ability to master basic activities of daily living, including shopping, cooking, cleaning or managing finances.

Study: Stroke Signs Start Earlier Than Previously Thought

For the study, now published in the English-language journal “Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry”, a total of data from more than 14,000 participants aged 45 and over was evaluated. During the study period, 1,662 participants already suffered a first stroke at an average age of 80 years.

The analysis showed that these stroke patients showed the first signs up to ten years before the disease. Above all, their cognitive performance declined significantly more than in people who did not have a stroke. The stroke patients experienced more rapid mental decline. Their ability to do everyday tasks was also reduced two to three years before the stroke.

The results are corroborated by observations from previous studies that found deterioration in cognitive abilities and everyday functioning four to six years before the stroke. According to the Dutch researchers, however, the mental signs can set in much earlier.

Stroke risk: those who are particularly at risk

According to the study, there are indications that three groups of people in particular are more likely to be affected by strokes: These include women, people with lower academic degrees and people with a gene that already has dementia is associated. After the stroke, the performance of these patients continued to deteriorate.

“The accelerated decline in cognition and daily performance before a stroke suggests that people with a future stroke suffer from an accumulation of damage within the brain years before the acute event,” said study author Dr. Alis Heshmatollah from Erasmus University in an interview with the Daily Mail.

Typical stroke symptoms at a glance
1. Visual disturbances: The restricted field of vision is typical. Those affected often overlook objects that are in their left field of vision. Spatial vision can also be affected. Double images and disorientation are the result.
2. Speech disorders: The person concerned speaks haltingly or choppily. Often syllables or letters are twisted. Total loss of speech is also possible.
3. Symptoms of paralysis and numbness: The paralysis mostly affects the facial muscles, but can extend over the entire side of the body. The cheek, mouth, or eyelids may droop. There is often numbness or tingling in the arm and leg.
4. a headache: Often times, a stroke causes bleeding in the brain. These can cause very severe headaches, nausea, and vomiting.
5. Dizziness and unsteady gait: Dizziness and a staggering gait are not sure signs of a stroke, but when combined with other symptoms, they can be warning signs.

Take warning signals seriously and take active countermeasures

According to the researchers, people at high risk of stroke could be identified if they show cognitive deterioration in middle adulthood and on an ongoing basis. The early warning signals should prompt targeted therapy. These include, for example, lifestyle adjustments (diet, exercise, smoking) or the use of medication.

One of the biggest stroke risk factors is, for example high blood pressure. If this is treated properly, the risk of stroke and dementia can be reduced.

Important NOTE: The information is in no way a substitute for professional advice or treatment by trained and recognized doctors. The contents of t-online cannot and must not be used to independently make diagnoses or start treatments.

.

Stroke signs can appear 10 years beforehand

Researchers have investigated whether a person’s risk of stroke can be predicted at an early stage. Which abnormalities indicate an impending event – and who is particularly at risk.

Every year around 270,000 people in Germany suffer a stroke. The risk is primarily determined by age, gender and concomitant diseases. A recent study by Dutch researchers now suggests that people long before their first stroke Show signs of it. So can the disease be predicted in the future?

For several years, researchers from Erasmus University Rotterdam have followed people who completed voluntary physical and cognitive examinations every four years between 1990 and 2016:

  • The cognitive tests included memory training and the measurement of reaction times.
  • In the physical tests, participants had to evaluate their ability to master basic activities of daily living, including shopping, cooking, cleaning or managing finances.

Study: Stroke Signs Start Earlier Than Previously Thought

For the study, now published in the English-language journal “Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry”, a total of data from more than 14,000 participants aged 45 and over was evaluated. During the study period, 1,662 participants already suffered a first stroke at an average age of 80 years.

The analysis showed that these stroke patients showed the first signs up to ten years before the disease. Above all, their cognitive performance declined significantly more than in people who did not have a stroke. The stroke patients experienced more rapid mental decline. Their ability to do everyday tasks was also reduced two to three years before the stroke.

The results are corroborated by observations from previous studies that found deterioration in cognitive abilities and everyday functioning four to six years before the stroke. According to the Dutch researchers, however, the mental signs can set in much earlier.

Stroke risk: those who are particularly at risk

According to the study, there are indications that three groups of people in particular are more likely to be affected by strokes: These include women, people with lower academic degrees and people with a gene that already has dementia is associated. After the stroke, the performance of these patients continued to deteriorate.

“The accelerated decline in cognition and daily performance before a stroke suggests that people with a future stroke suffer from an accumulation of damage within the brain years before the acute event,” said study author Dr. Alis Heshmatollah from Erasmus University in an interview with the Daily Mail.

Typical stroke symptoms at a glance
1. Visual disturbances: The restricted field of vision is typical. Those affected often overlook objects that are in their left field of vision. Spatial vision can also be affected. Double images and disorientation are the result.
2. Speech disorders: The person concerned speaks haltingly or choppily. Often syllables or letters are twisted. Total loss of speech is also possible.
3. Symptoms of paralysis and numbness: The paralysis mostly affects the facial muscles, but can extend over the entire side of the body. The cheek, mouth, or eyelids may droop. There is often numbness or tingling in the arm and leg.
4. a headache: Often times, a stroke causes bleeding in the brain. These can cause very severe headaches, nausea, and vomiting.
5. Dizziness and unsteady gait: Dizziness and a staggering gait are not sure signs of a stroke, but when combined with other symptoms, they can be warning signs.

Take warning signals seriously and take active countermeasures

According to the researchers, people at high risk of stroke could be identified if they show cognitive deterioration in middle adulthood and on an ongoing basis. The early warning signals should prompt targeted therapy. These include, for example, lifestyle adjustments (diet, exercise, smoking) or the use of medication.

One of the biggest stroke risk factors is, for example high blood pressure. If this is treated properly, the risk of stroke and dementia can be reduced.

Important NOTE: The information is in no way a substitute for professional advice or treatment by trained and recognized doctors. The contents of t-online cannot and must not be used to independently make diagnoses or start treatments.

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Cognitive decline and dementia due to tooth loss – healing practice

How does tooth loss affect the risk of dementia?

The loss of teeth appears to play an important role in the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. The risk of cognitive decline seems to increase with every tooth lost. How great is this risk and can timely dental treatment protect against the cognitive decline that occurs?

A research group with the participation of researchers from New York University now examined how tooth loss affects the risk of developing dementia and the general decline in cognitive abilities. The results of the analysis can be found in the English-language journal “The Journal of Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine” (JAMDA).

Relationship between tooth loss and cognition

The experts report that, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States, about one in six adults by the age of 65 or more has already lost all of their teeth. Previous study results have also shown a connection between tooth loss and decreased cognitive function, with a number of possible explanations for this connection.

Why does tooth loss worsen cognitive function?

Missing teeth make chewing difficult, which can contribute to nutritional deficiencies or encourage changes in the brain. A growing body of research is also pointing to a link between gum disease – a leading cause of tooth loss – and cognitive decline, the team said. In addition, tooth loss could reflect a lifelong socio-economic disadvantage, which is also a risk factor for cognitive decline.

Alzheimer’s and dementia are on the rise

“With the staggering number of people diagnosed with Alzheimer’s and dementia each year and the opportunity to improve oral health over the lifespan, it is important to gain a deeper understanding of the link between poor oral health and cognitive decline” , emphasizes the study author Professor Dr. With Wu from New York University.

The research group performed a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies of tooth loss and cognitive impairment. For this purpose, 14 studies were evaluated, which included a total of 34,074 adults. Decreased cognitive function was found in 4,689 participants.

How much does tooth loss increase the risk of dementia?

The experts found in their investigation that adults with more tooth loss had a 1.48 times higher risk of developing cognitive impairment and a 1.28 times higher risk of diagnosing dementia. This increased risk persisted even when other possible factors were taken into account.

Dentures protect against cognitive impairment

The team noticed that adults with tooth loss had a higher risk of cognitive impairment if they did not have dentures (23.8 percent) compared to people who had dentures (16.9 percent). An additional analysis finally showed that the association between tooth loss and cognitive impairment was not significant if the participants had dentures, the experts report.

The researchers also performed another analysis with a subset of eight studies. The aim was to determine whether there is a dose-response relationship between tooth loss and cognitive impairment. In other words, is a higher number of missing teeth associated with a higher risk of cognitive deterioration?

More lost teeth led to a higher risk

Indeed, the results confirmed such a link. The experts report that each additional missing tooth was associated with a 1.4 percent increased risk of cognitive impairment and a 1.1 percent increased risk of dementia.

Tooth loss can predict cognitive decline

“This dose-response relationship between the number of missing teeth and the risk of decreased cognitive function greatly strengthens the evidence linking tooth loss to cognitive impairment and provides some evidence that tooth loss can predict cognitive decline,” explains Study author Xiang Qi from New York University in a press release.

“Our results underscore the importance of maintaining good oral health and its role in maintaining cognitive function,” adds study author Professor Dr. Wu added. (as)

Author and source information

This text complies with the requirements of specialist medical literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical professionals.

Swell:

  • Xiang Qi, Zheng Zhu, Brenda L. Plassman, Bei Wu: Dose-Response Meta-Analysis on Tooth Loss With the Risk of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia, in The Journal of Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine (veröffentlicht 08.07.2021), JAMDA
  • New York University: Tooth loss associated with increased cognitive impairment, dementia (veröffentlicht 08.07.2021), New York University

Important NOTE:
This article is for general guidance only and is not intended to be used for self-diagnosis or self-treatment. He can not substitute a visit at the doctor.

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Online calculator predicts the risk of dementia

Dr. Karen Zoufal | 06/25/2021

Canadian researchers have developed a dementia risk calculator that uses simple statements about health and lifestyle to estimate the likelihood of a dementia diagnosis within the next five years for people aged 55+. During the evaluation, the participants are also given tips on how to reduce the risk.

Dr. Stacey Fisher from the University of Toronto explained: “The special thing about this dementia risk calculator is that you don’t have to see a doctor. You already have all the information you need to fill out the computer conveniently at home. “

Data that have to be entered into the dementia risk calculator are e.g. B .:

  • Alter
  • Smoking status
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Physical activity
  • Stress
  • nutrition
  • Immigration status
  • Level of education
  • Activities where help is needed
  • marital status
  • Number of languages ​​spoken
  • Health information

“This tool gives people who fill it out pointers on what they can do to reduce their personal risk of dementia,” said Dr. Peter Tanuseputro of Ottawa Hospital.

The calculator is based on statistical data from the Canadian Health Authority and has been tested with survey data from over 75,000 people from Ontario. The calculator was developed for Canada, but can be adapted to the situation in other countries that collect health data.

Dementia is a collective term for various diseases that are associated with a loss of mental performance. A cure or treatment is not yet possible. However, around a third of cases could be avoided by following a healthy lifestyle with sufficient physical activity, a healthy diet, little alcohol, no smoking, and treatment for conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure.

The online calculator in English is available at www.projectbiglife.ca/dementia.

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Middle-aged sleep deprivation increases the risk

If you want to reduce the risk of dementia, you should not sleep less than six hours in middle age. This is shown by a long-term study.

the essentials in brief

  • Getting enough sleep helps prevent dementia.
  • This is the conclusion of a British long-term study.

Those who get enough sleep have a lower risk of developing dementia in old age. This is the conclusion reached by a long-term study that was published in the journal Nature. The research team from University College London examined data from a total of 7959 test subjects.

All individuals have participated in the Whitehall II study since the mid-1980s. They were regularly medically examined and questioned. The subjects were between 35 and 55 years old at the start of the study. They are now between 63 and 86 years old.

During the period, 521 test persons developed dementia. Explosive: Those who slept less than six hours at the age of 50 had a 22 percent higher risk of developing the disease.

More on the subject:

Study data


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Too little sleep in middle age increases the risk of dementia – medical practice

Lack of sleep linked to risk of dementia

Health experts repeatedly emphasize how important restful sleep is for health and performance. For example, the brain should detoxify itself faster and rid itself of harmful substances during sleep. The results of a new long-term study now show that people who regularly sleep too little between the ages of 50 and 70 have an increased risk of developing dementia.

Researchers from University College London (UCL) and the French Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM) come to the conclusion in a recent study that people who sleep six hours or less per night in their 50s and 60s , have a higher risk of developing dementia later in life. The study results were recently presented in the renowned journal “Nature Communications”.

Risk of dementia increased by 30 percent if there is a lack of sleep

According to the evaluation of the long-term study, in which 7,959 British adults were asked about their sleep times since 1985, those who between the ages of 50 and 70 years of age consistently slept six hours or less per night are about 30 percent higher risk of developing dementia to develop than those who slept longer. 521 of the participants had been diagnosed with dementia by the end of the study period in 2019.

Relationship between length of sleep and risk of dementia

“It is known that sleep problems occur in people with dementia, but it remains unclear whether the length of sleep in midlife influences the risk of developing dementia in old age,” reports lead author of the study, Dr. Séverine Sabia. The present study with a very long follow-up period shows that a short sleep duration in mid-life is associated with the risk of dementia later in life.

Underlying process not yet deciphered

“While we cannot confirm that too little sleep actually increases the risk of dementia, there are many reasons why a good night’s sleep could be good for brain health,” says Dr. Sabia. The results underscore the importance of proper sleep for health.

Why lack of sleep could trigger dementia

Even if the exact causes of the link between sleep duration and dementia risk are not adequately understood, there are some plausible indications. Sleep researchers have already shown, for example, that the spaces between the cells in the brain filled with brain water expand during deep sleep, which means that metabolic products that are no longer required can be transported out of the brain tissue at twice the speed.

In addition, beta-amyloid deposits were found more often in the brains of people with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome than in people who do not have sleep apnea. Such beta-amyloid plaques are linked to the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

Sleeping too much doesn’t seem to increase the risk of dementia

Previous studies also reported an increased risk of dementia in people who sleep longer than average. According to the researchers, however, the results were inconsistent. An increased risk of dementia with an above-average length of sleep could not be proven in the current study. “More studies, including more people who sleep long, are needed to understand the role length of sleep plays in the risk of dementia,” said the research team.

Sleep is important to health

“We know that sleep is important for the health of our brain, as it is involved in learning and memory, the removal of waste materials from the brain and the ability of our brain cells to stay healthy,” sums up lead author Dr. Archana Singh-Manoux. The findings could help to develop new ways of reducing the risk of dementia. (vb)

Author and source information

This text complies with the requirements of specialist medical literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical professionals.

Author:

Diploma-Editor (FH) Volker Blasek

Swell:

  • National Institute of Health and Medical Research: Dementia: shorter nights associated with an increased risk of developing the disease (veröffentlicht: 20.06.2021), presse.inserm.fr
  • University College London: Lack of sleep in middle age linked to dementia risk (veröffentlicht: 20.06.2021), ucl.ac.uk
  • Sabia, S., Fayosse, A., Dumurgier, J. et al. Association of sleep duration in middle and old age with incidence of dementia; in: Nature Commun. (2021)., nature.com
  • Deutsches Ärzteblatt: Middle-aged sleep deprivation announces a later risk of dementia (published: June 21, 2021), aerzteblatt.de

Important NOTE:
This article is for general guidance only and should not be used for self-diagnosis or self-treatment. He can not substitute a visit at the doctor.

.

Lack of sleep in middle age increases the risk of dementia

Middle-aged people who sleep less than six hours have a higher risk of developing dementia. This is the conclusion of a long-term study.

the essentials in brief

  • Getting enough sleep helps prevent dementia.
  • This is the conclusion of a British long-term study.

Those who get enough sleep have a lower risk of developing dementia in old age. This is the conclusion reached by a long-term study that was published in the journal Nature. The research team from University College London examined data from a total of 7959 test subjects.

All individuals have participated in the Whitehall II study since the mid-1980s. They were regularly medically examined and questioned. The subjects were between 35 and 55 years old at the start of the study. They are now between 63 and 86 years old.

During the period, 521 test persons developed dementia. Explosive: Those who slept less than six hours at the age of 50 had a 22 percent higher risk of developing the disease.

More on the subject:

Study data


.

Certain high blood pressure drugs also reduce memory degradation – healing practice

Do antihypertensive drugs protect memory?

The use of antihypertensive drugs, which can cross the blood-brain barrier, appears to be associated with less memory loss in older people over time. So could the memory be protected by appropriate medicines?

How do antihypertensive drugs work?

ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), calcium channel blockers, and diuretics are different classes of antihypertensive drugs. Each class has a different antihypertensive effect and some cross the blood-brain barrier and also influence cognitive functions, explains the American Heart Association in a press release on the results of a new study published in the specialist magazine “Hypertension” has been.

High blood pressure promotes dementia

High blood pressure (hypertension) is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, and treatment of high blood pressure with antihypertensive drugs has been shown to reduce cases of mild cognitive impairment.

Better memory thanks to antihypertensive drugs?

The new study now shows that older adults taking antihypertensive drugs known to cross the blood-brain barrier had better memory over time than people taking other types taking medication to treat high blood pressure.

Which drugs are beneficial?

“Research is inconsistent as to which drugs are most beneficial for cognition. Studies on angiotensin II receptor blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have suggested that these drugs provide the greatest benefits for long-term cognition, while other studies have shown the benefits of calcium channel blockers and diuretics in reducing the risk of dementia ”, explains study author Dr. Daniel A. Nation from the University of California, Irvine.

The new study is now the first meta-analysis that compares the potential effects of antihypertensive drugs that cross the blood-brain barrier with drugs that cannot. The drugs were examined for their effects on various cognitive areas, such as attention, language, verbal memory, learning and memory.

For the meta-analysis, information from a total of 14 studies with almost 12,900 people over the age of 50 was analyzed. The studies came from completely different countries, such as the United States, Australia, Canada, Germany, Ireland and Japan.

High blood pressure decades before dementia

“High blood pressure occurs decades before symptoms of dementia appear, and it affects the flow of blood not only in the body but also in the brain. Treating high blood pressure is likely to have long-term positive effects on brain health and later cognitive function, ”said Dr. Daniel Nation.

Memory improvement for three years

The team found that older people who took antihypertensive drugs that cross the blood-brain barrier had better memory performance for up to three years compared to those who did not take drugs that cross the blood-brain barrier .

However, participants who took high blood pressure medication that did not cross the blood-brain barrier showed better attention for up to three years of the follow-up period, the experts report.

Treat high blood pressure and cognitive decline at the same time

“These results are the strongest evidence to date of the connection between ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, which cross the blood-brain barrier, and better memory. They suggest that people being treated for high blood pressure can be protected from cognitive decline by taking drugs that cross the blood-brain barrier, ”explains study author Dr. Jean K. Ho of the University of California, Irvine, in a press release. (as)

Author and source information

This text complies with the requirements of specialist medical literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical professionals.

Swell:

  • Jean K. Ho, Frank Moriarty, Jennifer J. Manly, Eric B. Larson, Denis A. Evans et al.: Blood-Brain Barrier Crossing Renin-Angiotensin Drugs and Cognition in the Elderly: A Meta-Analysis, in Hypertension (veröffentlicht 21.06.2021), Hypertension
  • American Heart Association: Some blood pressure-lowering meds linked to less memory decline in older adults (veröffentlicht 21.06.2021), AHA

Important NOTE:
This article is for general guidance only and is not intended to be used for self-diagnosis or self-treatment. He can not substitute a visit at the doctor.

.

Blood pressure reducers could protect against memory loss

Dr. Karen Zoufal | 06/22/2021

Some drugs used for high blood pressure can have positive effects on the brain: older people who took these drugs did better on memory tests.

There are antihypertensive drugs that can overcome the so-called blood-brain closet and get into the brain. These drugs could have a positive effect on memory, as researchers report in the journal “Hypertension”: They evaluated information from 14 studies with a total of almost 12,900 adults aged 50 and over. It was shown that older adults with high blood pressure, whose drugs crossed the blood-brain barrier, were able to remember things better within an observation period of three years than people whose drugs did not get into the brain.

“These results represent the strongest evidence yet that ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers entering the brain are linked to better memory. This suggests that people with high blood pressure can be protected from mental deterioration by taking such drugs, ”said Dr. Jean K. Ho from the University of California at Irvine.

ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, and drainage drugs are classes of antihypertensive drugs that work in different ways. Research on the effects of the drugs on mental performance is mixed: while studies on angiotensin II receptor blockers and ACE inhibitors have shown benefits for long-term memory, calcium channel blockers and diuretic drugs seem to reduce the risk of dementia. This is the first meta-analysis that has compared possible effects of antihypertensive drugs over time, taking into account the blood-brain barrier.

What: 10.1161 / HYPERTENSIONAHA.121.17049

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