The upper atmosphere is contracting!

Virginie hilssone Meteored France 4 min
Mesofera
The mesosphere could be cooling and contracting.

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are changing temperatures in the troposphere, the layer of the atmosphere closest to the ground. As proof: the numerous episodes of heat that now affect many places on the planet, especially those that have been experienced in the United States and Canada. Now it has been proven that GHGs are also having a remarkable impact on the mesosphere. Lhe layer of our atmosphere that is between approximately 50 and 80 kilometers above the Troposphere.

As surprising as it may seem, the mesosphere could be cooling and, therefore, contracting. This hypothesis had been raised by several researchers in recent years and seems to have been confirmed. Using data from three NASA satellites, collected over a 30-year observation period, lScientists found that the mesosphere was cooling to 2.7 degrees Celsius per decade.

Why is this cooling taking place?

Greenhouse gases trap most of the heat in the troposphere, the lowest layer of the atmosphere, causing the Earth’s surface to heat up and causing global warming.

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Near the surface, the atmosphere is thicker. But above, the mesosphere is thinner and reacts differently to increased greenhouse gasesO. “Carbon dioxide retains heat just like a duvet retains your body heat and keeps you warm. In the lower atmosphere, there are many molecules nearby that easily trap and transfer Earth’s heat between them, keeping it close to the ground. This causes little heat to reach the higher and thinner mesosphere ” , explains James Russell, a co-author of the study and an atmospheric scientist at Hampton University in Virginia.

Up there, molecules are scarce and the heat captured by carbon dioxide escapes into space if it can’t find another molecule to absorb it. As a result, more heat is lost to space and the upper atmosphere cools. As the air cools, it contracts, just like a balloon contracts if you put it in the freezer.

What consequences does it have on the surface?

This cooling does not have a direct consequence in our life but yes it could generate some undesirable effects, indirectly. The more the mesosphere contracts, the more the rest of the upper atmosphere contracts. A) Yes resistance to satellites, which helps clear space debris in particular, could decrease.

Another consequence of the cooling of the mesosphere: it concentrates more water vapor. Therefore, brighter noctilucent clouds form at lower latitudes early in the year.

There is yet another consequence of the cooling of the mesosphere: it concentrates more water vapor. Therefore, se form brighter noctilucent clouds at lower latitudes early in the year. Additionally, in another recent discovery, environmental scientists found that the stratosphere, the layer of the atmosphere immediately below the mesosphere, is shrinking by more than 300 feet per decade and could eventually disrupt radio communications and global positioning systems.

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The Moon will help produce record floods in the 2030s

Enzo Campetella 7 min
Floods USA
The sum of the effect of rising sea levels and higher tides generated by the behavior of the Moon could produce many recurrent floods on coasts such as the United States.

Climate change has already led to an increase in the frequency and severity of hurricanes and other extreme weather events around the world.. But on a relatively close horizon there is a smaller, less noisy threat that could wreak havoc on coasts like those of the United States. High tide floods occur in coastal areas when the tides reach 0.6 meters above the daily average high tide and begin to flood the streets or seep down storm drains. Some call them “nuisance floods.”

These floods that affect cities like MiamiThey are more of a nuisance than a real calamity, flooding streets and houses, forcing businesses to close and causing cesspools to overflow, but the longer they last, the more damage they can cause. According to what was revealed by LiveScience, The United States experienced more than 600 of these floods in 2019, according to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Now a new NASA-led study warn that nuisance flooding will become much more prevalent in America as early as the 2030s, and most of the U.S. coastline is expected to see three to four times as many high-tide flood days each year for at least a decade. The reason: the behavior of the Moon added to climate change.

The effects add up

The study, published in June in the journal Nature Climate Change, warn that these additional flood days will not be spread evenly throughout the yearRather, they are likely to cluster over the course of a few months; coastal areas that now face only two or three floods a month could soon face a dozen or more. So in some places it would be multiplied by up to four.

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Researchers warn that these extended seasons of coastal flooding cause major disruption to lives and livelihoods if the communities don’t start planning them now. “It is the cumulative effect over time that will have an impact“The study’s lead author, Phil Thompson, an assistant professor at the University of Hawaii. “If it floods 10 or 15 times a month, a business cannot continue to operate with its underwater parking.. People lose their jobs because they cannot go to work. Leaky cesspools become a public health problem. “

Several factors are driving this projected increase in flood days. On the one hand, the sustained rise in sea level. As the atmosphere warms, glacial ice is melting at a record rate, pouring huge amounts of meltwater into the ocean. As a result, mean sea level has risen by 21 to 24 centimeters since 1880, and a third of that rise has occurred in the past 25 years, according to NOAA. By 2100, sea level could rise 0.3 m to 2.5 m above its level in 2000, depending on the extent to which humans limit greenhouse gas emissions in the next few years. decades.

The charms of the Moon

Beyond this scenario, help will come from outside the atmosphere. The Moon influences the tides, but the force of its attraction is not the same from year to year; the Moon has a “wobble” in its orbit, slightly altering its position relative to the Earth in a rhythmic cycle of 18.6 years. During the middle of the cycle, the Moon suppresses the tides on Earth, causing lower high tides and higher low tides. During the other half of the cycle, the tides amplify, with higher high tides and lower low tides, according to NASA.

Hawaii
Other heavily affected places will be Hawaii where a change in the behavior of the Moon will help produce recurrent coastal flooding.

We are currently in the part of the cycle that amplifies the tides; the next cycle of tidal amplification begins in the mid-2030s; And by then the global sea level will have risen enough that those higher-than-normal tides are especially problematic, according to the researchers.

Due to the combined effect of sea level rise and the lunar cycle, floods due to high tides will increase rapidly along the entire US coast, which would be highly affected by their disposition. In just over a decade, high-tidal flooding will “go from being a regional problem to a national problem, with most of the US coasts affected,” the authors wrote. Other elements of the climate cycle, such as El Niño phenomena, will cause these flood days to be grouped together in certain parts of the year, leading to months of incessant coastal flooding.

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AWAY WITH THE BURNERS: From 2035, no new cars with combustion engines may be sold – WELT news channel

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Storm – the worst is yet to come

Heavy rain flooded streets last night and filled cellars. Was that it now with continuous rain? Not at all, says the weather service DTN. One region in particular is getting it today.

There is lightning, it thunders, it pours like buckets. Heavy rain fell over parts of Germany last night and caused considerable damage in some cases. In the north of Bavaria, in Saxony, but also in North Rhine-Westphalia, roads turned into torrents, rivers burst their banks and cellars overflowed. The district of Hof in Bavaria declared the disaster. The fire brigade went out on hundreds of missions.

In Düsseldorf alone, 90 liters of rain per square meter have fallen since Tuesday, in southern Saxony-Anhalt and parts of Thuringia it was still 50 to 80 liters. Meteorologists warn that the end of the bar has not yet been reached. In the coming hours, the continuous rain will continue, especially in Rhineland-Palatinate and southern North Rhine-Westphalia – with even greater amounts of precipitation.

Heavy continuous rain from the Eifel to the Palatinate

It is not unusual that heavy rain accompanied by thunderstorms occurs at this time of the year. “We observe such events very often in summer. Most of the time it happens very locally because the weather is more limited at this time,” explains chief meteorologist Joachim Schug from the DTN weather service. For the next few hours, he sees the greatest danger in a strip from the Eifel to the Palatinate. “There you can expect continuous rain accompanied by thunderstorms and amounts of precipitation of 100 to 150 liters per square meter. That extends to the Netherlands and Belgium.”

In the evening and into the night, the continuous rain then spreads to the southwest of Germany to Baden-Württemberg, but becomes weaker in the process. “In the rest of the country it remains rather calm, in isolated cases there can also be thunderstorms. In the far north-east and south of Schleswig you probably won’t notice anything at all. There, up to 30 degrees are possible again.”

“The worst weather in all of Europe”

“Bernd,” says Schug with a wink, is to blame for the weather and the heavy rain. “The center of the low pressure area ‘Bernd’ lies above Lower Saxony and ensures that Germany has the worst weather in all of Europe. Everywhere else there is actually mostly nice summer weather.” Nevertheless, the meteorologist has observed longer-term changes in the climate. “Because of global warming, the air on and around our continent is warmer and can therefore absorb more water vapor. The climate is becoming more tropical, which means that larger amounts of rain can fall within a short period of time.”

Schug and his colleagues noticed something else: the thunderstorms are moving away more and more slowly. “Just a few years ago it was common for thunderstorms to move at a speed of around 50 kilometers per hour. But because the wind decreases at a height of three to five kilometers, that changes. Thunderstorms often only move in at 10 to 20 kilometers This has a combined effect: more water vapor in the air and thunderstorms that stay in one place longer. “

According to Schug, the reason for the decrease in wind at altitude is the dwindling temperature difference. “When it is less cold at the North Pole, the difference to the subtropics becomes smaller. Climate change is taking place in many small locations.”

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Storm – the worst is yet to come

Heavy rain flooded streets last night and filled cellars. Was it that now with continuous rain? Not at all, says the weather service DTN. One region in particular is getting it today.

This text appeared on Wednesday after heavy rain and thunderstorms had hit Saxony and northern Bavaria the night before. In the following hours, even more severe storms in western Germany were to claim numerous deaths and cause enormous damage. How this weather situation came about explains the former ZDF meteorologist Gunther Tiersch here in an interview.

There is lightning, it thunders, it pours like buckets. Heavy rain fell over parts of Germany last night and caused considerable damage in some cases. In the north of Bavaria, in Saxony, but also in North Rhine-Westphalia, roads turned into torrents, rivers burst their banks and cellars overflowed. The district of Hof in Bavaria declared the disaster. The fire brigade went out on hundreds of missions.

In Düsseldorf alone, 90 liters of rain per square meter have fallen since Tuesday, in southern Saxony-Anhalt and parts of Thuringia it was still 50 to 80 liters. Meteorologists warn that the end of the bar has not yet been reached. In the coming hours, the continuous rain will continue, especially in Rhineland-Palatinate and southern North Rhine-Westphalia – with even greater amounts of precipitation.

Heavy continuous rain from the Eifel to the Palatinate

It is not unusual that heavy rain accompanied by thunderstorms occurs at this time of the year. “We observe such events very often in summer. Most of the time it happens very locally because the weather is more limited at this time,” explains chief meteorologist Joachim Schug from the DTN weather service. For the next few hours, he sees the greatest danger in a strip from the Eifel to the Palatinate. “There you can expect continuous rain accompanied by thunderstorms and amounts of precipitation of 100 to 150 liters per square meter. That extends to the Netherlands and Belgium.”

In the evening and into the night, the continuous rain then spreads to the southwest of Germany to Baden-Württemberg, but becomes weaker in the process. “In the rest of the country it remains rather calm, in isolated cases there can also be thunderstorms. In the far north-east and south of Schleswig you probably won’t notice anything at all. There, up to 30 degrees are possible again.”

“The worst weather in all of Europe”

“Bernd,” says Schug with a wink, is to blame for the weather and the heavy rain. “The center of the low pressure area ‘Bernd’ lies above Lower Saxony and ensures that Germany has the worst weather in all of Europe. Everywhere else there is actually mostly nice summer weather.” Nevertheless, the meteorologist has observed longer-term changes in the climate. “Because of global warming, the air on and around our continent is warmer and can therefore absorb more water vapor. The climate is becoming more tropical, which means that larger amounts of rain can fall within a short period of time.”

Schug and his colleagues noticed something else: the thunderstorms are moving away more and more slowly. “Just a few years ago it was common for thunderstorms to move at a speed of around 50 kilometers per hour. But because the wind decreases at a height of three to five kilometers, that changes. Thunderstorms often only move in at 10 to 20 kilometers This has a combined effect: more water vapor in the air and thunderstorms that stay in one place longer. “

According to Schug, the reason for the decrease in wind at altitude is the dwindling temperature difference. “When it is less cold at the North Pole, the difference to the subtropics becomes smaller. Climate change is taking place in many small locations.”

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Earth’s energy imbalance doubles

Joana Campos Christian Garavaglia 4 min
energy balance Earth Sun Atmosphere
The balance between solar radiation and the energy that returns to space largely determines the climate of the planet.

During decades, various scientific studies have shown that by adding the incoming radiation and subtracting the outgoing radiation, the result is a positive energy imbalance, which means that the Earth system (atmosphere, land surface, seas and oceans) is gaining energy, what makes the planet this hotter.

In a nutshell, this process subjects the Earth to a greenhouse effect similar to the process that produces heat in garden greenhouses and horticultural facilities.

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Experts have determined that this energy imbalance is increasing as a result of the accumulation of gases such as carbon dioxide or methane (so-called greenhouse gases) in the atmosphere .

Worrisome new data

A study by experts from NASA and NOAA has now shown that this energy imbalance is growing much more than previously thought. The earth’s energy imbalance doubled in the period 2005-2019, as indicated by the authors of this study.

The title of this scientific article, headed by Professor Norman Loeb, leaves no room for doubt: Data from satellites and oceans reveal a sharp increase in the rate of global warming.

Although the imbalance has a minimal percentage (0.3%), it ends up contributing directly to the increase in air and ocean temperatures, causing climate change capable of affecting the entire planet.

The authors note that the Earth’s energy imbalance is relatively small (about 0.3%). This is calculated from the average global solar radiation absorbed and the infrared thermal radiation emitted to space. However, this small percentage is extremely important to maintain temperatures and, in general, for climatic changes.

The origin of the problem

“The study shows that the increased imbalance is, in part, the result of increased greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activity, along with increased water vapor, which traps more long-wave radiation. In addition, the decrease in cloud cover and sea ice leads to greater absorption of solar energy ”, states a NASA report.

In addition to the part directly related to human activities, researchers found that part of the process may be related to changing the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (known as PDO, in English) from a cold phase to a warm phase.

This oscillation is a pattern of climate variability in the Pacific. This natural internal variability can have far-reaching effects on climate and weather. An intensely hot phase of PDO, which started around 2014 and continued until 2020, it caused a widespread reduction in cloud cover over the ocean and a corresponding increase in the absorption of solar radiation.

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Illegal trade in refrigerant gases in Europe is a ‘scary crime’

Europe’s ambitions to combat climate change are being undermined by the illegal trade in refrigerant gases (hydrofluorocarbons, HFC), reveals a report, which speaks of the “most frightening crime for Europe”.

The report is the result of a survey by the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA, in its original acronym), an environmental protection agency based in London and with an office also in Washington that works to fight global environmental problems and investigates environmental crimes.

Under the title “The Scariest Crime for Europe – The Illegal Trading of Hydrofluorocarbon Refrigerant Gases”, the document points to Romania as the main entry point for illegal HFCs, coming from China and smuggled via Turkey and Ukraine.

According to the document, the potential climate impact of this illegal trade can match the emissions from more than 6.5 million cars circulating during a year.

The EIA investigation, with recourse namely and undercover investigators, in addition to identifying Romania as an entry point for illegal HFCs, he also speaks of a network of intermediaries involved and the current practice of bribes across borders.

The investigators “found no shortage of suppliers willing to break the law and deliver contraband HFCs, sometimes even in single-use cylinders that have been banned in the European Union”, says the document.

The report adds that the EIA has identified a growing trend of illegal circulation of a very powerful refrigerant (HFC-404A) whose use in large refrigeration systems was banned. In 2020, this refrigerant, according to the document, accounted for more than a third of all HFC seizures.

According to the report, the most shocking revelation was that these dangerous gases are being smuggled across Europe even by people who don’t even know what they are carrying.

“Illegal trade has flourished because inspections and fines are rare and generally not proportional to the profits obtained,” the organization stresses.

Although the scale of the phenomenon is not accurately estimated, the EIA admits that the volume of illegal HFCs entering the European Union (EU) is potentially in the order of 20 million tons of carbon dioxide per year, about half of Portugal’s total emissions.

The organization also advances that another data reveals this illegal trade, that the imports of HFC that the EU discloses are always smaller than the exports that are disclosed to Europe.

In 2014 the EU revised the regulation of fluorinated gases to phase out HFCs, synthetic gases with a greenhouse effect hundreds of thousands of times more powerful than carbon dioxide and which are commonly used in refrigeration, in air conditioning, aerosols or foams. With less of these gases and with rising prices, illegal trade proliferated.

Clare Perry, head of the EIA Climate Campaigns, says, quoted in the report, that human society is “on the knife’s edge” and that time is running out to effectively tackle climate change.

“We cannot take a single false step in our efforts to keep the global temperature rise below 1.5°C and the massive scale of the illegal HFC trade to the EU should be raising alarms across the bloc – this is the biggest eco-crime that no one has heard of and that needs to change quickly,” he adds.

The 30-page report, which leaves several suggestions to contain the problem, was released by the Portuguese environmental association Zero, which has collaborated with the EIA on the issue of fluorinated gases.

Zero questioned the Portuguese authorities, who admitted that there were irregularities in the sector, and called for continued inspection efforts.

In Portugal, the Portuguese Environment Agency (APA) is responsible for implementing the standards for the gases in question. The GNR, through the Directorate of the Service for the Protection of Nature and the Environment (SEPNA) has the powers of a supervisory entity. The Environmental Inspection (IGAMAOT) and the Food and Economic Safety Authority (ASAE) are competent in the instruction and application of fines.

In contacts with “intervening entities” it was confirmed “the existence of irregularities, essentially in the automotive sector associated with the charging of air conditioning and in the industrial sector related to the refrigeration of installations”, says Zero.

The environmental association adds, regarding the statements of these entities, that it is recognized that “there is no concrete knowledge of the origin of the fluorinated gases that enter the country illegally, but, in the context of sharing police information, it is possible to confirm that it actually exists an illegal parallel market for fluorinated gases” in Portugal.

Francisco Ferreira, president of ZERO, also mentioned in the communiqué, considers that “it is essential for the Portuguese authorities (…) to pay greater attention to the trafficking of fluorinated gases in Portugal, which jeopardizes the achievement of climate goals given its extremely high global warming potential”.

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Dome of heat. Hundreds of dead and records no one envy

Temperatures in the northwestern United States and western Canada have reached unprecedented levels as populations and animal life struggle to survive. Canada set the all-time temperature record on Tuesday when Lytton in British Columbia reached 49.6 degrees Celsius, a temperature never before recorded, for example, in South America or Europe. A day later, the village, taken by flames, was evacuated.

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Porsche threatens its suppliers: if you don’t get clean, you’re kicked out | Life & Knowledge

It’s such a thing with traditional manufacturers. It takes you a long time to change. But if there is, there is no turning back.

Porsche electric? Unimaginable just a few years ago. And now? No manufacturer in the world can compete with the four-seater Taycan e-bullet (up to 761 hp). And it sells so well among those who want to spend at least 83,520 euros that there are delivery times. The change under Porsche boss Oliver Blume (53) is radical. The concern about global warming is taken seriously, the greenhouse gas CO2 has to go is the new program.

Porsche is already reducing CO2 emissions in its own factories: the Taycan has been manufactured CO2-neutrally at the Zuffenhausen plant since production began in 2019. This has been the case since 2020 for the entire headquarters and thus also for the 911 and 718 sports cars. At the beginning of 2021, the development center in Weissach and the plant in Leipzig were added, where the Macan and Panamera models are produced.

The factory in Zuffenhausen, where the Porsche 911 is also built, is already CO2-neutral

Photo: Work Porsche

Now Porsche is the first German manufacturer to consistently follow the supply chain: From today, the sports car manufacturer requires its 1,300 series suppliers to use only renewable energies for the production of Porsche components. This applies to all procurement of production material for new vehicle projects. The threat: Suppliers who are not ready to switch to certified green electricity will no longer be considered in the long-term Porsche procurement process.

Suppliers should go green

“Our battery cell suppliers have had to use green electricity since 2020. Now the next important step follows: Our series suppliers should also produce our components completely with renewable energies and thus further reduce CO2 emissions, ”says Uwe-Karsten Städter, Board Member for Procurement at Porsche AG.

Teaser picture

Porsche board member Städter (on the 911 GT3) calls on suppliers to reduce their CO2 emissions

Photo: Porsche

The sports car manufacturer’s supply chain is currently responsible for around 20 percent of Porsche’s greenhouse gas emissions. With increasing electrification, this proportion would increase to around 40 percent by 2030 – which is now to be prevented. In addition, the company will invest more than one billion euros in decarbonization measures over the next 10 years.

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Europe advances “at two speeds” in the network of electric chargers | Automobiles

Europe remains a profoundly unequal continent in the development of the electric charger network. Only three countries (Netherlands, France and Germany) concentrate 70% of this network, which leads the European Association of Car Manufacturers (ACEA) to warn against the persistent asymmetry between “rich countries in the European Union and those with a lower GDP in East, South and Central Europe”.

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