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Icon of modern times or exception? The teacher Annamaria Staiano she shields herself, she is a woman of records: the first elected president of the Italian Society of Pediatrics after 123 years. “For sure, it took too long in the prestigious association that has eleven thousand members,” he says.
How did you do it?
«By giving continuity to the work: first as a member, then as vice president. I hope to be the first woman in a long series, because so many professionals stand out for their skills and, like their male colleagues, they deserve to hold these positions ».
In his case, it’s not even the first.
«I am head of pediatrics at the Polyclinic and director of the translational medical sciences department at Federico II, my university is giving space to women still penalized in these areas at national level. And, from 2010 to 2013, I was president of the Italian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology: nevertheless, there were no other women at the top. For this, I have dedicated my election to all my colleagues. We must insist ».
How has pediatrics changed?
“From the inside, I can say this: today it is an increasingly feminine profession, 74 per cent of pediatric specialists are women. The “surgeons” are also on the rise ».
Is your model Rita Levi Montalcini?
“I mentioned her in my speech, because she is one of the women who changed the world without having to show anything but her intelligence. I realize that I will do the minimum compared to the Nobel Prize, but with enthusiasm ».
Why did you choose to be a doctor?
“Since middle school, I’ve had this desire. I owe my career to my parents, entrepreneur father, housewife mother: they have always supported me and encouraged me to do more ».
But his daughters are both doctors.
“One is a pediatrician, and she also voted for me, the other a cardiologist. That they chose the same profession made me feel less guilty, because I was an attentive but not assiduous mother ».
Over the past 30 years, it has also seen the diseases that affect children change.
«Today the diseases are mostly chronic and non-communicable, often intestinal, associated with rare, genetic and metabolic diseases. And there is an increase in diabetes ».
What does it depend on?
“First of all, from factors such as pollution and lifestyles, from nutrition to a sedentary lifestyle. But technology has also enabled early diagnosis, more effective treatments. Just think of premature babies ».
Families feel alone.
«One in ten today is fragile. It is our task to support them: the pandemic has highlighted the criticalities in the health system ».
What is the priority to be addressed?
“There was a lack of connection between hospitals and the territory. With overcrowded wards and university centers for Covid and pediatricians who did not contribute to the assistance, because they were not even put in a position to do so. We have to network ».
Vaccination is underway from the age of 12, but how much does the emergency affect children?
«The after-effects due to contacts with the virus are modest, with the exception of the rare cases of pediatric multi-systemic inflammation syndrome. On the contrary, the psychological consequences are worrying due to the increase in cases of aggression and self-harm ».
It weighs the addiction to the smartphone.
“Anxiety and irritability, when mobile phones and iPads are not used, are a wake-up call. The risk is three times greater for girls and more shy children with difficulty in establishing relationships with peers ».
What can parents do?
“Talking with children and setting an example is essential. Mothers and fathers should be the first to limit the use of smartphones, during meals and, absolutely, when with children, and always choose appropriate content and use appropriate languages on social networks “.
With Covid and the digital revolution, have children’s fears changed too?
“Judging from the cases reported in the neuropsychiatric structures, irrational fears such as those of ghosts, darkness and animals are more frequent: if obsessive, they must be resolved with the support of a specialist”.
What are you afraid of?
“Of the inequalities between children, which also weigh heavily on their growth.”
Is there more disparity between children or gender?
«For heaven’s sake, among the children. We must do even more to protect them, so that they have the same rights and are not based on family, nation or city of origin ».
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On May 11, an armed attack on a gymnasium took place in Kazan, seven children and two teachers were killed, more than thirty people were injured. The shooting in the educational institution was organized by a former student of this gymnasium, Ilnaz Galyaviev – he reached the building without hiding his weapon, knocked out the front door and opened fire on the students and teachers. During interrogation, Galyaviev stated that he realized himself as a god and hated everyone. Radio Liberty spoke with psychologist Karine Gyulazizova about why such tragedies cannot be prevented in Russia.
After the attack, 19-year-old Ilnaz Galyaviev surrendered to the police and pleaded guilty; on May 12, the court arrested him for two months. During the trial, Galyaviev said that he was “absolutely sure of the justice and validity of his actions,” he does not suffer from serious illnesses and does not object to his imprisonment. Earlier, the Investigative Committee confirmed information that appeared in the media that in 2020 Ilnaz Galyaviev was diagnosed with a brain disease, and that he repeatedly sought medical help in connection with severe headaches. Galyaviev was not registered either with the police or with a psychiatrist, so on April 28 he was able to obtain permission to store firearms.
– Is the shooting at school that happened in Kazan different from others that happened earlier in Russia?
– In my opinion, not very much. When compared with similar acute psychotic manifestations, they all follow approximately the same scenario. And in your opinion, there was something that sharply distinguishes him?
– I noted the audacity of the attack, he walked down the street straight with a weapon. And often such situations end in the suicide of the attacker, and he surrendered to the police.
This type of crime is usually based on a defensive sense of superiority.
– You need to look at the statistics, how many of these cases ended in suicide, and how many did not. The terrorist Breivik, who shot people, was not going to kill himself. That is, it can be different. It depends on whether the person is in an altered state or not, whether he fulfills someone’s prescription or not, and so on. That is, many factors influence the outcome of the situation. If this is, for example, an acute psychosis, then it is important what its content is, that is, what exactly this psychosis is, let’s say. There was information that this guy from Kazan said that he was a god, he seemed to have some kind of delusional construction on this topic. Although, in fairness, this kind of crime, as a rule, is based on a defensive sense of superiority, which takes on a delusional form.
– What are the factors behind such attacks on schools, what usually contributes to this?
– I think that this is facilitated either by some kind of disease that has flowed for the time being in a subacute form, that is, it already existed and worsened, or this is the first episode, the debut of some disease, or an acute psychosis happened. Acute psychotic conditions can be exacerbated at the moment of stress, may be associated with seasonality. And since now we all have the right to both alarm and “change” – even absolutely normal people have the right to do so in the situation in which we all find ourselves – then people are unstable, with an unstable structure, all the more so. Plus, he studied at this gymnasium, that is, there are additional introductory notes, which are also important for determining the “diagnosis”.
– Yes, I did, four years ago I left after the 9th grade. Information appeared in the media that one of the teachers told him that he should not continue to study at school, because it was “not his.” But now in rumors it is difficult to understand what really happened.
– The fact of the matter is that we do not know the true history. We know only some individual inclusions, and we do not have a clear picture and motives. It is clear that this is not the norm. It is clear that what he did was about the “change” and about the disease. Because, even if we assume that he wanted to take revenge for something, then we will have to admit that the scale of the revenge still speaks of an altered consciousness and, most likely, of an illness.
– Now many acquaintances of this man tell the media that he was quiet, calm, did not attract attention to himself. Are there any possibilities to predict in advance that a person is prone to this type of violence?
The fact that he was quiet and comfortable for those around him does not mean at all that he was healthy.
– Yes, of course, today it can already be done if we carry out prevention. If we build a medical strategy so that psychological prevention is mandatory and psychotherapeutic assistance is provided on time. At least in educational institutions where you can reach children, adolescents, students. But I’m not sure if this is being done in good faith and seriously. I know situations when there are enough suicides, and all kinds of inadequate manifestations in universities, and there is no prevention, let alone help. Moreover, today there is a psychological toolkit for the prevention of such tragedies – by identifying symptoms about a tendency to violence, to suicidal behavior – and for timely assistance. The fact that he was quiet and comfortable for those around him does not mean at all that he was healthy. Chikatilo was also a respectable family man and an excellent teacher at school, but at the same time he did what he did.
Today people are mostly in poor condition, in apathy, anxiety, depression. Without the opportunity to receive full-fledged psychological help, they, of course, try to save themselves as best they can, including various psychological defenses. For example, denial and rationalization – these two defenses are working in full today. I see that they go in stores without masks, and they directly deny: there is no virus. Or, for example, different fantasies about vaccination – “terrible and bloody stories told at night”, and told by public figures who have a strong influence on the fragile minds and the unenlightened people. And nothing is being done to alleviate the psychological state of people, given their psychological status. After all, epidemiological measures are very important, but that’s not all. And what to do with the very psychophysical state of the people? Indeed, apart from forcing and supplying multi-vector information, nothing is really done. And in such circumstances, psychosis can develop easily.
– But can stigmatization somehow influence this situation? Obviously, not everyone will independently go to a psychologist, and even more so to a psychiatrist.
– If there is no such norm in culture, then, of course, not everyone will go. And if it gradually becomes the norm, it will work. And of course, it is necessary to form the habit of seeking psychological help. Every year there is just an obscenely large number of psychologists and psychotherapists graduated, but where are they all? They should now be included in full, including in the formation of habits in people. They should broadcast from all the irons, providing assistance to the population, but this is not happening. Because I am convinced that the high social responsibility of psychologists and psychotherapists is a professionally significant quality, and not promoting oneself on Instagram or other social networks. Those who have the means go and somehow get hours of psychotherapy, but not all have the means. And free help is provided either badly, or a person simply does not know where to turn to in order to receive quality assistance. There is no possibility of free circulation: when, along with a problem, here is a solution for you. Similar to vaccination. A vaccination campaign is under way, and it is a necessary and correct tactic in the fight against the pandemic. Everywhere – outdoor advertisements, social clips on TV, telling about the benefits of vaccination. And the understanding is gradually formed that there is protection against the virus. And it should be the same with the possibility of solving psychological problems. It should be simple and accessible. This will be the prevention, including of this kind of terrible tragedies.
Chronic stress does not bring anyone to good, and never
Also symptomatic is the fact that he walked down the street brandishing a gun, but no one stopped him, no one reported it. For me, this is a marker of people’s inadequacy. And they are inadequate precisely because the proposed circumstances are such that most people are in chronic stress. And chronic stress does not bring anyone to good, never, at any time.
The psyche of people is so tuned in to preserve itself that it is not ready to turn on, it does not have such a resource so that attention is turned on to something greater than itself or, in extreme cases, to something or someone very close.
– After such tragedies, the authorities offer their own solutions to the problem, often citing computer games as the reason. The children’s ombudsman for Tatarstan called the absence of state ideology the reason for the attack on the gymnasium. Do these things affect what happened?
– Yes, and this is what I have been talking about for a long time in my articles and interviews, I have been shouting about it for many years. Yes, in a non-ideologized space, of course, there is a breeding ground for the emergence and spread of social schizophrenia. In the book of Chukanov and Davydov “Scientific and Social Progress” it is written:
“One of varieties schizophrenia is an social schizophrenia. She is manifests itself in the form obsessive social ideas and It has a lot modifications. Social schizophrenia is different from others varieties schizophrenia themes, what refers to infectious diseases and can leak in mode epidemics and pandemics.
The carrier of infection in social schizophrenia is our language, endowed with certain properties
Social schizophrenia not touches on physiology work brain, as others varieties schizophrenia, but only violates some programs processing information in brain. IN difference from others infectious diseases, carriers which are bacteria and viruses, carrier infections at social schizophrenia turns out our language, endowed certain properties. These properties language disconnect mechanism critical thinking in our brain “.
Ideology is the essence of a built, very dense semantic space in which a person is, both in necessary and very important supports, boundaries that give him the opportunity for stability and cover his needs and meaning, and unity, and contact, and very many basic needs at once … And when this does not exist, but, on the contrary, there are messages in different directions, such a brew of messages of different vectors, of course, the nonsense begins to multiply and affects the person and the community in such a way that it becomes, to put it mildly, unstable. Therefore, ideology, of course, should be, and for the majority it is always an absolute salvation! And a guarantee for the stability and development of this majority.
– The Ombudsman made a reference to the experience of the USSR. In your opinion, what ideology could help to avoid such situations?
– This is a topic for a serious and long conversation. But it is obvious to me that it should be built on the peculiarities of our mentality, Russian, so to speak, not in the sense of literal ethnicity, but Russian in the sense of language. She must, of course, be grown and grown from there. And this is a prerequisite and necessary condition for the formation of a healthy development process. Mental codes must be taken into account of course, because everything that they tried to impose in some way and attach something else, not only did not take root, but led, unfortunately, to very deplorable results, in my opinion. In my opinion, thirty years of experience should be enough to see and realize this. It is clear that it cannot be the way it was before, and it is absolutely pointless to take and revive the Soviet experience directly, it is impossible, but, I repeat once again, the ideology should be built on the basis and on the basis of those mental codes that are embedded in the Russian language , in the language that is the main one in the space of this state.