Find in unicorn cave: animal bones decorated by Neanderthals | NDR.de – Nachrichten – Lower Saxony

Status: 07/06/2021 5:25 p.m.

A “sensational find” for researchers and a reference to very early art: a giant deer bone apparently decorated by a Neanderthal man was found in the unicorn cave in the Harz Mountains.

The bone with the pattern was found in 2020 during excavations in the entrance area of ​​the unicorn cave.

The piece is said to be more than 51,000 years old and shows an incised angle pattern made up of six notches. It shows “that there is a plan, an intention behind this angle pattern,” said excavation manager Dirk Leder to the NDR in Lower Saxony. The ability to communicate through symbols makes the Neanderthals very similar to humans. The researchers suspect that the symbols should also be used to convey knowledge or tell a story.

Neanderthals with “amazing cognitive abilities”

In any case, the bone was decorated – long before Homo Sapiens came to Europe. “This speaks for an independent development of the creative power of the Neanderthal man,” said archaeologist Thomas Terberger: “Here, with the beginning, we are dealing with the dawn of art.” Archaeologist Terberger added that the bone can also be put down, there is a pattern of four more short notches at the bottom. The find is an indication that the Neanderthals had an aesthetic sense and probably communicated via symbols. This indicates that Neanderthals already had amazing cognitive abilities, according to the University of Göttingen.

Jewelry known so far only from France

The research team has published its findings in the journal “Nature Ecology and Evolution”. The Neanderthals, the genetically closest relative of humans, were long considered to be comparatively primitive. So far, few pendants and claws made by Neanderthals had been found as jewelry objects in France, as well as abstract motifs on cave walls in Spain. The find from the unicorn cave is one of the most complex forms of artistic expression known to date by Neanderthals, writes the London researcher Silvia Bello in a commentary in the specialist journal.

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Neanderthals are said to have used the cave system in the western Harz more than 50,000 years ago. The researchers want to find out when and how exactly they lived there. (08/10/2018) 1 min

Bone is more than 51,000 years old

The bone was found last year during an excavation by the Lower Saxony State Office for Monument Preservation under the remains of hunting prey in the entrance area of ​​the unicorn cave. It was lying with the decoration facing down, which is why the carving was only discovered when the piece was cleaned. The toe bone is almost six inches long, just under four inches wide and about three inches thick. Scientists at the University of Kiel determined an age of more than 51,000 years using the radiocarbon method. This makes the find much older than the 40,000 year old jewelry objects from France.

Giant deer bones deliberately chosen for carving?

Antje Schwalb from the Technical University of Braunschweig, who is involved in the research project, assumes that the Neanderthals deliberately chose the giant deer bone for his carving. The giant deer’s antlers had a wingspan of up to four meters.

additional Information

Klaus Meyer, volunteer cave explorer, uncovered a bear bone during excavations at the unicorn cave to research the Neanderthal man.  © dpa - Bildfunk Photo: Swen Pförtner

The excavations continue in the unicorn cave near Scharzfeld, where Neanderthals once lived. Researchers want to find out the climatic conditions under which people lived in the Harz Mountains. (08/31/2020) more

Excavation manager Dirk Leder works on excavations in the unicorn cave in the Zechstein dolomite in the Harz Mountains.  © NDR Photo: Eva Werler

Archaeologists are digging again in the unicorn cave in the southern Harz for objects and debris. You want to explore the life of the Neanderthal man. The state is funding the excavation with 230,000 euros. (17.07.2019) more

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NDR 1 Lower Saxony | Current | 07/05/2021 | 17:00 o’clock

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5 signs of a vitamin D deficiency

09:00 am

Sunday 13 June 2021

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Vitamin D regulates calcium levels, which is vital for bone health, and facilitates normal immune system function.

The human body can produce vitamin D after the skin is exposed to sunlight, but most of us do not get enough daylight, and this means that the majority suffer from vitamin D deficiency at present, according to the website “Russia Today”.

Dr. Anthony Fauci points out that the vitamin deficiency known as the sunshine vitamin, is not completely clear in adults, and therefore, it is necessary to know the confirmed signs of vitamin deficiency.

1. You may feel tired:

One study states: “Vitamin D deficiency is frequent and has been associated with fatigue and other non-specific symptoms including headache, musculoskeletal pain, weakness, depression, and poor cognitive functioning. Vitamin D treatment significantly improved fatigue in healthy, deficient subjects.”

2. You may feel pain in the bones:

One study suggests that vitamin D status affects the health of the musculoskeletal system. “Low levels of vitamin D may lead to clinical manifestations, including bone pain, muscle weakness, decreased bone mass, and fractures, with subsequent diagnoses of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and myopathy.”

3. You may feel muscle weakness, aches or cramps:

Some researchers say that vitamin D is increasingly known to play an important role in normal muscle function. A low level of vitamin D is associated with an increased risk of falls and weakness. Because vitamin D deficiency is so common, and the signs are nonspecific, it is important to maintain a high index of suspected vitamin D deficiency in patients with muscle aches and weakness.”

4. You may have mood changes, such as depression:

The authors of a mental health study say: “Depression itself is a disabling condition that impairs all aspects of human function. In people with chronic medical illness, depression often makes chronic disease management more difficult.”

More recently, vitamin D has been reported in scientific and general papers as an important factor that may have significant health benefits in the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases.

5. If you are a child, you may develop rickets:

“Severe vitamin D deficiency causes rickets, which in children presents as incorrect growth patterns, muscle weakness, bone pain, and joint abnormalities,” says the Cleveland Clinic. This is extremely rare. However, children with From a lack of the sun’s vitamin also from weakness or muscle pain.”

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Vegan children are smaller than others

WarsawChildren who follow a vegan diet or are fed are on average three centimeters shorter than their peers. This comes from a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition and carried out by the UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health and the Children’s Memorial Health Institute in Poland.

According to the study, the children who eat everything also had stronger bones than their vegan peers. In concrete terms, this means that the bone mineral content in vegan children is four to six percent lower on average.

From 2014 to 2016, 187 healthy 5- to 10-year-olds in Poland were selected for the study. Of these, 63 children were vegetarians, 52 vegans and 72 omnivores. The team then collected data on growth, body composition, cardiovascular risk and micronutrient status in vegetarian or vegan children and compared them with the group of children who eat meat. The average meat abstinence period was 5.3 years for vegans and 5.9 years for vegetarians.

Vegan children have a healthier heart for this

Children who followed a vegan diet were also three times more likely to have a vitamin B12 deficiency. However, the study also found that children on a vegan diet have a healthier cardiovascular profile and less body fat than omnivorous children.

The authors of the study emphasize the need for additional vitamin B12 and vitamin D supplements in a vegan diet and that more needs to be done to sensitize families with vegetarian and vegan children to vitamin supplements – including future osteoporosis and To minimize the risk of fractures.

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