Since September 29, bars and restaurants must close at 11 p.m. everywhere in Belgium. In Brussels, bars were drastically closed on October 8 for a month – but not bar-restaurants, which are to be limited to tables of four.
This half-measure, considered discriminatory by those responsible for this sector, will it be enough to stem a second wave? Nothing is less certain in this country which has passed the barrier of 10,000 Covid-19 deaths, and is among the most affected in the world in relation to the number of inhabitants.
→ THE FACTS. Covid-19: places of worship facing new restrictions in Europe
However, the compulsory wearing of a mask and respect for social distance seem little respected. At the cash desks of some supermarkets, customers themselves make the law in the face of lax staff, so that some do not stick to others and above all, take the trouble to put on their masks correctly.
Brussels, epicenter of the pandemic
On Saturday 10, police interrupted a night party « clandestine » for 54 people in a small hotel in downtown Brussels, privatized for the occasion. The rue Neuve, the main pedestrian artery of the city center, was crowded the same evening, with passers-by sometimes without masks, neither checked nor fined.
→ READ. Coronavirus, Belgium is going through a critical phase
Brussels, spared at the start of the pandemic, has become its epicenter in Belgium. The screening tests are 17% positive, against 10.4% nationally. Belgium had 120 admissions per day to the hospital from October 2 to 8, for 16 deaths per day on average (+ 6.7% compared to the previous week).
The number of cases doubles every two days
According to the Crisis Center set up by the government, the number of diagnosed cases doubles every two days (+ 7,950 on October 11). The 20-29 age group is the most affected, and the oldest are not spared. Of the 1,329 people currently hospitalized because of Covid-19, as of October 12, 243 are in intensive care – 13% of the country’s maximum capacity, which could be saturated at the end of the month.
→ ANALYSIS. Is the new Belgian government solid?
The provinces of Walloon Brabant and Luxembourg imposed for two weeks, on October 12, a curfew between 1 a.m. and 6 a.m., criticized for its unnecessary nature. While the measures continue to rain, in dispersed order, the spokespersons of the catering sector point the finger at the lack of special provisions in public transport, places of spread of the virus, and consider the measures counterproductive , because bar customers are now more than ten at home in the evening, due to the closure of their favorite café.
The exponential increase in infections of covid-19 in Belgium has led this Friday to federal government to harden the security measures to contain as much as possible the second wave of the pandemic that runs through Europe. As explained by the Prime Minister, Alexander de Croo, bars and restaurants throughout the country they must temporarily close for a month, although there will be an assessment of the situation in 15 days. The sale of alcohol will be prohibited from 8:00 p.m. and there will be curfew from midnight to five in the morning.
“I am aware that the measures are harsh and unfair but unfortunately the virus is also unfair and affects us all, particularly the most vulnerable people, but it is now that we have to react,” De Croo said after the meeting of the concertation committee held this Friday between the federal government and regional officials to agree on the new measures that will come into force this next monday.
The prime minister explained that despite the measures taken last week, the spread of the virus is accelerating and that action was necessary. “The figures do not stop increasing, they double every week and today there are about 2,000 people hospitalized, 327 people in intensive care and 35 people died yesterday,” the Belgian liberal has detailed about “alarming and higher” figures, he said, “at March and April.” De Croo has also warned that the next few days will be very bad and that the situation will get worse. “The figures will continue to increase. In the coming days the news will be bad,” he warned.
Social bubble to a minimum
The government’s decision also includes a reduction in the social bubble so that apart from the people with whom you live, you can only have close contact – hugging without maintaining the social distance or mask – with one person (currently there are three), although it can be received at home up to a maximum of four , the same throughout the month, as long as security measures are maintained through distance or the mask. The restaurants will be able to serve meals, although only to take away and until 10 pm, while the markets will be able to continue operating although guaranteeing security measures.
In addition, the telecommuting it will again become the rule of thumb as far as possible. In cases where it is not, companies must do their utmost to protect their employees. In addition, as in some cities in France, a curfew throughout the country, which means that between midnight and five in the morning in which it will be in force, you will not be able to walk on the street except for just cause or essential displacement.
“We do not want people to organize parties at home. We know that the temptation is strong and the best way to avoid it is to tell them that they cannot go from one place to another between midnight and 5 in the morning,” the health minister justified , Frank Vanderbroucke. “We are in an extremely serious situation and we want to prevent hospitals from being able to care for the sick,” he justified, claiming that if they want to keep schools open and businesses running, it is necessary. According to the latest figures, between October 6 and 12, Belgium has registered an average of 5,976.3 new coronavirus infections per day. Only last Monday, 8,500 were registered, the highest number since the pandemic broke out.
A year and four months after the last legislative elections, Belgium has finally found a new prime minister and a coalition government. Formed by seven minority parties from the left, the center and the liberal right, the new executive will govern without the Flemish separatists, who came out first in the May 2019 poll, with respectively 16.6% and 12.3% of the votes for the NVA (right) and Vlaams Belang (far right). It turned out to be impossible to form a coalition with them, Wallonia having mainly voted on the left.
A tightrope walker prime minister
The new prime minister, Alexander De Croo, who turns 45 on November 3, is a centrist from the Open Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten (Open VLD), who came sixth in the 2019 elections. Above all, he is a Flemish, who owes his new post to the elegant withdrawal of French-speaking Paul Magnette, leader of the largest party in the coalition, the Socialist Party (PS). The latter considered better “For the stability of the country that we have a Flemish prime minister after ten years of a French-speaking prime minister”.
→ READ. Coronavirus, Belgium is going through a critical phase
De Croo will therefore have to play a tightrope walk, along the lines of an alliance that is not in the majority in Flanders. “This coalition is, by definition, fragile, because it brings together parties with different, even antagonistic, expectations. At the same time, it could hold out, because its components have more interest in maintaining it than in bringing it down, with early elections ”, estimates Pascal Delwit, professor of political science at the Free University of Brussels.
The son of a liberal politician, Alexander De Croo was a partly United States-trained commercial engineer, a former consultant to the Boston Consulting Group (BCG). He began his political career at the age of 34, in 2009, after a failure at the Europeans. He nevertheless replaced Guy Verhofstadt at the head of the Open VLD, and brought down the government of Yves Leterme in 2010, which he left over a linguistic conflict, concerning the bilingual municipalities of Flanders near Brussels.
Deputy Prime Minister since 2012, he held the ministerial portfolios of pensions, then of development cooperation, the digital agenda, telecommunications and the post, before being entrusted in 2018 with that of finance.
Crash test you budget
Today, announcements are raining for a country that wants to “United, prosperous and sustainable”. It is planned to revalue pensions, to increase health spending by 2.5% per year, to grant the right to vote at 16 for European women, to launch a recovery plan of 4.7 billion euros. euros, including a billion investment to get out of the Covid-19 crisis, but also to refinance the police, justice and information, not to mention a 55% reduction in greenhouse gases by 2030.
“The whole question with this program is how the Greens and the Socialists will be able to reorient public policies in the areas of health or the environment, without touching taxation, while the liberals are hostile to any creation of ‘direct tax’, comments Pascal Delwit.
The broad tax reform is coupled with an even heavier project: the reform of the State, notoriously complex in Belgium, by 2024, the date of the next legislative elections. The objective relates to a “More homogeneous and efficient distribution of skills”. This could create many bones of contention, as the N-VA and Vlaams Belang prepare to fill their voices in 2024, in a much more comfortable role of opponents.
53,000 new infections in the US, 30,000 in France – record levels in Europe
| Reading time: 4 minutes
Spain has long been superseded as Europe’s hotspot: the Czech Republic, Belgium and the Netherlands have long reported the highest numbers of infections by a large margin. The numbers from Germany also continue to cause concern. An overview in graphics and numbers.
Dhe Corona situation in Europe is getting worse. More and more countries are reporting record numbers of new infections. In Germany, the reports from the health authorities on Saturday remained, as expected, below the record values that the Robert Koch Institute had reported in the past few days. Nevertheless, RKI reported early Sunday morning 5587 New infections an extraordinarily high number compared to the 3483 infections last Sunday.
The number of new infections reached 7830 for the third time in a row on Saturday. In its situation report from Saturday evening, the RKI points out that now more than half of all counties have an increased spread of the coronavirus of more than 25 detected infections per week and 100,000 inhabitants.
Since the beginning of the Corona crisis, according to the RKI, at least 361.974 People in Germany have been proven to be infected with the Sars-CoV-2 virus (as of October 18, 12:00 am). The number of deaths in connection with a corona infection was therefore 9777. That was ten more than the previous day. The RKI estimates that there are around 291,900 recovered.
The reproduction number, in short R value, was included in Germany according to the RKI situation report on Sunday 1,44 (Previous day: 1.40). This means that an infected person infects just under 1.3 other people on average. The R-value depicts the infection rate about one and a half weeks beforehand. In addition, the RKI gives the so-called seven-day R with 1.35 in its current management report. The value relates to a longer period and is therefore less subject to daily fluctuations.
In Europe several countries reported record levels of new infections. France reported almost 30,000 new infections on Sunday. The cases are over 29.837 The Ministry of Health announced that it has risen to a total of 897,034. Another 85 people died from or with the virus. The total death toll in France is 33,477.
When the 10,000 mark was exceeded for the first time, the number of new corona infections in Czech Republic reached a record high. In the EU country were on Friday 11.105 positive tests recorded within 24 hours, according to data from health officials on Saturday. That was the highest recorded value on a day since the beginning of the pandemic. The previous high of almost 9700 new infections had been registered the day before. In the Czech Republic, more tests were recently carried out, after the positive rate was previously 14 percent. The country has a total of almost 10.7 million inhabitants so far 160.112 confirmed infections and 1283 Coronavirus-related deaths. In Prague, a field hospital is now being built on the exhibition grounds in order to be able to care for additional patients in the event that the hospitals are overloaded.
In relation to its inhabitants, the Czech Republic is by far the EU country most severely hit by the virus. According to the EU authority ECDC on Sunday, the 14-day incidence per 100,000 inhabitants was 828.4. Also badly hit in Europe Belgium (proportionately 700.8 new infections in 14 days) and the Netherlands (509.5). Follow only afterwards France (388,8), Great Britain (338,2), Slovenia (327,5), Island (325.4) and Spain (312,4).
Slovenia has now announced that it will give up contact tracking in view of the high number of new infections. Also reports record values Poland. Arrived within 24 hours 9622 Cases added, as emerged from data from the Ministry of Health on Saturday. That was the highest recorded value on a day since the beginning of the pandemic. On Thursday, the ministry announced that the number of new infections registered daily had exceeded the 8,000 mark for the first time. Overall, Poland recorded so far 167.230 confirmed infections and 3524 Coronavirus-related deaths. The country has around 38 million inhabitants.
In the EU and its most important European partner countries, more than 200,000 people have now died in connection with Covid-19 disease. As the ECDC figures showed, there have been just under 4.8 million confirmed corona infections in the European Economic Area (EEA) including Great Britain 200.587 reported Deaths. Most of the deaths were recorded in the United Kingdom (43,579), Italy (36,474), Spain (33,775), France (33,392), Belgium (10,392) and Germany (9777).
Worldwide there is according to Johns Hopkins Universityat least 39.67 million People infected with Covid-19 (as of October 18, 09:20 a.m.). Thereof 1.109.838 People died from the virus.
The USA vrecord according to the CDC disease protection authority now more than eight million Coronavirus infections. On Sunday were 53,157 new infections reported. The number of dead rises by 593 218.511.
Nine US states have highs in new infections. Wisconsin reported about 3747 confirmed cases within 24 hours. In some areas of the state, according to the authorities, only ten percent of the intensive care beds in clinics are free. “We are at a very critical point,” explains Governor Tony Evers.
You can follow all current and worldwide developments regarding the coronavirus in our live ticker.
Do you have any questions about the coronavirus? Here you will find the most important facts and information.
The Belgian government will close all catering establishments for a month and set a night clock. No one is allowed to take to the streets without good reason between midnight and 5:00 am. The measures were announced by the government during a press conference on Friday evening.
The new corona measures will take effect from Monday. The measures came about after consultation between federal and Flemish ministers, the Belgian media report. It is not yet known until exactly when the night clock will apply.
According to HLN there will be a compensation for the catering entrepreneurs. The catering establishments also had to close their doors earlier this year.
Under the new measures, each family may have only one close contact. There will also be a limit of a maximum of four people receiving home. People also have to work from home as much as possible. There will also be a ban on the sale of alcohol after 8 p.m.
“Some will call these measures harsh and unjust. The virus is unjust. It affects all of us, but especially the weakest,” said Flemish Prime Minister Alexander de Croo. “The measures are very difficult, but we are doing this to prevent worse.”
‘Rise is alarming’
De Croo calls the increase in the number of infections “alarming”. “Belgium is in the highest alert phase: level four. The number of infections is increasing every day and also very quickly.”
The largest increases can be observed in the Brussels-Capital Region and in Wallonia. Every day an average of three thousand new infections are added. Nearly 200,000 cases are known in Belgium.
Earlier this week, the Netherlands issued a negative travel advice for Belgium.
The future of bread is in his past. And really this phrase hides a lot of truth. More and more we hear the word sourdough and even more in times of quarantine when we are encouraged to make bread at home. Through Zoom we were able to chat with world sourdough guru Karl von Stedt from Belgium and showed us the Puratos library, where there are more than 100 sourdoughs from around the world.
–How did you fall in love with bread?
-Bread is an amazing ingredient. It made us human beings what we are today. Bread is like the cornerstone of civilization, I couldn’t imagine a world without bread. And I also consider that it is one of the only crafts that gives life. By mixing flour and water you allow the fermentation to release all its benefits. Compared to a chef, where everything must be killed before being turned into a dish; a baker must bring bread to life. That is why I fell in love with him.
–What are the benefits of using sourdough?
-Sourdough has many benefits, and there are several ongoing scientific studies that will confirm this with more specific data. The presence of lactic acid bacteria in sourdough aids in the digestion of flour. The human body cannot digest flour completely because our intestinal transit is too fast to do it. By giving these bacteria (which are the same that we have in our intestines) the opportunity to begin to digest the components of the flour previously, it is much healthier.
It also has many nutrients such as amino acids, minerals, fibers and vitamins. An example is the removal of phytic acid. Phytic acid creates a barrier in our body to absorb these nutrients. The production of organic acids, a product of lactic acid bacteria in the sourdough, results in a decrease in PH in the dough. This allows an enzyme called phytase rEducate these phytic acids and perm to our body to absorb the full potential of the grain / flour. We know that sourdough provides flavor, texture and preservation. But in the future these studies will clearly show that sourdough bread is even better than fresh leavened bread only.
–Why is something so old today so fashionable?
-Because it is the most traditional way of making bread. It has been missing for many years because yeast made it easier for bakers. When commercial yeast entered the European market in 1867, bakers migrated en masse to this revolutionary ingredient. They could make more bread in less time. One of the reasons why sourdough has returned to be present on the map is because our company (Puratos) promotes the use of sourdough since 1994, the year we started producing sourdough as a flavor enhancer for our customers.
Little by little customers began to use it, supermarkets began to include sourdough in polvo to increase and differentiate the flavor of your breads. The word sourdough probably caused sourdough bakeries to open their doors little by little. The fact that consumers pay more attention to the quality of their food makes sourdough bread perfectly in line with expectations.
With the quarantine, people have more time to bake at home. The Internet is a great source of information. I think I have received as many questions in the last six months on social media as in the last 10 years. We have the opportunity to spread information and share knowledge very quickly. On Instagram, etc, you can see the most beautiful breads, never made before in the history of mankind. That work is contagious, it is like a virus, spreading slowly but surely.
–In Belgium, where you perform, there is a beautiful library full of sourdough, what is it like to work there?
-As there is only one Sourdough Library in the world, I am the only Sourdough Librarian. In 1994 I wanted to open my own bakery / pastry shop in Brussels, but my wife didn’t want to. So I decided to start working for Puratos. Having this library is for me like having my own business. It is a unique place. No one else in the world has the opportunity to care for such a collection. Being able to smell them, touch them, watch them bubble, bake them, and even taste them is a great experience.
And also through the library I have built an amazing network of passionate about sourdough. I connect with the most amazing people in the world. I can pick up the phone and speak to microbiologists of the world when I have a question, chatting with crazy bakers who do things a professional craftsman wouldn’t think of, helping product developers in big bakeries, talking to journalists, giving podcast interviews, participating in television shows. I never imagined this when we started with the library. But I can guarantee you that it is a multi-faceted job.
–What curiosities does the science of making bread present you?
-Making bread is pure science. Someone once said, “Fermentation is probably better invention than fire “. And that is true. All these interactions in the crowd have a purpose. When you mix flour and water, many reactions start. Yeast and lactic acid bacteria start to consume the starches, so they develop CO2 that makes the bread rise. By mixing, you transform the proteins into a gluten network, creating a balloon that keeps these CO2 in the dough and makes the bread rise. At the same time, billions of enzymes take care of biochemical reactions. During baking, the starch grain gelatinizes, turning into crumb and crust. That is the beauty of baking bread. Watch the complete transformation of simple ingredients into one of the most nutritious foods on earth. That makes bread so fascinating.
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This entry will undoubtedly force Yannick Carrasco to go down the left lane, a position he had occupied for a long time in selection before being used as a winger more recently. The former Monegasque, who returned to Atletico Madrid (ESP), remains in the eyes of his trainer a hybrid piston solution to replace Thorgan Hazard, absent. This at least prevents Timothy Castagne from starting his third international match in six days. For the rest, Martinez kept the same defense (with the Lyonnais Denayer left axis) and the same midfielders, Witsel and Tielemans, Meunier traditionally occupying the right flank.
Dhe Netherlands are reacting to the rapidly increasing number of infections, which are among the highest in Europe, with new measures. From Wednesday evening on, restaurants, pubs, cafes and coffee shops across the country will have to close for an initial four weeks. The innkeepers are to be partially compensated for this. No alcohol can be sold in shops after 8 p.m. A household can receive a maximum of three guests. Contact sports for adults are being restricted, football games by professional teams must continue to take place without spectators. The restrictions should be checked after two weeks.
Prime Minister Mark Rutte spoke of a “partial lockdown” when he presented the measures on Tuesday evening. Health Minister Hugo de Jonge threatened that if they did not have sufficient effect, a “complete lockdown” would have to be imposed. The government wants to make wearing face masks an obligation indoors in the future, but only on a new legal basis. “We have to regulate this legally,” said Rutte. They make medical sense.
Gareth Southgate recently let it be known that he had certain doubts when he started working as England national coach. Should he really do the job? As a selection player in the deeper and deeper stresses of his coaches Terry Venables, Glenn Hoddle, Kevin Keegan and Sven-Göran Eriksson, he had seen the dark side of the office with his own eyes: The aggressive press, the snotty professionals, the feeling that there was nothing to win anyway because it always goes wrong in the end anyway, in case of doubt on penalties, as with Southgate’s own miss in the semi-finals of the 1996 European Championship against Germany.
Two decades later he slipped into his job. Southgate coached the U21s when, after the debacle of the soccer motherland against the 330,000-inhabitant nation Iceland at the European Championship 2016, the supposed innovator had to take his hat back after two months: Sam Allardyce had, among other things, tips on regular fraud in transfer deals to newspaper reporters disguised as investors given as well as blasphemed about players, predecessors and association. A scandal as a stumbling block, nothing new either. The eternal affairs of professionals and trainers are also an integral part of the folklore of 54 untitled “years of hurt”.
But Southgate succeeded in replacing suffering and old patterns with a spirit of optimism. The 2018 World Cup turned out to be zero hour, because the story turned into the opposite: instead of coming as a hyped favorite and leaving as a mocked whipping boy, a selection that had hardly been noticed beforehand exceeded expectations and reached a tournament semi-final for the first time in 24 years . England is fourth in the world rankings, the game on Sunday in the Nations League against First Belgium – reissue of the game for third place in the World Cup – so a real top game.
Serious England, then Corona came
In previous years, a new England could be seen, which even won penalty shootouts and confirmed their success with third place in the Nations League 2019. An England that had said goodbye to its last big bully in Wayne Rooney and came along without airs, feasts or tabloid publicity. That kept filling up with talents from its academy programs. A serious England with the modern team leader Southgate, for which a bright future was waiting, maybe already at the multinational EM 2020 with their “Final Four” in their home in London.
But then Corona came. Ten months without an international match. And now suddenly: relapses in times believed to be forgotten. Sure, things are not going to be the same as on the “dentist chair” before the European Championships in 1996, when the players around Paul Gascoigne opened their mouths as wide as they did in the dentist’s office: only for high-proof. As far as is known, Captain Harry Kane did not take a teammate’s girlfriend like John Terry once did Wayne Bridge.
The controlled Southgate, on the other hand, does not give the impression that it can vilify disabled people like Hoddle. Or like Eriksson, aka: “The horny Sven”, first start an affair with an association employee and then – well before Allardyce – sit up with a newspaper reporter disguised as a sheikh. Over and over again boasting, over and over again women, over and over again alcohol.
In comparison, the surprise party last weekend for the 23rd birthday of striker Tammy Abraham with around 20 guests – including teammates Ben Chilwell and Jadon Sancho – was like a choirboy. However, at the moment only six people from different households are allowed to meet in the UK. In the case of Sancho, it was also strange that he was absent from his club Borussia Dortmund all week due to an infection. Most of all, Southgate had to be displeased that the episode fitted in with the latest escapade trend of his national team.
At Maguire, the crime scene was called Mykonos
During the previous international match window, two other young stars in Mason Greenwood and Phil Foden had violated the corona regulations when they smuggled two local beauties into their room during the game in Iceland, documented on social networks. And already in the summer, a robber pistol from defender Harry Maguire from his vacation in Greece caused a stir.
Foreign missions are also a traditional specialty of English national players, there was once a notorious sex video scandal by Rio Ferdinand and Frank Lampard in Cyprus. At Maguire, the crime scene was now called Mykonos. In addition to mobbing and a brawl – as far as the usual – the defense lawyer is said to have also injured, insulted and tried to bribe police officers.
“Do you know who I am?”, This classic of celebrities in trouble, Maguire is said to have added when he was arrested: “I am very rich, I can give you money”. A Greek court sentenced him to a long suspended sentence, the player protested his innocence; attempts were made to kidnap him.
The English and their adventures: this is how it always was, evidently always will be, and this is how it has always been part of the entertainment on the boulevard. But if you can’t do anything with it, you are the trainer. Southgate threw Maguire out of the squad for September internationals. Foden and Greenwood have to sit out. Sancho, Abraham and Chilwell were allowed to rejoin the team after missing the test against Wales (3-0). Your chances of playing against Belgium and against Denmark on Wednesday remain a different question.
Southgate, 50, seems to be struck by the cracks in the idyll. He has to walk a tightrope, show authority without betraying his cooperative leadership style. “Such a circus,” he says of the debauchery, “harms the team,” it costs energy, time and increases the pressure, which is already great. After almost four years as the English national coach, he feels the downside, almost imploringly he conjures up the achievements of his tenure: “We had to walk through tall grass so that this team would be respected again. We are not ready to give that up. “
The largest Belgian mobile operator Proximus wants to build its 5G core network with the Swedish network equipment supplier Ericsson. Both companies announced this on Friday in Brussels. In recent years, the former mobile communications division of the former state-owned company Belgacom relied primarily on technology from the Chinese 5G provider Huawei to expand its network. Huawei in particular is suspected by the US of cooperating too closely with the Chinese Communist Party.
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Proximus manager Geert Standaert said the decision to work with Ericsson was an important step in implementing the network strategy. The cloud solution will also be used to renew the existing 4G network (LTE).
Few 5G providers
The decision in Belgium was preceded by long discussions about possible additional costs when switching to a new supplier. The network operators in Germany are also leading a similar debate.
In the technically complicated market for the new 5G mobile communications standard, which requires billions to be invested in research and development, there are only a comparatively few providers worldwide. In addition to the Chinese groups Huawei and ZTE, these are above all Ericsson and Nokia from Scandinavia and Samsung from South Korea. US providers such as Cisco and Aruba Networks (Hewlett Packard Enterprise) only play a role in marginal areas.
Trump assumes Huawei is close to the Chinese government
The US government in particular has political reservations about the suppliers from China. President Donald Trump’s administration alleges that Huawei is inappropriately close to the Chinese government and has raised security concerns. Under pressure from the USA, Great Britain has also decided to forego 5G equipment from Huawei, although this entails high additional costs for expanding the 5G network. 5G creates the basis, among other things, for the networking of machines in industry and of intelligent devices as well as for digitization in many areas of life.
The Belgian telecommunications group Belgacom was at the center of an espionage affair in 2013. At the time, a publication by US whistleblower Edward Snowden suggested that the British secret service GCHQ had penetrated Belgacom’s computer network with a cyber attack in 2011. Belgacom stated at the time that the attack had had limited success. In the materials published by Snowden, however, it was said that the GCHQ, with the help of the US secret service NSA, was able to penetrate deep into the network and thereby gain access to the data streams of Belgacom customers.