»There would still be space« (neue-deutschland.de)

From Berlin it is said again and again: We have space. Is that so?

We will have space when the accommodation on Columbiadamm in Tempelhof opens. We have been working on this for many months. Then we could use the Tempohomes again, which are there and which were only in use for almost two years. Ideally, that would be up to 800 places. Otherwise we currently have around 1000 free places in Berlin. That is not a lot with just under 20,000 residents.

So there would not only be space for the 300 refugees from Greece that Berlin wants to accept through the state admission program, but also for 300 more from Bosnia-Herzegovina, as is being demanded?

After the current situation and the pandemic-related lower number of refugees, there would still be room. However, we do not know how this will develop after the end of the pandemic, whether there will be post-migration to Berlin. Overall, we have a shortage of accommodation. Because the MUF

Alexander Straßmeir, President of the State Office for Refugee Affairs

Photo: nd / Ulli Winkler

(Modular accommodation for refugees, editor’s note)that were planned by the Senate have not been established in all districts.

To what extent undersupply?

A total of 38,000 MUF places should be set up in the districts. Of these, 7,000 are still missing. The plan was for each district to build two locations with 500 spaces each. That didn’t happen. There were also districts that say we have no space. Believe it or not.

Half of the residents in the refugee shelters, i.e. around 10,000 people, are actually homeless, for whose accommodation the districts are responsible. Why doesn’t this happen?

It is that our accommodations are of a better standard than most of the accommodations that use the boroughs. The districts often accommodate homeless people in accommodations that do not have quality management like our accommodations. They also put up in hostels where there is no social work or psychological care. Quite simply, there is a lack of district accommodation.

Is that why you are now also accommodating homeless people who have not fled?

Next week a single mother and her three children will move from an accommodation for homeless people to a refugee accommodation that is not very busy. This is a model project that we will analyze for future offers.

People sometimes stay in the accommodations for a long time. What would have to happen for that to change?

We simply need more apartments. The fact that people in Berlin live in accommodation for a very long time, even when they are no longer in the asylum procedure, is due to the housing shortage in Berlin.

Is there a need for a quota for state-owned housing companies?

Given the scarcity, the fact that we accommodated 2,000 people in apartments last year is a good achievement. But far from satisfying given the crowd looking for an apartment. I think having more housing is better than arguing about how the shortage is distributed.

Couldn’t a quota help anyway?

Most importantly, new homes are being built. People with a migration background are at a disadvantage when looking for accommodation, which is why easing the situation on the market is what would help our clients best.

In the pandemic, there are repeated calls to dissolve collective accommodation because you cannot keep your distance there and you cannot isolate yourself. Is this realistic?

We have taken a lot of measures. We have offered residents of accommodations with shared kitchens and bathrooms that they can temporarily move into vacant Tempohomes with their own bathroom and kitchen. That didn’t have a big impact. We have put a lot into hygiene measures and education. In the event of infections, we immediately brought those affected to parts of the accommodation where they have their own kitchen and sanitary unit, or brought them to our quarantine location.

What about accommodation in vacant hotels?

The advantage of accommodation over a hostel or hotel is that we have common rooms and kitchens. Often there is no such thing in hostels. How should the people look after themselves there? Above all, there is support from social workers and psychologists in LAF accommodation; a volunteer structure, for example help with homework for children. All of that would fall away. Accommodation in hotels sounds good at first, but it has major disadvantages. However, it will always have to be checked whether it is the better way in a changed situation.

How’s homeschooling going?

When it comes to e-learning, Berlin is not so well positioned anyway, which is twice as difficult for refugee children. Originally we only had WiFi access in common rooms. The pandemic taught us that this is not enough. We want to create WLAN access in all rooms. We have managed that 61 of our 78 accommodations, that is 78 percent, are now fully equipped with WiFi. This means that digital learning at home is also possible for the refugee children.

However, not every refugee child has a digital device.

It was good that the Senate Department for Education made devices available to schoolchildren. This has also achieved some refugee families. But the number of end devices is still too small.

How is the mood in the accommodations at the moment?

For the most part, I perceive our residents to be very sensible. It is clear that this is sometimes a psychological burden.

How often are residents and employees tested?

All those arriving at the arrival center are tested twice. Otherwise, employees and residents have the opportunity to be tested if there is a reason. We don’t test everyone on suspicion.

Subject vaccination: is there a vaccination strategy for refugee accommodation?

I have worked to ensure that we prefer the residents of the accommodation, as well as the employees, even further than was previously planned. I think it makes sense to vaccinate the whole facility at the same time.

The LAF was founded almost five years ago. What has improved since then and what still needs to be improved?

We have a significantly increased quality of our accommodation, nobody lives in emergency shelters anymore, nobody lives in gyms anymore. The accommodations we are building now are of a significantly higher standard. And we want to further improve the quality, towards more living-like forms and thus more independence.


Anzing: New asylum apartments with 50 places – Ebersberg

“It is a small, if quite colorful, piece of the puzzle in the puzzle of affordable living space.” This sentence, uttered by District Administrator Robert Niedergesäß (CSU), is correct in two ways: The newly created residential complex on the southern outskirts of Anzing can provide recognized refugees and needy community citizens with a roof over their heads at low cost. And then the building with its colorful entrance doors across from the tennis facility on Parkstrasse is also visually quite positive.

In the eleven residential units themselves, given the empty rooms and the light bulbs dangling loosely from the ceiling, it doesn’t look exactly cozy at the moment. But that should change soon, as everyone involved agreed at the official opening date. The Upper Bavarian District President Maria Els came to the Ebersberg district for this purpose – a sign of the importance of this project for the Free State, as District Administrator Niedergesäß noted. In fact, the government has invested around 2.5 million euros in Anzing to create apartments for low-income locals and recognized refugees. The money comes from the funding pot of the Bavarian Housing Pact, with which the Free State wants to counter the acute housing shortage in the metropolitan areas.

“There is not enough living space,” said Maria Els on Friday afternoon in Anzing. The eleven apartments that the Free State has built on its own land under the leadership of the Rosenheim State Building Authority are an important contribution to the accommodation of refugees, according to the District President. According to Els, it is also important and sensible that the local community also has a right of occupancy. Eight residential units will be allocated by the government of Upper Bavaria, while the other three apartments will be allocated by the municipality of Anzing. The size of the living space varies from 45 to 116 square meters.

The first new tenants will move in in the south of Anzing in the next few days. The residents of the largest of the eleven apartments have also already been determined: a family of eight who fled the war in Syria will live there in the future. As Maria Els emphasized, only refugees with permanent right to stay would move into the residential complex. In total, the two buildings are designed for up to 50 people. “Independent living is important for integration,” said the district president. But that is often difficult to do. Because of the lack of living space, it is often difficult for recognized refugees to leave the accommodation, which in turn leads to a high number of so-called incorrect occupants.

Anzings Mayors Kathrin Alte, District President Maria Els and District Administrator Robert Niedergesäß at a meeting in front of the ready-to-move house on Friday.

(Photo: Christian Endt)

All those involved were all the happier that the two buildings are now available “in the best residential area in Anzingen”, as Mayor Kathrin Alte (CSU) said. Who from the community can move into the apartments will be determined according to various criteria, as Elisabeth Stanglmeier from the local helpers group explained. It depends on how long the people have already lived in the community, whether there are health problems, how old they are and whether they have families. According to Stanglmeier, there is a lot of pressure because some of the people have been living in refugee shelters for years.

Some of them will now be able to gain a foothold with their own apartment in Anzing. So that the move goes smoothly, the local boys’ association also wants to lend a hand, as Mayor Alte said. The local fire department had already delivered washing machines for the residents last Friday.

The government is implementing projects like the one in Anzing all over Bavaria. A total of 100 million euros is available for this purpose. The Free State relies on a standardized space program that is adapted to the respective situation on site. According to District President Els, this creates “an important basis for successful integration” and “also helps to relieve the housing market”.


Seehofer turns in late (neue-deutschland.de)

Photo: dpa / Jens Kalaene

Seven months after the Federal Administrative Court had actually forced him to do so, Federal Interior Minister Horst Seehofer (CSU) gave in to the dispute over church asylum. It’s about so-called Dublin cases. These are refugees who are threatened with deportation to the European country where they were first registered during their flight. In order to be protected from repatriation, they should in future have to spend less time in church asylum.

Dublin cases make up the lion’s share of church asylums. In December there were 282 such cases out of 295 church asylums, according to the nationwide working group “Asylum in the Church”. The Dublin Regulation states that you should complete your asylum procedure in the EU state you enter first. Other European countries can take over the asylum procedure in humanitarian emergencies. They have to take it over if they fail to send the refugee to the other EU country for six months. Only in cases when the refugees go into hiding in Germany do German authorities have 18 instead of six months to send the refugees to other EU countries.

Many refugees resist being returned to other EU countries because they had traumatic experiences there. They were abandoned homeless in Italy, tortured in Croatia or had to endure in Greek slum camps. Other refugees have relatives in Germany who look after them and therefore want to stay here. If parishes recognize a humanitarian hardship, they grant sanctuary. Most of the refugees in church asylum are also sick. When so-called Dublin cases go to church asylum, all they have to do is wait until the six or 18 months are up. Then you can stay here until your asylum procedure has been completed.

In the summer of 2018, the federal and state interior ministers decided to treat all refugees in sanctuary as if they had gone into hiding. In other words, parishes did not have to host them for six months, but rather 18 months to give them temporary protection. Unless the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees recognized a case of hardship. According to “Asylum in the Church” from 2018 onwards, this was increasingly rare. For the refugees this meant: They were excluded from all integration measures for 18 months. The parishes, monasteries and religious orders had to provide for the livelihood of their guests for 18 months. Because anyone who is in church asylum is excluded from state benefits. The churches also have to pay for medical services for their guests during this time. This is where denominational hospitals often step in by providing free treatment.

In June 2018 the Federal Administrative Court ruled that it is unlawful to consider refugees in church asylum as hiding. Numerous administrative courts had previously seen it that way. The authorities know where they are and could theoretically deport them. Simply out of respect for the church as an institution, they do not do this. The judges ruled that the deadline to send people to southern Europe must end after six months, not 18. Nevertheless, it took Seehofer’s authority seven months to implement the highest court ruling.

The ecumenical working group “Asylum in the Church” welcomed the late decision. “We now hope that this will initiate a return to a solution-oriented understanding on humanitarian hardship cases,” says spokeswoman Dietlind Jochims. For the people in sanctuary there is hope that their reasons for fleeing could be examined more quickly.


A new shoot for more say (neue-deutschland.de)

An unrenovated prefabricated building in Berlin Marzahn-Hellersdorf.

Foto: picture-alliance / ZB

“I would like there to be a garden here where we can have watermelons and tomatoes,” says Edita. The 13-year-old stands on a large green area on Maxie-Wander-Straße in the Hellersdorf district. She and some of her fellow campaigners from the refugee shelter opposite have high hopes for the district’s future construction projects on this wasteland. “I wish there was a house here where only girls can come in. So without boys, because they always annoy us, ”says ten-year-old Shakhsalem, for example.

The young activists address their wishes to those responsible in district politics. Together with the child and youth participation office Marzahn-Hellersdorf they shot a video with which they stand up for their cause. They implemented this plan as part of the Young Politics Studio project, which is intended to offer a pandemic-friendly alternative to the annual children’s and youth assemblies. In recent years, these gatherings have provided space for children and young people to exchange their concerns and questions with district politicians. Since these face-to-face events are not allowed to take place in the Corona lockdown due to the far too high risk of infection, this year they are instead making videos that they are sending to the district office and are now waiting for the answers – also as a video.

The films of the young people available online offer an interesting insight into their diverse problems and interests: The UN youth leisure facility in Marzahn, for example, fears that if the four-lane federal road B158 is planned to be converted, it will lead directly through their garden in the future. Schoolchildren in the Mahlsdorf district are still waiting for the construction of a previously missing youth club to begin. The team of the Children’s and Youth Parliament in the process of being founded is committed to ensuring that young people’s participation is structurally anchored in the district. Activists from Fridays For Future are calling for more climate protection measures. And children from the refugee accommodation on Albert-Kuntz-Straße in Hellersdorf want zebra crossings to be created for the way to school and musical instruments to be obtained for their accommodation.

So far, only two response videos from the district office have been published. “We are continuing to work on making response videos to all questions,” assures Frank Petersen, the press spokesman for the Marzahn-Hellersdorf district office. But this is a complex process in which many different departments of the district office are involved. It would therefore take some time, he said on request.

The next step is to publish an answer for the children on Maxie-Wander-Straße. Susan Hermenau, the coordinator for refugee issues in the district office, can give an insight in advance. “The green space in front of the refugee accommodation is intended for municipal housing, among other things,” she explains to the “nd”. Until there is construction, the area can be used for cultural events. “As an integration office, we are pleased that the refugee children are getting involved, they are often forgotten or not asked,” says Susan Hermenau.

Antonia Groner works for the child and youth participation office Marzahn-Hellersdorf and prepared and moderated the content of the question videos together with some of her colleagues. “Children and young people should participate politically and be involved,” says the 20-year-old. Overall, she is satisfied with the video version that she developed for the children and youth assembly.

“The whole thing was of course much more complex now, but I think it was worth it,” says Groner.


Bosnian camps: coalition refuses to accept refugees (neue-deutschland.de)

Foto: picture alliance/dpa/AP | Kemal Softic

According to its own statements, the federal government is doing enough for refugees who are stuck in Bosnian camps. According to the Federal Ministry of the Interior, there are no plans to bring migrants from there to Germany without shelter. According to the agency’s report, a spokeswoman said that the federal government had “appealed to both the central government and local authorities to find workable solutions for those in need of protection immediately and, in addition to the EU, offered its support in improving the local situation.” .

About a week ago, the Lipa camp in the border area with Croatia burned down and local protests failed to relocate the people to an old barracks. The EU announced that it would provide a further 3.5 million euros for the Balkan state in order to better accommodate refugees.

SPD politicians were open to taking on those seeking protection. Representatives of the Union rejected these considerations. Criticism of this stance came from the left-wing group on Tuesday. “It is a humanitarian duty for the federal government to take in refugees from the Lipa camp and to become active in the EU in order to negotiate a European solution for the people,” said parliamentary group leader Amira Mohamed Ali the “nd”. Anyone who simply blocks now will only contribute to exacerbating the catastrophic humanitarian situation of the refugees on site. “The Federal Government must ensure that the refugees are no longer denied the right to a fair asylum procedure in the EU,” said Mohamed Ali.

The organization Pro Asyl informed the “nd” on request: “There is no chance of protection and asylum in tents at the gates of the EU. The borders to the EU must be opened. «The situation is a direct consequence of the misery administration in Greece and the illegal push backs at the EU border through Croatia. “Evacuation to EU countries is inevitable, the federal and state governments must go ahead,” said Pro Asyl.

According to the United Nations, up to 2500 migrants are currently in a desperate situation in Bosnia-Herzegovina. People have to endure at night temperatures below zero degrees, sometimes outdoors or in inadequate camps without water, electricity, toilets, showers and heating.


Lipa and Kara Tepe: Europe’s misery (neue-deutschland.de)

For the refugees on Europe’s borders, the new year begins like the old one ended – with cold, misery and uncertainty. The situation is currently coming to a head, particularly in the Bosnian refugee camp in Lipa. The International Organization for Migration had actually closed the place shortly before Christmas because it was not winter-proof. There was neither enough electricity, water nor heating. Then a fire broke out that destroyed most of the infrastructure. Since then, around 1,400 people seeking protection have been stuck in Lipa – and freezing in icy temperatures and snow. The Bosnian army wanted to pitch tents on New Year’s Day, but that shouldn’t alleviate more than the greatest need.

Not far away, misery also takes its course in the Kara Tepe refugee camp on the Greek island of Lesbos. Around 7,500 people, including children, pregnant women and the sick, live here in inhumane conditions. They share Dixie toilets that fall over in storms and showers, only a few of which have hot water. Rain slush, suicide attempts, scabies and hopelessness determine everyday life. Kara Tepe is even worse than the former Moria camp, which was destroyed in a major fire, warn aid organizations.

The EU is of course aware of these cries for help. What one should not forget despite the crocodile tears of leading politicians and the propaganda of the confederation of states: Lipa and Kara Tepe are intentionally created images – with the aim of deterring further asylum seekers. The misery caused by failure to provide assistance and the death of the refugees housed there are accepted in order to maintain the isolation of Europe. These conditions will not go away by themselves in 2021 either. There is a chance for humanity only through broad resistance from civil society.


Double city with double standards (neue-deutschland.de)

Almost 7,000 citizens with a migration background live in Frankfurt (Oder). This makes the city of 58,000 inhabitants one of the municipalities with the highest proportion of foreigners in Brandenburg. The fact that Poles form the largest group after the Germans is probably due to the border location. Together with Slubice in Poland, the former Dammvorstadt on the opposite bank of the Oder, Frankfurt likes to market itself as a European twin city. With 814 people, native Syrians make up the third largest group of the population.

Two and a half years ago, this group came into the public eye: Above all, young refugees from the civil war country and from other countries in the Arab region shook the feeling of security in Frankfurt. Lennépark and an adjoining shopping area in the city center became the scene of drug trafficking, assaults, theft and clashes.

When a group of refugees attacked the »Frosch« discotheque at the end of August 2018 and attacked visitors – there were also refugees among those attacked – Mayor René Wilke (left) had enough. He was the first politician in Brandenburg to initiate deportation proceedings against eight so-called intensive offenders. He pleaded that innocent refugees approved of his actions. Nevertheless, this approach caused a stir and brought him criticism from his own party. A German criminal will only be brought to justice. Die Linke rejects double punishment for criminal refugees through additional deportation.

In Frankfurt (Oder) the situation has calmed down in the meantime. According to the city administration, there has not been an accumulation of serious crimes by foreigners since then. The mayor does not want to reduce the détente in Frankfurt (Oder) solely on the expulsions – three have already been decided, but no one has yet been deported. The city reacted in a “multi-layered way” with integrative, preventive and restrictive means, he says. “For example, we have reorganized our immigration office in such a way that employees there now have better access to migrants, develop a greater cultural understanding of foreign immigrants themselves, and so some conflicts can be resolved more easily,” says the mayor.

This is confirmed by Mirko Marschner, the head of the immigration office. Of his ten employees, four now have a migration background and come from the Frankfurt European University “Viadrina”. “We advertised these positions specifically and it was worth it,” he says. It is easier for the Egyptian colleague or the employee from the Ukraine to make Syrian or Chechen migrants understand, for example, why they have to fill out an application for a lot in Germany in order to achieve or get something, explains Marschner. With its integration offers and prevention efforts, the city is also reaching its limits, especially with young refugees.

“We show potential criminals the consequences under immigration law beforehand: So what happens if they don’t take a path other than the criminal one,” adds Steffen Wenzek. He heads the public order office, whose employees regularly check areas in the city that are considered hot spots for possible criminal offenses. Wenzek admits that the city is on the right track, but there is still no end in sight.

The Chairman of the Integration Advisory Board, Thomas Klähn, also sees that the situation has eased. However, all integration measures bypassed the group of young Arab men concerned, he says. »They are insecure and have no prospects, are put under pressure by their own families or are simply dropped. Drugs play a role, there is a lack of socio-educational or addiction counseling, ”summarizes Klähn. He is a co-founder of the “Diversity instead of simplicity” association, which has been committed to the integration of refugees in the city for years and has many personal contacts. “Especially for this group of young men, it would have to be a combination of drug counseling, professional orientation and qualification under the aspects of migration-specific framework conditions,” says Klähn. A first approach could be discussion rounds in a familiar setting.

“Just talking to everyone in a friendly way is not enough,” says Mayor Wilke. “We have a large instrument case and should use it in an emergency. Expulsion is practically the last resort. «Wilke would not hesitate to use this means again, as he says. The city had shown that it was acting consistently and had, as hoped, had a deterrent effect.

The Brandenburg Ministry of the Interior welcomes it when the immigration authorities use all means available under the Residence Act in the case of foreigners who have committed serious criminal offenses, says spokesman Andreas Carl. “That is why we advised Frankfurt on the specific legal issues relating to expulsions and in the spring set up a task force for the deportation of criminals.” Carl cannot say whether other municipalities are now also using the method of expulsion. In the future, expulsions would be better recorded in the task force and local immigration authorities would be supported in their procedures, he says. dpa / nd


At least 20 dead in a boat accident off the Tunisian coast (neue-deutschland.de)

The dead were taken to the port of Sfax.


Tunis. At least 20 migrants were killed in a boat accident off the coast of Tunisia. The Italian coast guard recovered the bodies at the accident site near the port city of Sfax, the Italian website TGCOM24 reported on Thursday. Most of them came from sub-Saharan Africa, said a spokesman for the coast guard in Sfax, Tunisia on Thursday. Five other migrants were rescued after the accident and were in mortal danger. The boat with at least 40 people on board was on its way to Italy. The search for more victims is ongoing.

Every year, thousands of people from Tunisia and Libya dare the perilous crossing to Europe. According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), more than 1200 people died in 2019. From January to August this year, the IOM had counted more than 900 deaths. According to the Tunisian Economic and Social Rights Forum, at least 12,000 migrants came to Italy by boat from Tunisia this year.

According to the Interior Ministry, Italy has seen the arrival of boat refugees crossing the Mediterranean from Tunisia have risen by 400 percent since the beginning of the year. Since Tunisia’s coast is only a few hundred kilometers from mainland Europe, the North African state is always a contact point for migrants who want to travel to Europe via the dangerous Mediterranean route. The corona epidemic has also worsened the economic situation in North Africa. In Libya, migrants and refugees are often mistreated and imprisoned. Due to the longstanding economic crisis and high unemployment in Tunisia, Tunisians are increasingly trying to get to Europe this way.

The Spanish “Open Arms” is currently the only private rescue ship in the Mediterranean. It started on Wednesday. Agencies / nd


Asylum procedures in anchor centers take a particularly long time (neue-deutschland.de)

Anchor Center Regensburg

Photo: dpa / Lino Mirgeler

Berlin. Asylum procedures in so-called anchor centers take longer than average, according to a report. Between January and November 2020, there was an average of 8.5 months between the application and the decision of the authority in an anchor center, as the Funke newspapers reported on Friday from a response by the Federal Ministry of the Interior to a request from the left-wing parliamentary group. The average of all asylum procedures during this period was 8.3 months, as the request from Left MP Ulla Jelpke further revealed.

The anchor centers, the introduction of which was decided in the coalition agreement, unite several authorities relevant for asylum procedures in one place and are intended to accelerate the procedures. Jelpke sees this goal as not being achieved. The above-average length of the proceedings in the anchor centers was a “disastrous result” for Interior Minister Horst Seehofer (CSU), Jelpke told the Funke newspapers. Allegedly, asylum procedures in the centers should be much faster, she said. “But the opposite is true, as we now see.”

The left-wing politician criticized the fact that asylum seekers were “crammed into a very small space, they should be cut off from independent advisory structures and the supporting civil society”. Not only in view of the need for the most decentralized accommodation possible in times of the corona pandemic, this model is “completely wrong”.

“I came with many dreams”
Waiting and fear in the refugee camp on Lesbos

Overall, according to the government response, the average length of asylum procedures increased this year. In 2019 it was still 6.1 months, as the Funke newspapers reported. The Ministry of the Interior justifies this in its answer to the left-wing inquiry primarily with the corona pandemic.

On the one hand, the delivery of negative notices has meanwhile been almost completely stopped because the applicants’ ability to take action was limited during the pandemic. On the other hand, many old cases were closed in 2020, which drive the cut in the length of the procedure up, according to the report in the government response. AFP / nd


Situation in Lesbos worsens (neue-deutschland.de)

Passau. According to Development Minister Gerd Müller (CSU), the situation in the Greek refugee camps has deteriorated further. After the destruction of the Moria camp on the island of Lesbos by fire, there was no improvement, Müller told the “Passauer Neue Presse”. “Everyone assumed that the terrible conditions after the fire would be improved, but unfortunately the reality is different.”

In September the previously largest refugee camp, Moria, burned down on Lesbos. As a result, a temporary tent camp was set up on the former military training area Kara Tepe. Currently 7300 people are accommodated there. In total, more than 17,000 people live in refugee camps on the Greek islands.

“The new Kara Tepe camp is obviously no better – on the contrary: Doctors Without Borders now had to start a tetanus vaccination campaign because babies are bitten by rats in wet tents,” explained Müller. “These are terrible conditions – in the middle of Europe.” The refugees are still facing the toughest winter weeks. It is particularly bad for the children who are born in refugee camps. “I spoke to African women who were raped on the run and who sat on the bare ground and waited for their children to be born. Without hygiene or medical care, “reported Müller from a visit to Moria in 2018.” This is not how life should begin. “

The CSU politician called for more engagement in the refugees’ countries of origin. It is right to better protect the EU’s external borders, but investments in the countries of origin are also necessary. AFP / nd