Corona and flies: where most germs lurk on the plane

Long-distance travel Window or aisle seat

Where most germs lurk on the plane

According to a survey, most passengers on the plane prefer a window seat. There you can enjoy an unobstructed view of the clouds and you can lean better. But what about virus protection?

| Reading time: 4 minutes

The EU agrees on these hygiene rules

The aviation industry is deep in the Corona crisis. Passengers are feeling insecure, airlines are getting into financial difficulties. Uniform hygiene standards have now been agreed at the aviation summit.

MAn can look out, lean against the wall while sleeping and is not disturbed by fellow travelers who climb over you on the way to the toilet – the advantages of a window seat on the plane are obvious. A survey by the flight search engine Skyscanner confirms this: According to this, 60 percent of all passengers prefer a seat by the window, 39 percent prefer to sit in the aisle, only one percent consciously choose the middle seat.

There is another reason that makes the window seats the most popular on the plane: If you sit there and don’t get up on the way, you have the best chance of not catching germs or viruses from other passengers – because statistically you are in contact with fewer other people on board comes as in the other places. An important seat advantage in times of coronavirus.

Specifically, window seat passengers only have contact with an average of twelve people on a flight, while on the middle seat there are 58, and those who sit in the aisle even get 64. The numbers – regardless of the coronavirus – were found by the Fly Healthy Research Team of 2018 Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. For the study, passengers and crew members on ten flights to the USA lasting three to five hours were examined.

Where most viruses are transmitted on the plane

The study results partly coincide with a study by the World Health Organization, according to which viruses in aircraft are mainly transmitted where people sit close to each other in the same area of ​​an aircraft – the WHO speaks of a risk of infection within two rows of seats.

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Anyone who wanted to go skiing in the next few weeks would have to cancel their vacation

However, the WHO study does not take into account the fact that many people stretch their legs on board, others go to the toilet or rummage in the overhead locker – all of these are further contact and virus transmission options that the American study classifies more realistically.

So what can you do to reduce the risk of infection on the plane? First of all, what you have already learned in kindergarten: Anyone who sneezes or coughs holds a handkerchief to their mouth or sneezes into the crook of their arm. Then you can of course try to reserve a window seat, which in a typical airplane with a central aisle and rows of three seats will only be possible for a third of the guests.

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Influenza

Coronavirus in Germany

Otherwise, do not touch anyone on board – if we had the opportunity, we could also get rid of the impolite bumping into the narrow aisle, that would not only be a step forward from a medical point of view, but also a civilizational gain for everyone. You should also refrain from going to the toilet – this reduces the contact with fellow passengers and you don’t even expose yourself to the bacteria and viruses that naturally lurk in the on-board toilet.

How Naomi Campbell protects herself from germs

However, there is another place on the plane that is much more contaminated with germs than the toilet and that every passenger has right in front of their noses: the folding table.

According to the travel planning portal Travelmath, which commissioned a corresponding study in 2018, the bacterial load of an airplane folding table (regardless of whether it is a window seat or not) is around eight times higher than the toilet flush button because the table surface is cleaned much less frequently and less thoroughly. So if you want to be on the safe side, don’t even use the folding table or have a disinfectant with you to sterilize the shelf.

Supermodel Naomi Campbell apparently got wind of the study – at least she confessed in a Youtube clip in 2019 that she puts on disposable gloves before every flight and wipes the table, armrests, remote control and wall paneling with wet wipes.

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“I clean everything I touch, on every plane I get on.” She always wears a face mask on board and she always has her own blanket with her to cover the seat, which she regularly uses after landing Hotel wash.

However, the risk of having too close contact with fellow passengers is manageable with her, because she does not travel in the narrow wood class, but prefers first or business armchairs.

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The bar in the Emirates A380 is not only open to first class but also business class guests

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Trouble in business class at Lufthansa

Trouble on the long haul

Can I cancel my trip due to the coronavirus?

Have you already booked your vacation to Tenerife or Milan and want to cancel now? Is the spread of the coronavirus considered force majeure, or is there a right to special termination rights? The lawyer Michael Habeck answers the most important questions.

Source: WELT / Matthias Ludwig

This article was first published in March 2019.

This text is from WELT AM SONNTAG. We are happy to deliver them to your home on a regular basis.

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Vacation in Corona times: We shouldn’t condemn travel

opinion Vacation in Corona times

What does the world offer beyond the garden fence?

Travel doesn’t have the best image at the moment – for two reasons: Corona and climate. Of course, pandemic rules and flight shame have their place. But to completely question travel as such is wrong.

| Reading time: 3 minutes

Federal government extends travel warning for more than 160 countries

A good five months ago, the federal government issued a worldwide travel warning for tourists due to Corona. It still applies to almost all countries outside Europe – and it will stay that way for the time being.

WDo you still eat what it was like when you first saw the sea in the south? Not the North or Baltic Sea, but the mystical Mediterranean in which Odysseus crossed, on whose shores there was stracciatella ice cream and mussels, almost unknown in Germany at the time?

I can remember my first time well. I was about eight years old and we were going to Lignano Sabbiadoro. That fantastic name alone! There were six of us in the Opel Kadett, besides my parents and the two brothers our great-grandmother was there; There were no child seats or seat belts, that’s how people were out back then.

From the apartment you only had to walk through a strip of pine forest – and there it was, the sea. It was blue and we raged inside.

On the way back through the fragrant pine forest, we once lost our great-grandmother and my youngest brother. Disappeared without a trace! My parents went out but found them nowhere. Then the police drove up and the missing people got out with a squeaky cheer. They got lost. I immediately loved Italy: the beach, the ice cream – and such lovely carabinieri who brought my little brother back. And the great grandma.

Vacation in times of corona and climate change

For me, that’s exactly what traveling is about: seeing the sea and having exciting experiences. Getting to know the country and its people, as it is called something flat. But now traveling is no longer well-regarded, for two reasons: Corona and climate.

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In social media channels and often also in conversations, traveling is condemned in fluff. It’s your own fault, it is said, if you have to go into quarantine. Why go away, Germany is beautiful too. Yes, Germany is beautiful. But you already live there, you already know that. People are curious, they want to see more of the world.

The Polynesians got into canoes and started paddling across the endless South Pacific. The Vikings wanted to know what was on the other side of the Atlantic, the Greeks sailed for Italy and founded Magna Graecia. And many a little pants-shit buzzes from home, only wearing a diaper, just to see what the world has to offer beyond the garden fence.

Travel with understanding – and look forward to the sea

Of course, it’s not about questioning the mask requirement and complicated corona rules. That has to be the case – in dubio pro prophylaxis. But to completely question travel as such is wrong.

Pine trees, picturesque places and the Mediterranean: Italy is and will remain a place of longing

Pine trees, picturesque places and the Mediterranean: Italy is and will remain a place of longing

Source: Getty Images / Westend61

Flight shame is also justified. You can avoid short-haul flights within Germany, after all, there is the train, and you don’t have to go to Rome just for a weekend.

Maybe in the future we can keep traveling the same way we do with meat consumption. The good Sunday roast is making a comeback, but you can enjoy the variety of vegetables during the week. So we could do without many short flight trips in favor of the rare long-haul trip for which you just get on the plane. Incidentally, that would save Venice and Barcelona from overtourism.

On the weekends, you think about short-term goals, you haven’t seen everything right behind the garden fence either. True to the travel motto of Friedrich Hölderlin, who wrote very appropriately in his poem “Curriculum Vitae”: “Man check everything (…) and understand the freedom to go wherever he wants.” Travel with care and understanding, and looking forward to the sea.

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Little Square "Plönlein" (Rothenburg ob der Tauber Landmark)

Travel in times of Corona

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According to tourism experts, distant dream destinations will continue to attract holidaymakers in the future

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The Brandenburg Gate in Berlin is one of the sights that the author believes should be seen

This text is from WELT AM SONNTAG. We will be happy to deliver them to your home on a regular basis.

WELT AM SONNTAG from August 30, 2020

Source: WELT AM SONNTAG

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Boeing 747 and Airbus A380: The last giant jets in the sky

TA lot of onlookers were standing at Narita Airport near Tokyo when a huge airplane from Europe floated in for the first time in spring 2019, painted in a funny turtle design. When the Japanese All Nippon Airlines (ANA) offered its first scheduled flight with this jet shortly afterwards, it was sold out in no time. The airline called its new A380 “Flying Honu”, named after an endangered sea turtle in Hawaii. The fans stood upside down, had themselves photographed in front of the giant plane before the first flight with A380 models or with turtle actors in kitschy costumes.

The Airbus A380, the largest airliner in the world, has always sparked enthusiasm among passengers and airplane fans, since its first flight with paying guests in 2007 with Singapore Airlines. ANA was the last of 15 airlines to get their A380 – that was just over a year ago.

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Unreasonable demands for taxpayers (neue-deutschland.de)

Photo: dpa / Britta Pedersen

It is breathtaking the routine with which the airport company FBB and its owners put a line under the enormous sum that they have so far spent on the new capital city airport BER: Almost six billion euros. The states of Berlin and Brandenburg as well as the federal government, as shareholders, have thus forced taxpayers to pay three times the originally planned costs. Mind you, without explaining in a comprehensible manner how it could happen that planning errors and building flaws delayed the “most important infrastructure project in the Berlin-Brandenburg region” by around eleven years and made it so seriously expensive. And who is actually responsible for it and should be held accountable for it.

Now the project is on the home straight, the commissioning of BER will certainly take place on October 31, 2020. In normal times, in view of the steady growth in passenger numbers at the aviation location Berlin for years, FBB, which its shareholders have always kept deliberately short, would have been more than bad at getting by with its budget. The business plan presented at the beginning of the corona crisis had convinced the auditors. The auditors of all three owners had accepted the annual accounts for 2019.

With the shutdown of the aviation industry, the fact that FBB lacks sufficient equity is now avenging itself. In view of the absence of passengers, she lost her income for the foreseeable future. If the company is not to slide into insolvency, the shareholders must cover the escalating financial needs. The sums now circulating, which are supposed to ensure the survival of BER in the pandemic, are an imposition for every taxpayer. If even the parliaments in Berlin and Potsdam are now ready to secure the airport location, then they must demand accountability for every euro. That dictates decency.

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Workers on the streets (daily newspaper Junge Welt)

Strikers on Monday at the protest in Bogotá

In Colombia, several unions called for a nationwide strike and various protests against the government of right-wing President Iván Duque on Monday (local time). The Colombian trade union federation CUT, the General Trade Union Confederation CGT, the Confederation of Workers in Colombia CTC and the teachers’ union Fecode were involved. The two retirement unions, CPC and CDP, and the “National Committee for the General Strike” founded last year have also joined the protests.

In the run-up to the day of the strike, the union leaders had announced that all security measures regarding the corona pandemic would be complied with. This is what the chairman of the CUT, Diógenes Orjuela, told the weekly magazine last week WeekVehicle caravans are planned for the day of the strike, and a maximum of two people are allowed to travel with each car.

On the day of the strike, several hundred drivers, motorcyclists and cyclists as well as some pedestrians gathered in the Colombian capital Bogotá and walked from the national park to the Ministry of Labor. On their way there, they blocked the main street Carrera Séptima. There were also major protests in other cities, such as Medellín, Cali, Barranquilla, Ibagué, Yopal and Bucaramanga.

The trade union federation CUT gave reasons for the one-day nationwide strike on September 4th on Twitter: It was necessary to protest against the labor and pension reform planned by Duque, which is to be implemented with the help of Decree 1174. The CUT and CGT unions criticized the Duque government taking advantage of the corona pandemic to pass laws violating labor rights.

Julio Roberto Gómez, chairman of the CGT, called the decree “unconstitutional”, while Orjuela described the president’s actions as “dictatorial”. The main criticism is the permission for companies to hire workers for only a few hours. This would bypass these social security payments and the workers would not receive any pensions later.

The US $ 370 million government loan, which the airline Avianca is supposed to receive even though it is no longer a Colombian company, was also cited by the CUT as the reason for the strike. The airline is largely owned by the consortium Avianca Holdings from Panama. In addition, the airline had already filed for bankruptcy in May. “While Avianca is being rescued with funds belonging to the Colombians, the government refuses to pay a basic pension as part of the health emergency or to redeem students of the state universities from their tuition fees,” criticized the Green MP Antonio Sanguino loudly Telesur on Monday.

The final reason given for the strike was solidarity with the Sintracarbon union, which represents the coal miners. These are currently on strike against the El Cerrejón group. But the strikers were not only concerned about labor policy issues, they also protested against the massacres of leftists that were often perpetrated in the country. During the strike, participants condemned the state violence and called for an end to it and the political persecution.

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The lost desire to travel (neue-deutschland.de)

Munich Airport under the sign of the corona pandemic

Photo: Marc Le Cornu

In the sky around most of the major airports in Europe, there is now a little more traffic than at the Corona wedding in spring, but when you ask airlines about their future prospects, you only hear vague forecasts. Because of global travel restrictions, aviation demand fell 58 percent worldwide in the first half of 2020. Germany was even seven percentage points above the average. While the total number of passengers fell by a good half, they fell by two thirds at domestic airports, according to the Federal Association of the German Air Transport Industry (BDL). In the case of air freight, a decline of ten percent is to be complained about in Germany.

The BDL does not expect a return to the pre-crisis level until 2024 at the earliest. The prerequisite is that there are suitable drugs and vaccine serums that make Corona controllable in the coming year at the latest. In addition, there must be agreements between the EU and the USA on how quarantine times can be reduced or completely abolished with the help of faster corona tests, according to the association. According to him, scheduled flights could then start again in Munich and Frankfurt / Main. In the USA, the airports are Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles and Newark near New York.

The airline umbrella organization IATA – which is anticipating a global loss of around 70 billion euros for airlines this year and a further 13 billion in the coming year – relies on cooperation between the nation states. Risk management must be differentiated and adapted to the respective situation, otherwise a long-lasting economic crisis and mass unemployment threatened. At a certain point, according to IATA Director General Alexandre de Juniac, one even has to wonder when the damage caused by a deep economic crisis will exceed that of the pandemic.

In fact, there are many construction sites in air transport that include other social and economic areas. One of the problems for the airlines is that companies want to save even more on business trips in the future, which can be replaced by digital connections. No miracles can be expected in the tourism sector either. Many holidaymakers have only once given up the desire to travel. Especially since it is to be expected that after a short period of lure offers, rising ticket prices can be expected again.

At the moment, airlines are also more concerned with refunds than sales. Together with its subsidiaries such as Swiss, Austrian Airlines and Eurowings, Lufthansa has reimbursed a total of around 2.6 billion euros to six million customers in the current year. The number of ticket refunds still outstanding fell to 1.1 million transactions.

The BDL complains that in July and August in Germany – compared to the previous year – only one out of three flights took place. If that does not change, every second of the approximately 1.1 million jobs directly and indirectly connected with aviation is acutely threatened. Lufthansa, recently supported with nine billion euros from the state rescue package, is planning to cut up to 22,000 full-time positions, half of them in Germany.

In any case, there is still no uniform international trend towards getting started. What is certain is that more efficient aircraft are being used. The era of the large four-jet fuel guzzlers is coming to an end. For example, in addition to the Airbus 380, Air France is now also permanently scrapping the A340. The government’s environmental requirements and the need to save due to the corona crisis also mean that the company is reducing its offer in France by 40 percent. According to an agreement with the government, Air France will no longer be allowed to offer domestic routes that can also be covered by high-speed train in two and a half hours. If this is not observed, there is no help from the state. That would have been a smart model in Germany too, but the black-red government missed the opportunity.

Airfields all over the world are currently often only used as long-term parking for excess aircraft. Berlin was spared this fate, because the unbelievable happened: Germany’s most embarrassing breakdown project, the Berlin-Brandenburg International Airport (BER), is due to open at the end of October. Not only the signs for Tegel moving companies visible in Schönefeld can be seen as an unmistakable sign. At the beginning of the month, workers also removed the words “Flughafen Berlin-Schönefeld” from the roof of the old GDR terminal building. It is to be converted into Terminal 5 of BER.

However, before the new and only capital city airport really gets going, it will need substantial financial help from tax coffers. As in this year, it must be expected that the massive lack of air traffic will result in additional financial requirements in the future. The BER management sells as a »success« that the additional requirement of 300 million euros assumed at the beginning of the pandemic for 2020 was reduced by 50 million through short-time work, a hiring freeze and budget cuts.

But it is not the sheer insatiable hunger for finance that will keep BER in the headlines. In order to protect surrounding communities from excessive aircraft noise, a very special flight route has been devised for take-offs from the southern runway. In an easterly wind, the engines have to turn sharply to the right as soon as they have lifted off. Internally, the maneuver is called »Kotzkurve«. Maybe a few more adventurous people will be attracted – fairground roller coasters are not allowed to ride.

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Flights in Corona times: How airlines implement the mask requirement

Europe Flying in times of Corona

Airlines have no mercy for mask refusers

It is mandatory to wear a mask on board aircraft. But how do airlines deal with passengers who refuse to do so? A cabin manager reports from TUIfly. And Lufthansa is tightening the requirements for passengers with a certificate.

| Reading time: 4 minutes

Lufthansa machine has to abort takeoff at short notice

A Lufthansa plane had to cancel its flight from Frankfurt to Minsk at short notice and was only able to take off after a two-hour delay. The reason was the corona test result of a passenger that she received shortly before take-off.

THEb out of ignorance, defiance or ideology – many people do not wear a face mask. This type of protection is particularly important in aircraft, because the minimum distance cannot be maintained. The rules of the airlines are clear: wearing a mask is compulsory, except when eating and drinking.

But how does it look in practice? How do you deal with mask refusers on board? Franziska Günther explains that, as cabin manager she is responsible for around 1,400 flight attendants at the TUIfly holiday airline.

“The behavior of the guests is very sensible, most of them support the mask requirement and show consideration for other passengers,” says Günther. Nevertheless, the mask is of course an issue. “We certainly also have guests on board who need a few more tips and who don’t take the topic so seriously. But I cannot confirm that there are mask refusers on every flight. “

When vacationers on the plane refuse to wear a mask

What if a vacationer shows himself unreasonable? “We have an escalation pyramid and a catalog of measures. First we speak to the passenger and inform them in a friendly manner about the mask requirement, ”says Günther. “This is followed by much more emphatic instructions and a warning.”

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If a passenger does not respond to multiple warnings, things get serious: “If the de-escalation does not work, we create a Passenger Disturbance Report, land in between and contact the local authorities, such as the Federal Police,” says Günther, describing the process.

However, this has so far not occurred on any of the around 2000 TUIfly flights since the beginning of the corona pandemic. “We haven’t had anyone on board who didn’t want to put on the mask and whom we had to fish out before take-off,” says Günther.

In that case the machine would roll back to the gate. “The passenger would have to leave the aircraft, his luggage would be unloaded.” That leads to a delay of at least 30 minutes.

TUIfly has so far had mostly positive experiences with passengers when it comes to mask requirements

TUIfly has so far had mostly positive experiences with passengers when it comes to mask requirements

Source: pa / Markus Mainka

In any case, it is rare that someone does not wear a mask at all, reports the airline employee. “Much more often the mask is not put on correctly.” And most of the passengers then reacted to the hint from the crew. “But we also have masks on board, in case someone loses their mask.”

Flights in times of Corona

Even before the start there are announcements about the protective measures and the reduced service on board – among other things, that the mask may only be removed for eating and drinking. And how about the coffee trick? With Günther he doesn’t pull: “You can’t drink your coffee for three hours to be able to take off the mask. We pay attention to that. “

It is well known in aviation that alcohol is not conducive to common sense. Two drunken mask refusers recently rioted on a KLM flight to Ibiza; they were arrested on arrival.

“We have reduced the number of alcohol sold a lot,” says Günther. “In addition, the reduced service prevents a lot of beer or wine from being drunk.” In Corona times, however, you no longer have the typical party guests on board.

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In order to protect against corona, the stewardess wears protective clothing on the plane

For people with certain medical conditions, it can actually be unreasonable to wear a face mask during a flight. “It happens that we have guests who show a certificate at check-in, at the gate or at the latest on board,” says Günther. Such passengers should be equipped with a visor. At TUIfly, the following applies here: “Anyone who has a medical certificate and a visor can fly with you.”

Lufthansa introduces compulsory testing for passengers with medical certificate

Lufthansa is tightening the mask requirement on board its planes. So far, an informal medical certificate has been enough to avoid having to wear a mouth and nose cover on board. From September 1st, passengers must also present a negative corona test, which must not be older than 48 hours for the scheduled departure.

In addition, certificates must be presented on a Lufthansa form, as the company announced in Frankfurt. The new rules will ensure better protection for all passengers, it said. They apply to all companies in the Lufthansa Group.

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High costs for mask refusers:

  • On board an aircraft, passengers must adhere to the captain’s announcements – also with regard to the mask requirement. “The flight captain has them sovereign power on board and is the official representative of the security authorities, ”says travel lawyer Paul Degott. “He can take all necessary measures for the safety of the crew, passengers and the aircraft.”
  • The activities can be very far-reaching: if a passenger riot, for example in a dispute about wearing the mask, the captain can decide to make a stopover if he sees the safety of the flight at serious risk.
  • “That can get expensive and definitely ruin a passenger financially, ”warns Degott. The airline TUIfly confirms: If you add everything up, additional landing fees, fuel and compensation for follow-up flights could well add up to 50,000 euros.
  • If this decision is made, carry the passenger the blamesays Degott. The captain will have his crew behind him and will always be able to argue why a stopover was necessary. “Rioters usually have bad cards.”

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In many countries the mask is part of the train ride

More than 1200 positive corona tests at NRW airports

As of August 17, around 65,000 corona tests were carried out at the airports in North Rhine-Westphalia. Of the 58,475 results available to date, over 1200 were positive.

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This is how much air traffic contributes to climate change

DAccording to a study, the share of global aviation in man-made climate change is 3.5 percent. Around 1.5 percent are attributable to CO2 emissions, the rest to non-CO2 effects, as the German Aerospace Center (DLR) involved in the study announced on Thursday. The most important factor of these non-CO2 effects are contrails and the resulting so-called contrail cirrus, i.e. clouds.

Earlier calculations indicated the share of aviation in global warming with at least five percent. The new study was carried out under the direction of Manchester Metropolitan University and published in the journal “Atmospheric Environment”. It comes to the conclusion that the aviation industry worldwide emitted around 32.6 billion tons of CO2 between 1940 and 2018.

Around half of the total cumulative CO2 emissions were thus generated in the past 20 years alone. This is mainly due to the expansion of the number of flights, routes and fleet sizes, especially in Asia. The research team estimates that the figure of 32.6 billion tons corresponds to around 1.5 percent of total human CO2 emissions.

Emissions of water vapor were also taken into account

The carbon dioxide emissions therefore make the second largest contribution to the climate impact of air traffic. In contrast to the effects of the contrail cirrus, which lasts for a few hours, the effect of CO2 on the climate lasts for many centuries, emphasized the DLR.

“On the one hand, contrail cirrus clouds reflect solar radiation into space; that has a cooling effect. On the other hand, they reduce the heat radiation from the earth; that warms the climate, ”said Robert Sausen from the DRL Institute for Atmospheric Physics, explaining the effect. The global mean is dominated by the warming effect.

In their investigations, the researchers used a new metric system for the first time, which, in accordance with the requirements of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is intended to map the climate impact as precisely as possible. Emissions of water vapor, nitrogen oxides, soot and sulphate particles, which can be found in the exhaust plumes of aircraft engines, were also taken into account.

The first study of its kind since 2009

The DLR also dealt with methods and technologies to achieve CO2-neutral aircraft in the future, for example through the use of biofuels, hydrogen or hybrid-electric drives. Possible optimization of flight routes in order to reduce emissions or the formation of contrails were also examined.

According to the DLR, the current study is the first of its kind since 2009. At that time, it was assumed that air traffic contributed almost five percent to global warming, and other effects were also taken into account in addition to CO2 emissions.

A calculation by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) in 2019 indicated the share of air traffic in global CO2 emissions at 918 million tons or 2.4 percent. Passenger traffic accounted for 81 percent of emissions and air freight for 19 percent. In 2019, the Federal Environment Agency stated the share of air traffic in global warming to be at least five percent.

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This is how much air traffic contributes to climate change

DAccording to a study, the share of global aviation in man-made climate change is 3.5 percent. Around 1.5 percent are attributable to CO2 emissions, the rest to non-CO2 effects, as the German Aerospace Center (DLR) involved in the study announced on Thursday. The most important factor of these non-CO2 effects are contrails and the resulting so-called contrail cirrus, i.e. clouds.

Earlier calculations indicated the share of aviation in global warming with at least five percent. The new study was carried out under the direction of Manchester Metropolitan University and published in the journal “Atmospheric Environment”. It comes to the conclusion that the aviation industry worldwide emitted around 32.6 billion tons of CO2 between 1940 and 2018.

Around half of the total cumulative CO2 emissions were thus generated in the past 20 years alone. This is mainly due to the expansion of the number of flights, routes and fleet sizes, especially in Asia. The research team estimates that the figure of 32.6 billion tons corresponds to around 1.5 percent of total human CO2 emissions.

Emissions of water vapor were also taken into account

The carbon dioxide emissions therefore make the second largest contribution to the climate impact of air traffic. In contrast to the effects of the contrail cirrus, which lasts for a few hours, the effect of CO2 on the climate lasts for many centuries, emphasized the DLR.

“On the one hand, contrail cirrus clouds reflect solar radiation into space; that has a cooling effect. On the other hand, they reduce the heat radiation of the earth; that warms the climate, ”said Robert Sausen from the DRL Institute for Atmospheric Physics, explaining the effect. The global mean is dominated by the warming effect.

In their investigations, the researchers used a new metric system for the first time, which, in accordance with the requirements of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is supposed to map the climate impact as precisely as possible. Emissions of water vapor, nitrogen oxides, soot and sulphate particles, which can be found in the exhaust plumes of aircraft engines, were also taken into account.

The first study of its kind since 2009

The DLR also dealt with methods and technologies for achieving CO2-neutral aircraft in the future, for example through the use of biofuels, hydrogen or hybrid-electric drives. Possible optimization of flight routes in order to reduce emissions or the formation of contrails were also examined.

According to the DLR, the current study is the first of its kind since 2009. At that time, it was assumed that air traffic contributed almost five percent to global warming, whereby other effects were also taken into account in addition to CO2 emissions.

A calculation by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) in 2019 indicated the share of air traffic in global CO2 emissions at 918 million tons or 2.4 percent. Passenger traffic accounted for 81 percent of emissions and air freight for 19 percent. In 2019, the Federal Environment Agency stated the share of air traffic in global warming to be at least five percent.

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Russia resumed flights with Egypt, Maldives and the UAE :: Society :: RBC

Air traffic between Russia and Egypt, the Maldives and the United Arab Emirates is being resumed on a reciprocal basis. Flights to Cairo will be operated three times a week, to Dubai and the Maldives – two each

Фото: Kamran Jebreili / AP

Russia has resumed flights to Egypt, the United Arab Emirates and the Maldives. The corresponding order was signed by Prime Minister Mikhail Mishustin, the document was published on the government website.

The number of flights per week will be limited. There will be three of them in Cairo, two each in Dubai and Velana airport.

Prior to that, Russia resumed flights with Switzerland on August 15, but then the plane went to Geneva only once a week. Now the number of flights will increase to four: two of them, from Moscow to Geneva and back, will be operated by Aeroflot, and two more, between Zurich and Moscow, by the Swiss airline Swiss Air.

“We are awaiting permits and approvals, we will definitely inform you based on the results,” an Aeroflot representative told RBC in response to a question about the resumption of flights to Egypt, the UAE and the Maldives.

“S7 Airlines is ready to operate flights on the Novosibirsk-Dubai route, but at the moment the frequency allocation procedure has not been determined and we do not know,” Nadezhda Khaitova, press secretary of the S7 Group (it includes S7 Airlines), told RBC.

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