Richard C. Lewontin (1929-2021), the geneticist who did not believe in genetic determinism | Genetics

Since the mid-1800s, when Charles Darwin articulated the theory of evolution and Moravian monk Gregor Mendel identified the basic principles of heredity by crossing peas in his garden, scientists, philosophers, social scientists and theologians debated the implications of genetics at origins, meaning and future of human life.


DNA tests for handlers who don’t collect dog poop

The municipality of Tel Aviv has found an original solution to punish owners who do not collect the droppings of their dogs. Their idea is to test the DNA of feces and send a fine to the owner by mail.

As of Monday, July 12, Tel Aviv adopted a proposal to create a DNA database andrequire dog owners to disclose their animal’s genetic data to the authorities when they receive or renew a license, report our colleagues from Times of Israël. However, this regulation does not apply to guide dogs or dogs owned by animal welfare organizations.

“The amendment to the law was approved as part of the persistent fight of the municipality against the phenomenon of dog excrement which are not picked up by their owners throughout the city, “the municipality said.” The existence of a DNA database of dogs in the city will allow excrement samples to be taken from the streets, which will enforce the law against the dog owner even after the offense has been committed, so as to meet the main challenge in terms of application and eradication of the phenomenon, “she added.

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Disguised as Android apps: Trojans are making their way onto your mobile phone


Urgent delete: 9 apps smuggle viruses onto your mobile phone

Android apps aren’t always what they appear to be.

Foto: Getty Images/fizkes

Updated: July 8th, 2021 – 7:10 am

Malware has spread to the Google Play Store. Specifically, nine Android apps are said to be affected. You should delete them.

The Google Play Store has nine Android-Apps deleted with sometimes millions of downloads. Malware is said to have been hiding behind their facades, which apparently primarily targeted the Facebook access data. The problem was originally addressed by cybersecurity firm Dr. Web identified and then reported to Google.

A trojan …

… is a type of malware. Trojan horses hide their functions in another apparently useful and harmless program. When users run or install this program, they are actually activating the hidden Trojan’s code.

Android apps: these 9 should be deleted urgently

In some cases, Android apps such as PIP Photo had previously achieved a good five million downloads. This is now a not insignificant problem in the aftermath. Even though the applications are flying from Google’s Play Store, they remain on the users’ smartphones. If you have installed one of the following programs, you should urgently uninstall it – and under no circumstances store your Facebook data.

  • PIP Photo – over 5,000,000 downloads
  • Processing Photo – over 500,000 downloads
  • Rubbish Cleaner – over 100,000 downloads
  • Inwell Fitness – over 100,000 downloads
  • Horoscope Daily – over 100,000 downloads
  • App Lock Keep – over 50,000 downloads
  • Lockit Master – over 5,000 downloads
  • Horoscope Pi – 1.000 Downloads
  • App Lock Manager – 10 Downloads

What has happened there?

The Trojans have a special mechanism to trick their victims. “After receiving the necessary settings from one of the C&C servers at startup, they loaded the legitimate Facebook website into WebView,” wrote Dr. Web. “Next, they loaded a JavaScript received from the C&C server into the same WebView.”

This script was used directly to hijack the login data entered. Then it forwarded the stolen login data and password to the Trojan applications with the help of the methods provided by the JavascriptInterface annotation. In turn, they would have transmitted the data to the attacker’s C&C server. “After the victim logged into their account, the Trojans also stole the cookies from the current authorization session.” These cookies were also sent to the cyber criminals.

Analysis of the malware showed that the Android apps received all settings for stealing logins and passwords from Facebook accounts. The attackers could just as easily have loaded the supposed login page of another service in order to access its data.

How you can protect yourself in the future

If you’ve already uninstalled the Android apps or haven’t even downloaded them, you’re off the hook. Even then, you may still be carrying malware from another source on your smartphone. We’ll tell you what clues you need to look out for in order to detect a Trojan. There was a large-scale Facebook hack a few months ago. If you want to know whether you are affected, you can check your data here.

Source: Dr. Web

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Update for your Fritz! Repeater: What’s new?

Digital Life

Update for your Fritz! Repeater: What’s new?

The Fritz! Repeater 2400 gets an important update.

Constantin Kruger

18.06.2021 – 13:31

AVM is again busy distributing updates and this time it is the turn of a popular Fritz! Repeater. We’ll tell you what’s changing.

One of the most beloved Fritz!Repeater will be improved even further with the latest update. We’re talking about the FRITZ! Repeater 2400 model, which the developers have given the Fritz! OS 7.27 update.

Fritz! Repeater 2400 with Fritz! OS 7.27: These are the innovations

If you use a Fritz! Repeater 2400 at home, you can now look forward to a new major update for the device. The comes from a tweet from AVM.

The new version fixes a total of 18 errors and weaknesses that the system had. The main task of the update, however, is to improve your connectivity and system stability, which is intended to ensure that the system ideally runs perfectly at all times and that no malfunctions occur. In addition, the connection speed of the Fritz! Repeater 2400 has been greatly improved. The connection setup after you have pressed the WPS button on the repeater is now much faster.

How to install the update

You can easily install the new version Fritz! OS 7.27 via the repeater’s interface. Alternatively, you can initiate the update via your FritzBox.

AVM recently made new experimental laboratory versions available for some Fritz! Repeaters and FritzBoxes. In addition, the manufacturer has announced a new top model of the Fritzbox.

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Preventing Alzheimer’s: A new type of vaccine passes important tests


Preventing Alzheimer’s: A new type of vaccine passes important tests

Researchers claim to have found a way to prevent Alzheimer’s disease.

Foto: Getty Images/PM Images/Klaus Vedfelt [M]

16.06.2021 – 17:25

Scientists have developed a vaccine that could help prevent Alzheimer’s. It is almost ready for the market.

Alzheimer’s disease is not feared by a few. In its most common form, it occurs primarily in people who have passed the age of 65 and is characterized by increasing dementia. Specifically, the neurodegenerative disease is responsible for around 60 percent of all dementias that occur worldwide. It is all the more important that science finds a way to treat disease Prevent Alzheimer’s.

Preventing Alzheimer’s disease: vaccine should make it possible

Ever since the German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer first described the disease, later named after him, in 1906, researchers from all over the world have been looking for ways to counteract it. The industry-leading biotech company AXON Neuroscience is said to have achieved significant success with this very project. His vaccine AADvac1 is supposed to prevent Alzheimer’s.

In a test series in which a total of 193 test subjects took part, 117 of them received AADvac1. The remaining patients, who also had mild Alzheimer’s disease, received a placebo as a control group. First and foremost, the vaccine should take care of those defective tau proteins that attach themselves to the acones from the cell body and no longer get back into the cell body, so that they restrict the cells to the point of inability.

“As far as I know, this is the first time that tau-directed immunotherapy has shown clear evidence of an effect on the neurodegenerative process and strong evidence of a clinical effect in patients with a confirmed Alzheimer’s disease biomarker profile,” said Petr Novak, lead author of the study and lead clinical researcher at AXON, told MedPage Today. However, some further investigations are still pending.

Against dementia

At least as important as a preventive measure is a reliable test that can be used to predict a surprising occurrence of Alzheimer’s symptoms. It is even believed that just a few cups of coffee a day could prevent diseases such as diabetes, depression and Alzheimer’s disease.

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Herbal Estetrol: How Safe is the New Mini Pill?

Anyone who takes the birth control pill usually wants to use it as a contraceptive. It should be accordingly safe. But the preparation should also have as few side effects as possible – and unfortunately that is such a thing with hormonal contraceptives. Now comes A new minipill will be on the market from July: The drug Drovelis uses the estrogen Estetrol for the first time in combination with the already used progestin drospirenone. Estetrol is made on a plant basis. That sounds good at first. But is that also harmless?

New pill with Estetrol: is plant-based always healthier?

At the press conference for the presentation of the new preparation, Dr. Ludwig Baumgartner, specialist in gynecology and obstetrics: “Estetrol is a physiologically occurring estrogen, but its biological function has not yet been conclusively clarified.” However, it is known that the hormone is produced by the fetal liver from the ninth week of pregnancy. It then enters the mother’s circulation via the placenta.

In the case of the plant-based Estetrol for the pill, the developers speak of “bioidentical”. The second component of the combination pill is the progestin drospirenone. This in turn is responsible for preventing ovulation. The Estetrol stabilizes the menstrual cycle. This is supposed to prevent unwanted bleeding, for example.

That this component of the pill also occurs naturally sounds good at first, doesn’t it? There is only one catch: So far, and this is what Baumgartner’s statement suggests, it is not entirely known whether this naturally occurring estrogen Estetrol is also less harmful than one of the artificially produced estrogens that are otherwise used for pills. Especially with regard to thrombosis, one of the possible side effects of hormonal contraceptives, this is not clear. The preparation was approved anyway.

The risk of thrombosis with the new pill is unknown

Combination pills increase the risk of developing a thrombosis. This is due to the hormones used. In other words: Anyone who already has an increased risk of developing blood clots through smoking, high blood pressure, overweight or family reasons or simply the age – over 35 – would do well to consider using hormonal contraceptives. This applies if more than two of the risks mentioned apply.

Or at least rethink the type of pill. Because preparations that have been known for a long time, the 2nd generation pills, increase the risk of thrombosis less than the newer 3rd or 4th generation pills. One to two percent of thromboses that occur after taking pills are fatal. That is not much when extrapolated to everyone who takes such drugs, but the risk exists and is higher than if no pill is used.

There have of course been studies on the risk of thrombosis with the new pill with Estetrol. There was one case of deep vein thrombosis and one case of superficial vein thrombosis (thrombophlebitis) among 1533 participants (1218 had completed the study) in one study and 1864 (or 1016) participants in another study, summarizes the “Spiegel” together.

The problem: In the study, the preparation was not compared with another, already available with a different composition. For preparations with drospirenone, which contain the estrogen ethinylestradiol instead of estetrol, there are around 9 to 12 cases of thrombosis per 10,000 users per year. But that cannot be transferred to the combination with Estetrol, says Baumgartner.

What actually happens when you forget the pill and how should a woman act? You can see that in the video:

Comparative study is requested – reference date in a few years

So far, based on a phase II study, there has only been evidence of a slight influence on blood coagulation in women with an average age of 26 years. But the data are not yet conclusive and further investigations are necessary.

For safety reasons, women with an increased risk of thrombosis should initially only be prescribed the new preparation carefully, the “Pharmazeutische Zeitung” quotes the gynecologist Dr. Katrin Schaudig: “At the moment I am still warning against prescribing the preparation for patients at risk of thrombosis. We have to wait for endpoint data.”

But it can sometimes take a few years before they come. The drug was also recently approved in the United States. The responsible authority FDA is now demanding a study on the safety of the active ingredient combination from the manufacturer. Cut-off time: June 2027.

The pill is not suitable for every woman. But other contraceptives are not always convincing either. Problematic: To this day, contraception is mostly a woman’s business. Test of contraceptives: not even half of the pills are recommended. Some gynecologists are therefore certain: “These days the pill would no longer be approved at all”. For these reasons, by the way, the pill for men still does not exist. The side effects are too great. For comparison: They correspond to those that are printed on the package inserts for birth control pills for women.

These Drovelis side effects are well known

The new minipill was tested for common, more common side effects. The most common are the same as classic pill side effects and are:

  • a headache
  • Acne
  • Dysmennorrhea (cramp-like, long-lasting painful conditions)
  • vaginal bleeding
  • Metrorrhagia (acyclic bleeding from the uterus)
  • Mood and libido disorders
  • Abdominal pain and nausea
  • Chest pain
  • Fluctuations in weight

The pill is taken without a break: 24 pink tablets contain active ingredient (15 mg estetrol and 3 mg drospirenone), four white tablets contain no active ingredient, only lactose.

Shouldn’t new preparations be tested for known side effects?

One thing is clear: with many drugs, very rare side effects are only discovered after the drug has already been taken many times. This is also similar with vaccines, as you can see from the current emergency approvals for corona vaccines. There is only one big difference, emphasizes the “Spiegel”: Thromboses are known to be a not so rare side effect of hormonal contraceptives.

It should actually be a matter of course to first test new preparations with a similar composition for these known side effects before they can be prescribed. Especially if it is not an emergency situation like the vaccines during a pandemic, but a drug of which numerous other variations exist and for which there are also alternatives. Even alternatives without hormones. For example, these are copper spiral and copper chain. Interesting to know: Fewer and fewer women are taking the pill.

Especially when it is so strongly advertised that it is a product with a plant-based and therefore “natural” component, one would like to evoke a certain feeling of security in the user. The manufacturer is certain, however, that it would be a “miracle” if the risk of thrombosis with the new pill were not lower than with comparable drugs. You ask yourself: Why didn’t you check that before approval by means of a direct comparison? As I said: After all, there is no urgent need for a new preparation for contraception. What is there is the need for safe means of contraception that are as free from side effects as possible, and a healthy education about possible problems that contraceptives pose, especially for women.

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Researchers confirm: the coronavirus can cause diabetes

Updated: 06/10/2021 – 4:56 pm

Coronavirus infects pancreas
Covid-19 can trigger diabetes – researchers now also know how

Foto: Getty Images / sanjeri

Suddenly, blood sugar has to be measured regularly: Diabetes can be triggered by Covid-19.

Every seventh hospital patient with Covid-19 shows signs of diabetes – although the metabolic disease had not occurred before. Researchers now know why this happens and how the affected cells can even be protected. However, one thing is still unclear: whether those affected will recover completely.

Covid-19 has long been associated with diabetes. Not only are diabetes patients more often affected by severe courses of the viral disease. It was also noticeable that hospitalized patients in particular suddenly developed diabetes, although they had no sugar problems beforehand. Researchers have now been able to confirm the suspicion: Covid-19 can cause diabetes. This happens because Sars-CoV-2 directly attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas.

Pancreas infected: This is how the coronavirus triggers diabetes

Covid-19 is not just a respiratory disease: The Sars-CoV-2 coronavirus has long since attacked not only the airways, but a large number of organs, and it can spread to the tissue in large parts of the body. In addition to the lungs, the intestines, kidneys, blood vessels, but also the brain and nerves are affected.

In the lungs and other areas, such as the heart, it primarily uses the ACE2 receptors. The proteins are considered to be the main entry point for the virus. However, there is hardly any ACE2 in the pancreas, which is responsible for producing insulin in the body. So far, it has been unclear why patients with Covid-19 show more signs of type 1 diabetes – a type of diabetes that usually occurs at a young age and is triggered by an autoimmune reaction of the body.

Coronavirus attacks beta cells in a different way

In an international study, including with the Universities of Stanford and Basel, researchers have now been able to show that Sars-CoV-2 in the pancreas can take a different route to infect cells – directly the insulin-producing beta cells .

Instead of ACE2, they contain another protein: Neuropilin 1 (NRP1). And this is exactly what serves as the entry gate for the virus. In other words: The coronavirus directly attacks the beta cells, which are then damaged and stop producing insulin or at least producing less of it – as is the case with type 1 diabetes. But insulin is important for absorbing and converting sugar from our blood. If this does not happen, our blood will become too sugary, to put it simply.

How does diabetes actually develop? You can read more about diabetes mellitus as well as its types, symptoms, causes and therapy with us.

Diabetes is a direct consequence of Covid-19 – which could be avoided in the future

Using beta cells cultivated in the laboratory, the scientists were able to find out that Sars-CoV-2 could primarily infect these cells, use them as virus factories and then let them die. Correspondingly, these cells then also stopped the production of insulin. On the basis of these results, the researchers were able to test on laboratory beta cells whether an NRP1 inhibitor could prevent the coronavirus from penetrating the cells – with success.

So far, this has only been successful in the laboratory, but it may be possible in the future to provide a certain protection for patients with severe Covid-19. A glimmer of hope. Because every seventh hospitalized Covid-19 patient shows signs of diabetes. And it is not yet clear whether the disease will actually lead to the development of the autoimmune disease or whether it is only a temporary phenomenon. In a communication from the University of Basel, the pathologist Dr. Matthias Matter: “Whether the sugar metabolism will normalize again in all Covid-19 patients after an infection has been overcome and whether and how often persistent diabetes can develop cannot be said with certainty based on the current study situation.”

In Long Covid patients, for example, there are indications of diabetes weeks to months after the infection. Therefore, it makes sense to develop a way to prevent permanent damage to the pancreas. And this is exactly why the findings should be important.


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Beware of WhatsApp: LKA warns of a brazen trick


Beware of WhatsApp: LKA warns of a brazen trick

The WhatsApp code scam is back.

Photo: IMAGO / photothek

Updated: 06/10/2021 – 8:13 am

It takes shockingly little to snoop around in other people’s WhatsApp accounts. With just one inconspicuous method, the account can even be taken over.

Above all, users: popular messengers such as WhatsApp often set simple goals. Fraudsters only have to get your number and they can shower you with dubious messages. Under no circumstances should you react to them. Now even the State Criminal Police Office (LKA) Lower Saxony is warning of the new one WhatsApp code scam. It allows strangers to join your chats WhatsApp read along.

Update: WhatsApp code fraud active again

“Hello sorry, I accidentally sent you a 6-digit code via SMS. Can you please pass it on to me? It’s urgent,” it can say in the message that users are currently receiving. The particularly perfidious thing: The WhatsApp code fraud is apparently often handled through existing chats.

The Lower Saxony LKA is currently warning: “In fact, this code will also be sent shortly before by SMS. However, this is a security code for your own WhatsApp account. The sender here is WhatsApp. Anyone who transmits this sequence of numbers to the perpetrators loses their account for the time being.”

This is how we reported about the scam before:

Not the first few cases

According to Forbes, you should also keep an eye on messages supposedly coming from your contacts, as hackers could disguise themselves as these after taking over a WhatsApp account. Overall, the attackers proceed as follows:

  • Gaining access to a WhatsApp account.
  • Record phone numbers of participants in a WhatsApp group.
  • Send SMS to as many contacts as possible in the hacked WhatsApp account
  • adopt new WhatsApp accounts

Earlier cases show that the trick is not new. In early 2020, an example from a user made it clear that there are many ways to cover up the fraud. So the scam can also take place in the name of WhatsApp support.

According to Tom’s Guide, the Spanish message was issued on behalf of WhatsApp and is asking for verification of the user because another WhatsApp account was allegedly registered under his number.

This is how you prevent strangers from reading WhatsApp

It is best to ignore the message when you receive it, but under no circumstances give the code you received. In order to counteract the WhatsApp code fraud, you can also check the settings of the messenger. There you can see how many and which devices are connected to your account. To avoid this tactic completely, you can set up an additional six-digit PIN for your WhatsApp account, a kind of two-factor authentication (2FA).

  • Three-dot menu> Settings> Account> Two-step verification> Activate

The service has also come up with something to prevent tricks like this one from working in the future. WhatsApp users should soon be able to call instead of sending them an SMS, at least to prevent your WhatsApp account from being taken over and strangers from reading your groups in WhatsApp. Be careful with this trick, by the way. Third parties can also access your WhatsApp account via QR code. And even photos and pictures are not safe with WhatsApp.

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Never lose again: iPhone tracking reaches a new level

Digital Life

Never lose again: iPhone tracking reaches a new level

The iPhone tracking receives an important innovation under iOS 15.

Foto: Jess Bailey Designs/Pexels, Popular Logos [M] via

Updated: 06/10/2021 – 06:46

IPhone tracking should also be possible under iOS15 when your device is actually switched off. We’ll tell you how it works.

As part of the Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) 2021, Apple presented some not insignificant innovations. The new iOS 15 and iPadOS 15 operating systems were also involved iPhone-Tracking with himself.

Other iOS 15 features:

The new operating system is designed to help users concentrate better. With a “focus” mode, messages are filtered depending on the setting. The iPhone should also be able to recognize text in photos in the future, Safari is getting a fresh design and new data protection functions should ensure even more privacy.

iPhone Tracking: iOS 15 Makes It More Effective

It seems that the iPhone isn’t actually completely “off” in iOS 15, even if you think so – it’ll use a mode similar to AirTag that keeps it in a low-power state after it’s turned off. Every iOS device in the vicinity can receive a Bluetooth signal and send its location back to Apple’s server. iPhone tracking works with it even when the device is switched off.

That means you still have a chance to find your iPhone’s location if you run out of power during the day. IT Home learned that Apple also says that location will continue to work if you factory reset your phone with Activation Lock on.

If your iPhone with iOS 15 starts to consume little power, Apple will alert the user to this behavior with a warning. It is worth noting that if you want your iPhone to actually or completely shut down, you can change the “Find” configuration in the settings and deactivate the energy-saving mode completely.

Which devices get iOS 15

As part of WWDC 2021, Apple revealed some important information about its new operating system. Sometimes it is known which devices should receive iOS 15 and iPadOS 15. You can also find out from us which functions iOS 15 offers and what else it can do.

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How much do all human chromosomes weigh?

It might sound like a math problem: knowing that an average human of 70 kg contains more than 30,000 billion cells and that each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, how much do the human chromosomes ? Impossible at this stage to answer, of course, since it would be necessary to know the relative weight of the chromosomes in each cell. And if we can roughly estimate the amount ofADN, the latter represents only a very small part of the chromosome, the latter being mainly composed of protein. Researchers from the nanotechnologies of the University of London have therefore established another method to obtain the result.

Ian Robinson and his colleagues used the synchrotron Diamond Light Source to bombard the chromosomes of X-rays, then measured the spread of electrons when the chromosomes are crossed by the rays. The phase shift produces diagrams of diffraction which can then be used to reconstruct a karyotype from mass. Result, the 46 chromosomes of each of our cells weigh 242 picograms (1 picogram is equivalent to 10-12 gramme). « It is 20 times heavier than l’ADN that they contain, which suggests that certain components of the chromosomes remain to be discovered », observe Ian Robinson. Le nucleosome of chromosome 1 theoretically weighs 0.87 pg including 0.28 pg of DNA and 0.59 pg of protein. ” Despite over 130 years of chromosome studies, our research shows that there are still parts of these complex structures that are poorly understood. “. A new ” black matter To investigate?