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Scientists have uncovered the secret of the most mysterious mineral on Mars

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Вихри появляются, когда тепло с более нагретой части Марса переносится в менее нагретые области. Фото: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS","id":"1957986","share_url":"/news/58985-uchenye-raskryli-sekret-samogo-zagadochnogo-minerala-na-marse/gallery/73061/","index":3,"gallery_id":"1796","url":["width":0,"src":"https://htstatic.imgsmail.ru/pic_original/ea3780bf0719c20683e367c4bfa8e082/1957982/","height":0,"width":185,"src":"https://htstatic.imgsmail.ru/pic_image/a64d24bd7806771f7aeb2b1ca7ba046c/185/165/1957982/","height":165,"width":45,"src":"https://htstatic.imgsmail.ru/pic_image/e03091b70074e6285078adda963b06b0/45/45/1957982/","height":45,"width":620,"src":"https://htstatic.imgsmail.ru/pic_image/07e6f766f12f4fb8db1fd5cee6b1e38a/620/580/1957982/","height":580],"title":"Эта панорама сделана марсоходом Curiosity 18 ноября 2020 года. Скальные образования на поверхности Марса тут похожи на скамейки. 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Фото сделано 3 февраля 2019. 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Silver dust recovered from a rock by the Curiosity rover. The analysis showed that it contained the mineral tridymite, which was very unexpected. Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

On July 30, 2015, one of the NASA rovers noticed something strange in the rock, which is located in the center of Gale Crater. Curiosity drilled a small hole and extracted a sample of silver dust. After studying it with instruments aboard the rover, scientists discovered tridymite, a rare type of quartz composed entirely of silicon dioxide, or silica, which forms on Earth as a result of certain types of volcanic activity.

“The discovery of tridymite in Gale Crater is one of the most amazing observations made by the Curiosity rover in 10 years of exploration of Mars,” said planetary scientist and NASA team specialist Kirsten Siebach.

The find surprised researchers for two reasons: First, Mars’ volcanic activity was previously considered unsuitable for the production of silica-rich minerals. Second, Gale Crater was a lake in ancient times, not a volcano. How then could tridymite form there?

This is what Curiosity looks like. Photo: NASA

Secret revealed

A new study has finally unraveled the mystery of the found mineral. It turned out that the explosive eruption of an unknown volcano threw tridymite-rich ash into the Martian sky, which then settled first on the surface, and later on the bottom of the ancient lake located in the Gale crater . This happened about 3-3.5 billion years ago, specifies Live Science.

During the flight and stay in the water, the ash broke up into separate parts due to a combination of physical and chemical processes. The researchers believe this made the tridymite sample found by Curiosity quite pure.

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A similar scenario has only been observed in one place on Earth – at Lake Tecocomulco in Mexico. Tridymite has been found in volcanic rocks that have been lifted up from the bottom.

Researchers are still not sure where on the Red Planet the volcano that produced the tridymite sample is. It is not easy to distinguish Martian impact craters from volcanic calderas that have been eroded over billions of years.

More than 3000 days on Mars: what else did Curiosity find?

Curiosity is a third-generation rover designed to explore Gale Crater as part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. It landed on Mars on August 6, 2012. Since then, the rover has carefully studied the surface of the Red Planet and sent scientists a large number of interesting frames:

It is also interesting:

An error occurred during the download.

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