New discovery could revolutionize prostate cancer treatment
A previously unknown subtype of prostate cancer according to a recent study 30 percent of all cases out. The research results also explain why hormone therapies do not work in people with this subtype because the newly classified subtype is resistant to treatment.
New York, USA: Researchers of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and the Weill Cornell Medicine identified one new and very common subtype of prostate cancerthat is resistant to common hormone deprivation therapies. The study results were recently presented in the renowned journal Science.
Known types of prostate cancer
Until now, only two different types of prostate cancer were known: the androgen-dependent and the neuroendocrine subtype.
Androgenic belong to the male sex hormones Testosterone. They stimulate the growth and function of prostate cells. at androgen-dependent prostate cancer Androgens from the testicles are essential for proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells.
At the so-called neuroendocrine prostate carcinoma the disease progresses independently of androgens. This form occurs much less frequently and is more difficult to treat because standard hormone deprivation therapies do not work.
New subtype: stem cell-like prostate cancer
The working group around Dr. A.S. Your Chain now represents a hitherto unknown third form of prostate cancer before, which occurs in around 30 percent of all prostate cancer cases.
The subtype is defined as stem cell-like prostate cancer described because some of the genes that are activated in the cancer cells are reminiscent of stem cells. At the same time, the results open up new approaches to the treatment of those affected with this subtype.
“For the past 80 years, the backbone of treatment for prostate cancer has been hormone deprivation therapy”, explains research director Dr. Chen. But in quite a few cases, the hormone treatment does not work. The team has now been able to explain why the therapy is ineffective in a large group of people affected.
New research model enabled deeper insights
“We were surprised that there is a fairly large group of patients with tumors that have not yet been characterized”, emphasizes Dr. Chen. According to Chen, one reason the subtype hasn’t been discovered is that there haven’t been enough good models to study this type of cancer.
“Prostate cancer is very difficult to reproduce in the laboratory”, describes Dr. Chen. The team used so-called Organoide for research into prostate cancer subtypes. The organ-like structures were grown in the laboratory from parts of tumors taken from patients. According to Chen, they are like images of the original tumor.
Second most common form of prostate cancer
The organoids enabled a comprehensive analysis of the genes. Based on the information, the scientists were able to identify a new subtype of prostate cancer, which is named after the androgen-dependent form second most common subtype represents.
New therapies in prospect
According to the research team, understanding the molecular drivers of this common subtype of prostate cancer opens the door to new approaches to treat it. For example, a targeted search can now be made for active ingredients that act on these driving forces.
The research results represent a breakthrough, especially in the case of tumors that are or are becoming resistant to hormone treatment. Because as soon as the hormone withdrawal therapy does not work, it ends Prostate cancer often fatal.
The working group has already been able to identify experimental drugs that affect the organoids in the laboratory and in animal models Growth blocked in stem cell-like prostate cancer Has. The team now wants to start a clinical trial in people suffering from the newly identified prostate cancer subtype. (vb)
Author and source information
This text corresponds to the specifications of medical specialist literature, medical guidelines and current studies and has been checked by medical professionals.
Graduate editor (FH) Volker Blasek
- Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center: MSK Scientists Identify New — and Very Common — Subtype of Prostate Cancer (veröffentlicht: 27.05.2022), mskcc.org
- Weill Cornell Medicine: New Cancer Subtype May Illuminate Treatment Strategy (veröffentlicht: 27.05.2022), news.weill.cornell.edu
- Ekta Khurana, Yu Chen, et al.: Chromatin profiles classify castration-resistant prostate cancers suggesting therapeutic targets; in: Science (2022), science.org
This article contains general advice only and should not be used for self-diagnosis or treatment. He can not substitute a visit at the doctor.