With a good part of its territory located in the Sahara desert and straddling arid lands and plains, all the ingredients were there to make Morocco a country with lands that are difficult to sow. And yet, the Kingdom defies all predictions, making agriculture one of its main sources of income.
Ranked among the leading contributors to the national economy, Moroccan agriculture is making remarkable progress in almost all areas (plant and animal production). Agriculture represents 15% of the national wealth produced each year, and now wishes to achieve food sovereignty. To this end, the Kingdom has equipped itself with a rich and efficient legal arsenal, with a view to ensuring the proper functioning of the sector. It was in 2008 that the first agricultural orientation law was promulgated, aimed at guaranteeing the transformation of the sector and laying the foundations for the country’s food security, as well as strengthening the place of agriculture in the economy. national. At the time, the establishment of this agricultural legal framework resulted in a dynamic process of overhauling the legislative and regulatory texts governing the sector, in order to support its transformation.
More than 4850 texts of laws…
Morocco has just over 22 laws and 4,850 regulatory texts (decrees and orders) which were put in place between 2008 and 2021, in order to establish the conditions for agricultural development through reforms that have made it possible to develop agricultural space (agricultural land status and land registration), to professionally organize the various sectors and to aim for food security, while contributing to the economic growth of the country, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Maritime Fisheries , Rural Development and Water and Forests. Thus, 10 laws, 18 decrees and 54 orders have made it possible to put in place institutional and governance reforms in the sector, while 13 decrees and 84 orders have encouraged agricultural investment, with a view to rehabilitating the sector. Moroccan agriculture, to provide it with the means it lacked, while remedying the legal void. Following this first phase, it was a question of attribution and delegation of powers, in order to facilitate the management and the structuring of the sector with laws, such as the “Dahir n ° 1-09-21 of 22 safar 1430 (18/02/2009) promulgating Law No. 27-08 on the Statute of the chambers of agriculture “whose mission is to represent and defend the interests of farmers and breeders with local, provincial, regional public authorities and national; or “Dahir No. 1-09-16 of 22 Safar 1430 (02/18/2009) promulgating Law No. 42-08 establishing the Agency for Agricultural Development” working for the implementation of the agricultural strategy adopted by the government for the development of the sector.
The problem of the development of agricultural space and the reforms of land statutes, as well as land registration have also been taken into account thanks to two laws, 194 decrees and 2752 orders, making it possible to secure the right of ownership and to definitively settle the questions relating to the statutes of the lands, where a legal vacuum reigned. The legal framework for the development of production sectors, as well as the labeling of products and professional organization have been created by 8 laws, 25 decrees and orders. For example, Law 03-12 on interprofessions, published in the Official Bulletin on July 23, 2012, and its implementing texts constitute the legal framework regulating the creation and financing of agricultural and fisheries interprofessions. The agricultural interprofessions created to date must comply with the provisions of this law, in particular those relating to the standard status and the level of representativeness of the professional associations that compose them.
Finally, health safety and quality control of agricultural and food products, as well as inputs were facilitated by law No. 28-7 (of February 11, 2010), 24 decrees and 1,140 orders. Food safety has recently been consolidated with the new legal framework, granting a normative mechanism for the safety of agricultural and food products following the example of international standards and requirements in this area. This allows a more adapted and reinforced quality control of food products, all along the value chain, from production in the field to the consumption stage, leading to a more competitive sector. By creating this legal framework specific to agriculture, with the adoption of new modes of organization, Morocco has given impetus to a new vision of development throughout its territory. A dynamic characterized by a high agricultural added value, but also by the strengthening of the various sectors and their productivity, with a sustained growth of its added value, as well as an average annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6% over the 2008 period -2018.