Since the beginning of the pandemic, the pediatric group presented fewer serious cases, hospitalizations and deaths, compared to what was observed in adults, they reported variable prevalence rates according to each region. However, in countries like the United States, in the most recent months, there has been an increase in the percentage of cases.

By August 26, 2021, 4.8 million cases had been accumulated in children, with an exponential increase in the last month of five times more with respect to previous records. Thus, children represented 22% of the cases reported per week, with an increase of 7% during the last two weeks.

In Mexico, in August 2021, 156,990 cases were accumulated in children. The most affected group is 12 to 17 years old, which accounts for 59% of cases, and in which 758 deaths have occurred. In Mexico, since April 2020, the Covid-19 Tool Access Accelerator was established as a collaboration for the development, production, and equitable access to Covid-19 tests, treatments, and vaccines.

The WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization issues recommendations on the approval of vaccines that have been shown to be safe and effective. This body establishes a guide for the vaccination of priority groups, according to availability and taking into account different epidemiological contexts, but recognizing that, in the initial stages, the objective is to reduce morbidity and mortality from Covid-19.

From the beginning of vaccination, we know that there is a limited supply, which far exceeds the demand, but in any country or region the priority is to vaccinate people with the highest risk of serious disease and death. For this reason, and given that children have been considered a low-risk group, they have remained a secondary goal to vaccinate, until the safety of the population at greatest risk is guaranteed.

In children, the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic has been important in their education, health and general well-being. Although the majority present a mild or asymptomatic clinical picture, they contribute to community transmission, with implications for the control of the pandemic. The WHO has approved the emergency use of at least 13 different vaccines through four platforms for their application in the adult population; however, so far, for pediatric age only the use of the Pfizer / BioNTech vaccine has been recommended.

The vaccination strategy in Mexico estimated that by August, approximately 58% of the population over 18 years of age had a complete schedule. But on June 11, 2021, the Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risks (Cofepris) expanded the age group to over 12 years, for the emergency use of the Pfizer / BioNTech vaccine.

In October 2021, the registration of minors between the ages of 12 and 17 with comorbidities began in Mexico to be vaccinated with the Pfizer / BioNTech vaccine. Underlying comorbidities or conditions include: chronic heart disease, chronic lung disease, chronic kidney, liver or digestive system conditions, chronic neurological disease, endocrine diseases, immunosuppression, asplenia or spleen dysfunction and hematological diseases, serious genetic abnormalities affecting various systems, as well as pregnant teens.

It is very likely that, as the vaccination program advances, the susceptible population will change, which may increase the risk of Covid-19 infection, both in children and in unvaccinated individuals.

Doctors have a responsibility to promote the benefits of existing vaccines, in order to accelerate backward schedules and emphasize prevention measures until it is possible to vaccinate the pediatric group.

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