All the remedies have been tried to apply in Haiti, none have worked and the moment of exhaustion seems to have arrived -with the assassination of President Jovenel Moïse- in which this failed state is declared in terminal condition which, being the purest nation in America and having certainly built a country, it has failed to be a viable republic.
The slave revolt -successful- that from one day to the next, on the “night of knives”, by murdering 25 thousand whites and half of the mulattoes, made the richest colony in France very poor, gradually destroyed the rest of the wealth, the agrarian reform that minifunding the territory, the indiscriminate logging that – over 200 years – turned it into a desert, the construction through the law of an exclusively black town closing itself to foreign investment and the impossibility of building a political class, minimal, to date, prevented the construction of a viable state.
As of 1978, America left behind dictatorships and authoritarian democracies and, except in Cuba, democracy prevailed, even from Haiti Jean Claude Duvalier left in 1986, 35 years ago. Toussaint’s homeland, however, worsened.
It has been comfortable to blame France and the economic conditions imposed by Napoleon to accept its independence, but it is not the reason for this historical situation. More recently, in the last three decades, neither is the lack of international aid, because Haiti It is the destination for the largest amount of international cooperation in the last seven decades on the continent.
Manuel Marín, Commissioner of the European Union told me, enthusiastically, in December 1994, that the United States had 500 million dollars and the EU had a similar amount in euros to rebuild Haiti when the deposed President Jean Bertrain Aristide returned to power, a fact that the world achieved in October 1994. Everything continued to get worse.
On that occasion – particularly pleasant because on that trip I obtained the first banana quota for the country and 17 million ECU for programs with Haiti – the senior European official did not observe in me the sparkle he saw in Carlos Morales’s eyes, and he asked why he didn’t believe in that plan.
• Because in his interesting exhibition he has not said how many helicopters they are going to rent.
• For what, minister? He responded surprised.
• Well, because the only way to distribute US $ 1,000 million in a country without institutions – religious, without business associations, professionals, workers, universities, banks – is by throwing it from the air.
I visited Haiti – beset by misery since 1804 and at that time by the OAS and the UN – many times after the removal of the President in 1991; I spoke with Raoul Cedras, head of the Army, and with all the politicians who were involved in that crisis: There was only one political problem, Aristide.
The few jobs in the free zones were lost, basic food and medicine were out of stock and, when they were turned off, they did not have medicine for the hospitals: People died in the streets, where they slept in Port-au-Prince, the result of an inhumane action by the international community -That judged without knowledge-. But there was no chaos.
At that moment of despair, for humanitarian reasons and for the political survival of our country, Dr. Joaquín Balaguer authorized the transport of fuel for hospitals, but never allowed the camps that were “suggested” by various nations and organizations.
The United States and Europe, through the United Nations – ignoring the historical reality – dissolved the Army, the only institution existing in that country – reestablished Aristide in power and, later, when he won a second term, due to his turn to the left. , The United States deposed him and sent him into exile in Africa: The rest is history, the UN maintained the Minusth -in Port-au-Prince- for years spending billions of dollars in its failure and, of course, it does not want to return. During this period, the gangs that today control Haiti emerged or were strengthened, which essentially lives off catastrophe tourism, NGOs and their work with misery, tax crime, kidnapping and disorder.
Once Aristide’s term ended, Rene Preval, whom I met in December 1995, wins the election and invited the country shortly before taking office. It was the only acceptably normal period since then. Aristide did not finish his next term (2001-2004) and those who succeeded him, including Preval’s second term – affected by the 2010 earthquake – ruled on the basis of acute political instability, without stable heads of government or with an outdated parliament. Until the date in which a gang, apparently without political ties, but for a political purpose, commits the assassination – condemned by the whole world – assassinating a president whom few have mourned in his country and who, during his entire term, they were asking for resignation.
Upon his death, his adversaries entrusted him that his mandate had ended; the Prime Minister who survives him had been dismissed and the one appointed by the assassinated President was not ratified by Parliament, a body affected by expiration that had already been dissolved. In the order of succession, as there is no vice president, he is replaced by the President of the Court of Cassation, who recently passed away: Only in Haiti you see that.
If it is already serious that Haiti does not have a political class, but rather people who act temporarily, it is the excessive fragmentation of the political system than to designate the Government body, the Cabinet chaired by a Prime Minister – which on average lasts less than a year – It requires twelve and sometimes more parties, giving rise to weak and short-term actions without the possibility of continuity: History has shown that the French semi-presidential regime has no opportunity to function in Haiti and, for that, the assassinated president called a referendum for the September 26 this year.
The presidential system used throughout America has more possibilities, although the case is so serious that it would not work either, except that a United Nations decision agrees on a protectorate of at least 20 years to prepare two generations of citizens in Haiti to serve as a base. initial to democracy with a more practical Constitution. Meanwhile, President Abinader’s disposition to close the border to avoid a wave of migration is correct and, for practical reasons, authorize the passage of fuel and food… however, a fence that allows us to mark and protect our territory remains essential.