PACTE LAW – As of October 1, new retirement savings products will be able to be marketed in France, thanks to the Pacte law. We will explain everything to you.
[Mis à jour le 30 septembre 2019 à 9h10] Retirement savings are changing with the Pacte law. To simplify the complex retirement savings landscape, the executive launched the creation of the Retirement Savings Plan, also called PER. The marketing of the three products must start from Tuesday 1er October 2019. In detail, it is planned to launch an individual retirement savings product, simply called Retirement Savings Plan, as well as two group products. If you already have a retirement savings plan, don’t panic. Old devices should not disappear before 1er October 2020. Find in this article all the information on these new retirement savings products and the devices that should change with the Pacte law.
To make retirement savings products more attractive, the government has decided to simplify the landscape, by creating three products under the Pacte law. The first is an individual retirement savings product: the Individual Retirement Savings Plan (PERI). It must replace the PERP (People’s Retirement Savings Plan) and the “Madelin” system, reserved for self-employed workers. Contracts may be opened in the form of insurance or title account contracts. The Covenant Law also provided for the creation of two collective retirement savings products, the collective PER (PEREC) and the compulsory PER (PERO), to replace the Perco (Group retirement savings plan) and ex-article 83. One of them will be open to all employees and the other will be reserved for certain categories of employees only.
As recalled Income, each product will be divided into three compartments, depending on the nature of the payments: voluntary payments made by the saver, payments from employee savings (profit-sharing, participation, etc.) and compulsory payments by the employee or the employer. Depending on the nature of the payments made, the exit terms and taxation will change. Find all the information on the PER in our article.
Today, only 16% of employees benefit from a wage savings scheme within their company. The Covenant Law provides for a easing of taxation on profit-sharing. The social package, which corresponds to the taxes paid by the employer when it distributes profit-sharing to its employees, has been abolished since January 1, 2019 for companies with less than 250 employees. For companies with less than 50 employees, the social security rate has been abolished on all payroll savings payments (profit-sharing, participation and employer contributions) The State also wishes to encourage the implementation PERCO’s place in companies by removing the prerequisite for them to have a company savings plan (PEE).
Life insurance is a very popular investment for French people. But the majority of savers place their savings in euro funds. The government wants to direct savers to Eurogrowth funds, a product launched in 2014 and which has had little success. These funds are not available at all times, unlike life insurance. It offers a capital guarantee only at maturity and also contains a share invested in shares. The financial product should be simplified. Objective: bring resources to companies. The government has announced an incentive to transfer savings from life insurance to retirement savings. As previously stated, any redemption of a life insurance contract of more than eight years will make it possible to obtain a tax allowance, if the sums are reinvested in a retirement savings plan and the redemption occurs at least five years before retirement. This device is in place until 1er January 2023.
Local residents in Jacksonville, United States, alerted police on Saturday after hearing an explosion. As she found out later, a mobile toilet cubicle had exploded.
Florida – You can find them at construction sites, festivals and events, they usually don’t smell pleasant, but usually you are happy to see one thing: We are talking about mobile toilet cubicles. Exactly one of these was the undoing of a woman in Jacksonville, Florida.
An 911 call was received by the Jacksonville police on Saturday. Local residents said they heard a loud bang. The officers arrived – and found an exploded mobile toilet cubicle at the scene of the accident. The woman who was presumably in the cabin at the time of the explosion could only be recovered dead. Her identity is so far unknown.
You can see in the video what the police believe is the cause of the explosion.
The airline company low cost long-courrier Level France will deploy its third aircraft on a new route between Paris and Boston, its sixth destination from the French capital.
From March 31, 2020, the subsidiary specializing in the cheap flight of Group IAG will offer three flights per week between its base in Paris-Orly and the airport of Boston-Logan, operated in Airbus A330-200 that can accommodate 21 passengers in Premium class and 293 in Economy. Departures are scheduled Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday at 7:15 p.m. to arrive at 9:00 p.m., with return flights leaving Massachusetts at 11:00 p.m. to land the next day at 12:05 p.m.
Level will compete on this route with Air France and its joint venture partner Delta Air Lines, as well as with the low cost Norwegian Air Shuttle, all of its rivals operating from Charles de Gaulle airport (Primera Air also offered it before bankruptcy). The one-way ticket is displayed from 99 euros ($ 99 from Boston). Logan thus becomes the 6th destination in the Level network from Orly, and the third to the United States after New York (Newark) and Las Vegas as of October 30; it also operates there to Guadeloupe, Martinique and Montreal in Canada.
This day of March 2020 will also mark the integration of a third A330-200 in the Level France fleet (registered F-HLVN), its 7th long-haul aircraft, including those based in Barcelona. This arrival “will also significantly increase the number of frequencies to the company’s Caribbean destinations”.
« We are delighted with the announcements made today, which illustrate the growth of our activities in France. The addition of this third new aircraft and the opening of sales to our sixth destination is great news for our passengers. We offer them even more travel opportunities, always with attractive prices and an excellent product. », Declared in a press release Jean-François Morin, CEO of LEVEL France. The opening of this new route ” offers the opportunity to discover the vibrant activities of one of the oldest cities in the United States and to begin a memorable road trip to Canada through the states of Massachusetts and Maine. From walks along the coast to Martha’s Vineyard linked to the history of the Kennedys, to America’s most famous universities, this region is worth a visit ».
Level is one of the two low-cost brands of the International Airlines Group (IAG), alongside Vuelin, British Airways, Iberia and Aer Lingus. It has long-haul bases in Paris and Barcelona, and medium-haul bases in Vienna and Amsterdam. From Barcelona, it operates to San Francisco, Buenos Aires, Boston New York-JFK and Santiago de Chile.
State of emergency after an “unprecedented” snow storm in September
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The people in the northwest of the USA experienced a surprise: A heavy snow storm swept over the state of Montana. Roads had to be closed, schools closed, farmers are desperate.
EAn unusually early snowstorm paralyzed parts of the US state of Montana. Governor Steve Bullock declared a state of emergency on Sunday after nearly a meter of snow fell in some parts of the state in the northwestern United States. “An unprecedented winter storm brought our state a surprise in September,” said Bullock.
In some places, strong winds toppled trees and power lines were cut. In particularly hard hit regions on the border with Canada, roads were closed and car accidents occurred. There were also reports of power outages and radio network disruptions. As a result of the storm, there could also be floods, it said in Bullock’s message. Because of the unusually cold temperatures for the season, the snow is likely to remain in some areas for the time being.
In parts of Montana near the Canadian border, a storm warning from the National Weather Service (NWS) was in effect until Monday morning (local time), in some places schools should be closed on Monday. With the declaration of the state of emergency, local authorities can call on state disaster relief aid, for example for cleanup operations.
The television station CBS spoke of a “historic” storm. “This is a February storm in September,” said the head of Glacier National Park to the “New York Times”. Farmers are desperate about the damage caused by the early frost to their fruits and crops.
Since 1893, according to the New York Times, there had been no snow in Montana before September 28th. The snow did not fall in just one place, but widely spread across the state. It is a “very wet and heavy snow,” says the meteorologist for the National Weather Service in Great Falls, Thomas Pepe. Some snowdrifts are so high that they reached her upper body, reported 50-year-old Cassie Barnett, who lives near Fairfield in northwest Montana.
Prestigious success for Malley for the LHC against the Philadelphia Flyers, in the framework of the Global Series of the NHL. The Vaudois beat Philly 4-3.
React two days after the spanking suffered against Davos (7-1) against one of the best clubs on the planet in a gala match. A major challenge for the LHC in a particular context. So against the Flyers, in front of the cameras of the American networks, there is no question of offering the same mush as against the Grisons.
When Herren opened the scoring after 5 minutes, it was almost amazement in the stands. But Lausanne continued its momentum. Emmerton doubled the bet on a very good power-play (11th) and Genazzi drove the point home with a superb slap (14th). To believe that this LHC was that of the first third in Zug.
The Flyers wake up in the 25th
As for the Flyers, the initial third looked like a nice tourist stroll, just to appreciate this new ice rink at Malley, barely a week old. The NHL franchise didn’t really seem concerned with what was going on around it. In fact, the Pennsylvanians woke up in the 25th, just after the 4-0 signed Vermin, again in a power play. This fourth success got the better of Carter Hart, yet one of the most promising doormen of his generation.
Among the stars of the Flyers, Claude Giroux more or less held his place with his goal in the 26th. On the other hand Couturier, Gostisbehere, Provorov or even Voracek delivered a very unspecified part. In the end, the star of the Flyers was Gritty, the mascot resembling a yeti with wacky eyes and appearing at almost every break.
An exceptional ice rink
One thing that should not be overlooked to explain this disappointment, apart from the time difference, is the size of the ice rink. With four meters more in width, the Vaudois dismissed the defense of Philly. But the natural class of the NHL organization should have erased this change of surface. Giroux & Cie pressed hard at the end of the game, but Lausanne held on.
Because the LHC has done it all. The few players to have been entitled to minutes in the NHL Lausanne side wanted to show that they did not necessarily have much to envy their opponent. Emmerton, Moy, Vermin, Bertschy, Jooris, Jeffrey, without having anything to prove, delivered a serious game.
We can only hope that the Lions mood will be the same on Wednesday for the reception of Rapperswil. Because the glitter of the NHL will give way to the less glamorous reality of the National League championship. And the St-Gallois are rather tough at the start of the season.
Already spotted thanks to the delicate The courage it takes to the riversEmmanuelle Favier is better to confirm with her second novel, Virginiareleased in August 2019 by Albin Michel.
The Virginia in question, it is the famous Virginia Woolf, one of the writers of the most beloved icons of the Twentieth century.
With Things human, Karine Tuil is nominated for the Goncourt 2019
With this book, Emmanuelle Favier does more than pay tribute to its prestigious older sister, who has paved the way for several generations of female authors and feminists.
Explain the process of its creation
Floating, poetic, this evocation of the life of the novelist and british not at all like a typical biography.
Start of the literary : the lost paradise of Cécile Coulon
Even if it is well-documented, this Virginia has not the rigour sometimes boring documentaries historical. Rather, the focus is on the description of an era corseted, which reproduced the heavy mechanisms of social oppression.
Jean-Philippe Toussaint decrypts “The USB”, his new novel
Emmanuelle Favier a wonderful way of describing a family environment privileged, with the values of another time. This group is pretty homogeneous, or each one has disparate expectations, the writer extracts a character, studying it with precision, and then put it back in the family picture.
The Louvre sensual Josselin Guillois
The effect, entering, allows a better understanding of this period of the distant and approaching Virginia Woolf to closer, as if it was right next to it, to share its fears, its doubts, but also its joys and its first steps as an artist.
In the novel “The house”, Emma Becker opens the doors of brothels
The writer will have the opportunity to explain his creative process to his readers chartrains Saturday, 4 October 2019 at a signing session.
Practice. Dedication of Emmanuelle Favier, Saturday, 4 October 2019 to 16 hours at the Bookstore the Ampersand in Chartres. Free admission. Virginia, Albin Michel, 304 pages, 19,90 €.
A giant among high school mortals, Jahzare Jackson was challenged by a cheeky youngster in a match some time ago. The result ? A cover without appeal, already subscribed to the archives.
Jahzare Jackson, does that name mean anything to you? Remember: a few months ago, we were talking to you about this young player, barely 15 years old, which is already over 2 meters 10 under the height rod and which terrorizes all high school snowshoes.
Former teammate of Bronny James at Blue Chips in middle school, the one that almost everyone calls Big Jah has always intrigued LeBron James, who never failed to give him valuable advice. Jackson also adopted the slogan ” strive for greatness From the King.
In the summer of 2019, Jahzare attended the MHSTV camp in Indiana, where several big high school prospects gathered. During a match, a somewhat surreal scene took place: a player provoked Big Jah in a sort of duel, trying to dunk on him. We let you see (or review) the result:
HE TRIED TO DUNK ON JAH 😵 @jahzarre @MSHTVOfficial pic.twitter.com/dBcg3Y6Qqj
– Overtime (@overtime) September 29, 2019
Read also | High School – What has become of Robert Bobroczky, the tallest player in the world?
An XXL tarpaulin to punish the insolent man who believed himself capable of climbing Mount Jahzare. Rest assured, Big Jah was not only sanctioning heretics that day, he also showed his big heart:
Big Jah out here changing lives 😭 @jahzarre @MSHTVOfficial pic.twitter.com/JjxcMUOesk
– SLAM HS Hoops (@SLAM_HS) September 29, 2019
Since then, Jahzare Jackson continues to pursue his little snowman. Of course, hard to imagine him continuing to dominate when he falls on opponents with a size much closer to his, but the young player intends to go to the maximum of his abilities in the years to come.
In all cases, young people have definitely been popular for a few months. More recently, it was Shaquille O’Neal’s daughter who was creating a phenomenal buzz on networks, by dunking on a real basket when she’s only 13 years old.
Whatever happens, since that September day the whole world has been warned: never try to dunk on Big Jah. You may regret it soon enough.
Prestigious success at Malley for the LHC against the Philadelphia Flyers, as part of the NHL Global Series. The Vaudois defeated Philly 4-3.
React two days after the spanking suffered against Davos (7-1) against one of the best clubs on the planet in a gala match. A major challenge for the LHC in a particular context. So against the Flyers, in front of the cameras of the American networks, there is no question of offering the same porridge as facing the Grisons.
When Herren opened the scoring after 5 minutes, it was almost astonishment in the stands. But Lausanne has continued its momentum. Emmerton doubled the bet on a very good power play (11th) and Genazzi hit the nail on the head with a superb slap (14th). To believe that this LHC was that of the first third in Zug.
Flyers wake up at the 25th
As for the Flyers, the initial third looked like a nice tourist trip, just to appreciate this new Malley ice rink, just a week old. The NHL franchise didn’t seem frankly concerned with what was going on around it. In fact, the Pennsylvanians woke up in the 25th, just after the 4-0 signed Vermin, again in power play. This fourth success was right for Carter Hart, one of the most promising doormen of his generation.
Among the stars of the Flyers, Claude Giroux more or less held his rank with his goal in the 26th. On the other hand Couturier, Gostisbehere, Provorov or even Voracek delivered a very arbitrary part. In the end, the star of the Flyers was Gritty, the mascot resembling a yeti with delirious eyes and intervening at almost all breaks.
An extraordinary ice rink
One thing that should not be overlooked to explain this disappointment, apart from the jet lag, is the size of the ice rink. With four meters more in width, the Vaudois dismissed the defense of Philly. But the natural class of the NHL organization should have erased this change in surface. Giroux & Cie pressed at the end of the game, but Lausanne held on.
Because the LHC played the blow thoroughly. The few players to have had minutes in the NHL on the Lausanne side wanted to show that they did not necessarily have much to envy their opponent. Emmerton, Moy, Vermin, Bertschy, Jooris, Jeffrey, without having to prove anything, gave a serious part.
Hopefully the Lions will be on the same Wednesday for the Rapperswil reception. Because the glitter of the NHL will give way to the less glamorous reality of the National League championship. And the St-Gallois are rather tough at the start of the season.
Very young girl, at the age of 24, she had the audacity to push the door of Le Corbusier’s study cabinet to become her partner in the workshop of Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret. It is also thanks to this fearlessness that Charlotte Perriand has marked the history of design. In the mid-1920s, while the trend was still art deco, it already stood out for its simplicity, its choice of beautiful materials and its fascination for the industrial world. In the France of the interwar period Charlotte Perriand discovers a new mechanical civilization, which will continue to influence her conception of furniture. Artist engaged on the left, close to the Communist party, she wanted above all to put the subject back in the center of the space, to promote comfort and social ties. Today, the Louis Vuitton Foundation pays tribute to the work of this architect, sometimes overshadowed by big male design names … Because his name has often been erased in favor of Le Corbusier.
1. The tilting chair: don’t call it “Le Corbusier chair”
With its leather covering and elegant curves, the tilting chair, renamed LC4, has become an icon and bestseller in auction rooms. In 1927, when she designed this piece of furniture, Charlotte Perriand had just joined Le Corbusier’s work program. The first discussions are far from cordial: Charlotte Perriand must then go beyond the machismo of the architect, who is already the world star we know. The one she later nicknamed her “old Corbu” warns: “You know here, we don’t embroider cushions!”. The tone is set. The architect gave him a program to equip the Church and La Roche villas with a lounge chair inspired by the medical chair, the overweight of Dr Pascaud (1925) and the bentwood rocking chair of Thonet. “He gave her his reference models and Charlotte did everything else!”, confided the documentary maker Jacques Barsac, specialist in the work of Charlotte Perriand, in the program Une vie, une oeuvre, broadcast on 05/13/2013 on France Culture. In 1929, the invention patent of The tilting lounge chair iconic had been deposited in the names of Madame Scholefielf née Perriand Charlotte and Mr. Charles-Edouard Jeanneret dit Le Corbusier & André Pierre Jeanneret “wrote Jacques Barsac, Tilting lounge chair, catalog The new world of Charlotte Perriand, Gallimard edition.
The shape of this tilting chair is reminiscent of the furniture of medical offices. And this is no coincidence since Charlotte Perriand was inspired by “Sur-repos”, an armchair on which Doctor Pascaud made his patients lie down. For Perriand, it is the well-being of the subject that counts above all. At the height of her twenty-two years, the young designer brings a unique know-how on the design of furniture: “Le Corbusier learned late, he copied models, he was less interested than Charlotte in ergonomics, in the relationship between furniture and body. In fact, he had less knowledge”, said historian Jean-Louis Cohen in the same program.
We tend to make an object for the object. And the man is not there. Do not get the subject wrong, the subject is not the man, it is the object! Charlotte Perriand
For this piece of furniture, she imagines a system that would allow the user to maintain themselves in a comfortable position. It then draws on aeronautical engineering to produce a flexible support that can be adapted to all body positions. “The lounge chair is a line, a tube that takes the human body in a given position, the position, for example, of the tired pi-piou, feet on a tree and the head on its bag. But we wanted to be able to change positions too. The support gave us concern, because it can be very different. We needed plasticity… We did a lot of research, and I started looking at the tubes on planes ”, confided Charlotte Perriand in a series of interviews “A voice nude”, broadcast on France Culture in 1999.
I would ask you to point out that this seat works by simple sliding and without any mechanics, and this while passing for all the intermediate positions, and in particular by the horizontal position which allows the obtaining of an ordinary rest seat. Charlotte Perriand
Despite its comfort and modernism, the tilting chair is far from being a commercial success. Edited by Thonet, the model only sold 172 copies in the first year of its sale. The bourgeois and subdued interiors of the era do not seem ready to make way for the avant-garde of Charlotte Perriand, as Martine Dancer, coordinator of the Charlotte Perriand catalog for the Louis Vuitton foundation explains: _ “For the time , it’s very modern. For the time a lounge chair which is made of steel, inspired by the mode of construction of the planes of the time, as revealed by Charlotte Perriand, it is completely new. The public is cautious, because we are still in the Louis XVI style. Until the 1960s, bourgeois salons were still equipped with this style of furniture. She was way ahead. ” _But that is not enough to discourage the designer, who will not stop using new materials from the industry. “Metal is to the interior layout what cement is to architecture. It’s a revolution “, does it assert, in its manifesto text, Wood or Metal, published in 1929 in the English journal The Studio.
The tilting chair found its audience from the 1950s, but at the time the furniture was signed by the three creators Le Corbusier, Charlotte Perriand and Pierre Jeanneret, who collaborated in the same workshop. Even today, this iconic piece of furniture has a name that attributes it exclusively to Le Corbusier, as evidenced by this reissue put on sale by Cassina, under the name of “LC4 Le Corbusier”.
Charlotte Perriand does not abandon this model to which she will remain attached. when she left Le Corbusier’s workshop in 1937, she was asked for a Japanese production orientation mission by the Japanese Ministry of Commerce and Industry, she went to meet industrialists and students. For Japan, it is a question of raising the level of quality of its production intended for export and redirecting their activities in the face of the economic difficulties of certain regions. In the land of the rising sun, his art is reinvented while drawing on local traditions. Perriand wants to develop a new model of his tilting chair, but the Second World War breaks out and metal becomes a rare commodity. The chromed metal chair becomes a bamboo lounge chair and rediscovers the name of its original designer: “Upon her arrival, she reports on the mechanical capacities of bamboo, on the 2,300 species of bamboo. She uses what she has available, ancient techniques to make modern works”, specifies Jacques Barsac.
Estimated today at 16,000 euros for its original version, the LC4 tilting chair is exhibited in many museums such as MoMA in New York, at the 1930s museum in Boulogne-Billancourt, as at the Museum of Modern Art of Saint-Etienne Métropole
2. The Maison du Brésil library, the room of a “talented performer”
After the Second World War, In 1952-1953 – whereas in 1935 she had presented at the Brussels International Exhibition The young man’s house she is responsible in particular by André Bloc for the interior fittings of student rooms in the house of Tunisia and Mexico. It is developing two libraries which will later be distributed under the name of the pavilions.
The young woman then imagines practical equipment, in adequacy with the life of the students, professors and artists who will be passing through these accommodations. She then put herself at the service of a pacifist utopia to promote exchanges and the well-being of future tenants. Among the furniture that will equip the apartments: a tripod stool, and a library that will soon become an iconic piece of the creator’s work.
Specially designed for small spaces, the library of the Maison du Brésil is made up of a base and crosses made of fir, lockers and doors in folded and embossed aluminum sheets. They come bring a little gaiety in these interiors. For this ingenious piece of furniture, Charlotte Perriand sets up a mixed manufacturing process, metal for the industrial side (the lockers are bent sheet metal studs that she made with the Jean Prouvé workshops), and solid wood for the structure of the piece of furniture .
At Perriand, the furniture is designed according to the space, and the object as always, puts itself at the service of the subject. The library of the house in Brazil is therefore designed as a separating element, usable on both sides, and separates the spaces dedicated to the toilet from the living and working room. “We have given her a similar mission for the two bedrooms, to offer the best living conditions to a student in a minimum space. She works with the Jean Prouvé workshops and the carpenter André Chétaille. This library will also influence the Bouroullec brothers for the design of their library which they will call “Charlotte”, says Martine Dancer.
Empty spaces or gaps allow the eye to spin. It must be taken as a conception of space: Charlotte Perriand appropriates space to live in it comfortably. It’s the perfect combination of need and form. The colors have been determined for the house of Tunisia by Charlotte Perriand, Sonia Delaunay, Nicolas Schöeffer, Sylvano Bozzolini. Martine Dancer
3. The Boomerang office: before Le Corbusier and Calka, Charlotte Perriand
“It caresses the wood, Soft as a woman’s thighs”, writes Charlotte Perriand in her autobiography, A life of creation Editions Odile Jacob, published in 1998. At the end of the 1930s, when interior designers all used metal, brought up to date by Perriand herself, the designer decided to reconnect with this natural material. At the same time, his friend Jean-Richard Bloch, editor-in-chief of the newspaper The evening, asks her to equip her office. A large solid pine top on three legs: the boomerang desk was born. The shape of the wide-curved desk is not only an aesthetic choice: the large tray made it possible to accommodate a dozen employees, which enabled the director of the newspaper, placed in the hollow of the curve on a swivel armchair turn to each other: “When he received the journalists, there was no longer any hierarchy, and everyone could chat around the office. This free form is a device that she invented and that allows a real dialogue”, says Martine Dancer.
Years later, in 1959, Le Corbusier took up the idea of the boomerang office, as part of one of his biggest urban projects: the new Indian city of Chandigarh. The capital of the Punjab and Haryana states came out of the ground on a decision of the Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, with the aim of making it “the symbol of the liberation of India and the expression of its conviction for the future”. In addition to the development and construction of the roads and official buildings which he will be in charge of, the architect’s mission is to equip the ministerial palace with the head of state. It was on this occasion that he created the “boomerang desk”, a teak desk dating from 1969, estimated today at between 100,000 and 200,000 euros in auction rooms.
The “boomerang office” will inspire many interior designers, including Maurice Calka, who will deliver a more rounded version in the 1970s. Made of polyester resin lacquered in bright colors, like orange or white, this piece of furniture becomes ‘one of the iconic pieces of the designer. His pop style will even seduce President Georges Pompidou, who orders one to furnish his office at the Elysée Palace.
Despite her modernism and her undeniable contribution to architecture, the name of Charlotte Perriand is still associated today with the names of other male artists, with whom she collaborated. Invited on France Inter, on the occasion of the exhibition dedicated to her at the Louis Vuitton foundation, Pernette Perriand-Barsac, daughter of Charlotte Perriand, spoke about her mother’s fight to impose herself in the world of architecture, a manly world: “We always have to marry her with a man. (…) Her name is always erased”, she explained.
Michael Kilkenny is vigorously looking for people who have contracted HIV in his Cabell County in recent months. He and his team ask anyone who tests positive who he or she has had sex with and shared injections with. Then they examine those close to them.
Each time they have to wait days for the test results. Time is running out. If an HIV infection goes undetected, the disease spreads further. If left untreated, it can become acute and therefore fatal.
“We can only stop the outbreak if we really find and treat all those infected,” says Kilkenny, who heads the local health agency.
Cabell County, with its county seat of Huntington, is in the far west of West Virginia, a seven-hour drive from Washington D.C. away. Kilkenny has tested 80 people positively since the beginning of 2018. New cases are added weekly. According to experts, this is only “the tip of the iceberg”. Almost all infected people are addicted and inject their drugs. Before the outbreak, there were only a handful of HIV cases in Cabell County each year.
Michael Kilkenny is trying to get the biggest HIV outbreak in West Virginia under control
Opium crisis after the economic crisis
The Steel of West Virginia steel mill is located at the entrance to Huntington city center. The mighty outer walls are dark brown. It’s hard to tell what rust and what is dirt. The parking lot in front of the factory is almost empty. Up until the 1970s, Huntington, with its 50,000 inhabitants, was a regional industrial and commercial center in an otherwise extremely rural region. Natural resources such as coal and iron made people rich. Today the city is best known for its drug problem.
Painkillers containing opium were relatively common early on, where the better paid jobs were associated with heavy physical activity for a long time. The aggressive marketing of the pills by pharmaceutical companies from the 1990s made them pervasive. Since the economic decline, opium has not only relieved physical pain. According to official estimates, almost every tenth here is dependent today. A quarter of them inject themselves with drugs and are therefore particularly at risk for infectious diseases.
The steel mill is reminiscent of economically better times. Today, the gross domestic product of West Virginia is comparable to that of Venezuela
In 2015, Cabell County landed on a nationwide list by the U.S. health institute with those counties where the risk of an HIV outbreak is particularly high. Michael Kilkenny then did everything his tight budget allowed to prevent that. He started information campaigns and created more therapy places. In addition, addicts in Kilkenny’s agency have since been able to exchange used syringes for new ones. And yet: “We found that new injections can no more prevent an HIV outbreak than a seat belt prevents a car accident,” says the doctor, resignedly.
Controversial syringe exchange
The prevention program is repeatedly criticized for primarily promoting drug use instead of making it safer. A similar program was discontinued in a nearby county after protests. Michael Kilkenny still holds on to it. Even if it couldn’t prevent the outbreak, the clean syringes would help keep the number of infections as low as possible, he is convinced.
Addicts can exchange used syringes for packages with clean syringes and disinfectant wipes
“West Virginia has always been a country with very few HIV cases. People overslept the risk,” said Judith Feinberg, a professor of medicine at West Virginia University. Also, many people, doctors and residents alike, are not aware that HIV has become a problem in West Virginia. Therefore, not enough people would be tested for the virus.
Michael Kilkenny does not accept this criticism for his district. HIV was actually not a priority until 2015, he says. But that has changed since Cabell County was blacklisted by the US health institute. And since the onset of the HIV outbreak, his agency would have done everything to test, especially, addicts. To reach these people, the doctor relies on working with local social workers.
Kilkenny’s office is within walking distance of Amanda Coleman’s workplace. In between is the district court. With its golden dome, it stands out. The rest of the city center is a mixture of poorly preserved brick buildings and unadorned post-war buildings. Many stores are empty. There is garbage in the house entrances. Urine smell stings in the nose.
“I have to have hope”
Coleman runs the “Harmony House”, a facility for the homeless. Homeless people can spend the day here, take a shower and get help finding accommodation. Dozens of people frolic on the narrow sidewalk in front of the entrance. It is unusually warm in late September. Over half of all those who have contracted HIV in Cabell County since the beginning of 2018 have no permanent residence.
Amanda Coleman: “We work hard to make our clients feel comfortable and trust us”
So far, Coleman has had to send her clients to Kilkenny for an HIV test or have external personnel come in. Now she has three employees trained so that the examinations can be carried out on site. “I think we have a better chance of convincing more people to get tested if the HIV test can be part of a conversation.” The stigma surrounding the disease would have waned in recent years, but there is still too little knowledge about the disease and treatment options, she says.
University professors Judith Feinberg fears that, despite all efforts, so far only a fraction of all infected people have been found and are being treated. She says the extent of the HIV outbreak in Cabell County and the surrounding counties cannot yet be estimated.
“I can’t tell how many HIV infections there will be in the end,” says the doctor. “I hope it won’t be more than eighty. But when we had 79 cases, I hoped it wouldn’t be more than 79,” he adds. And yet he was confident, almost out of duty: “I have to have hope to be able to continue my job.”