One more step in the fight against HIV | News | The Nouvelliste

This discovery sheds light on the role of a protein of this innate immunity in humans, TRIM5alpha, which induces a mechanism of protection against HIV-1 (the most common type of HIV in the world). Understanding this natural immunity mechanism could potentially be used in the development of immune strategies to inhibit the virus. Researchers believe this could possibly be done through genetic modifications to TRIM5alpha.

Delta inaugurates its biometric terminal in Atlanta

With more than 180 million passengers carried each year and 302 destinations served, Delta is one of the largest airlines in the world. With an identity focused on the traveler experience and innovation, the American group continues to invest to improve its performance and its customer satisfaction rate. “Each year we aim to be among the best airlines in the world and that is why we allocate a significant investment in new technologies and service”, says Steve Sear, sales manager at Delta.
After several years of research, the group inaugurated the first biometric terminal in Atlanta, the most important airport in the world in terms of air traffic with more than 1,000 departures every day. Endowed with a facial recognition system, terminal F allows the traveler, throughout his journey, to identify himself by his face.

It all starts during registration via the Delta terminals. All passengers traveling internally or internationally on a direct flight with Delta and its partners (Aeromexico, Air France KLM, Virgin Atlantic Airways, Korean AIr …) can now use a facial recognition system to check in, add luggage or reserve your seat. To validate the check-in, the client must then scan his passport via the terminal where the information will be directly recorded. He can then go through security and board using the same device without having to present his passport or boarding pass (except for international destinations). An ultra-fast process which aims to improve the journey of the traveler, to save him time and to smooth the traffic in terminal F.

This new system was born out of a partnership between Delta, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL) and Transportation Security Administration (TSA). When asked why Delta Company, John Wagner of CBP stated that “it was the first to give the green light to test this new device”. The goal is now to deploy it in many airports in the United States and around the world, “Ultimately, we would like our passengers to have access to this system at all airports where we operate flights, including with our international partners”, says Gil West, Delta COO. “Whether in Europe, Asia, Minnesota or New York, we want to connect the airports to each other in order to create a real network”, he adds. The next terminal to benefit from it will be the Detroit McNamara by mid-December. Tests will also be performed at New York John F. Kennedy Airport and at Menneapolis-Saint-Paul. In parallel, the group rolled out a biometric registration system in all Delta Sky clubs using fingerprints. For club members, no need for a card or supporting document, all you have to do is place your fingerprints on a small machine placed on the counter to validate your identity.

Regarding data protection, John Wagner ensures that all passenger information, including photographs, is stored in a secure cloud system. Several works also relate to blockchain technology, but are still at the brainstorming stage. In parallel, during the visit to the Delta Hub, the company’s technological laboratory, the teams confided that their research is currently organized around 4 main themes: improving the journey of animals, an application that helps pilots to better predict and anticipate turbulence, an e-cabin for on-board personnel (total elimination of paper) and blockchain.

Columbia Student Column # 4 – The New Unique Thought

We can discuss an ideology and fight it because it revolves around a system of ideas, concepts and categories, and because it is embodied over collective trajectories. But what to do in front of a state of mind, since it is governed by moods, emotions, impulses? What to do, above all, when prestigious universities promote the worst state of mind, that which incites the generations they educate to think themselves better than the previous ones, a priori moral, and to blame the inherited world, to better deconstruct it ?

Since I am a “non-traditional” student, according to the official formula which designates the 700 students who, like me, are selected each semester by Columbia to blend in with all of the 30,000 much younger students, I often – with many of my comrades – this feeling of guilt.

Presumed guilty

Guilty for all that I represent, think, feel or have accomplished, a whole that belongs – already – to a deplorable world. There is only one course I can remember where a professor did not orchestrate this lost trial. It was during my first semester and the professor of philosophy, of English origin, a great specialist in the study of pragmatism, had the strangeness to consider that he had to push his students to think. In this course on contemporary moral problems, he confronted us with the questions of war, suicide, abortion, genetic research or speciesism. He urged us to articulate our arguments and invited us to engage in class discussion.

Read also Column of a student at Columbia # 3 – A student must think like his teacher

At the end of this semester, the youngest of my comrades had matured: they were now questioning their state of mind and above all, rare thing, were developing a thought which, in most of the other courses, would never have had the right to cited. When I see him on campus, this professor of philosophy reminds me of the day when, after listening to one of the students argue about the value of war through a daring reading of European moral failure during the Second World War and the evidence which had been given by the American intervention, I replied by insisting on the virtues of pacifism and the overly Manichean and moralizing reading of American historiography – I who am not, however, a cantor of pacifism. Thinking in this way, including thinking outside of one’s own convictions, had been a happy omen when I was still trying to adapt to the demands of my new schooling. The omen, alas, turned out to be misleading since experience was the exception which confirmed the rule.

Dick cheney

Because the rule in this university world marked by the alliance of progressivism and “transactionalism” (I will come back to this last trend soon) is the anger – often cold and unenforceable – of the “just”. An anger all the more powerful as it takes on the appearance of an organized and selective thought. She does not shy away from any amalgam and does not tolerate any misunderstanding. You only have to set foot on the prestigious university campuses to realize this.

On November 9, a professor of socio-medical science from Columbia held a conference at Princeton University entitled “The toxic mixture of campus: whiteness, masculinity, alcohol laws, stress and shame” . Jennifer S. Hirsch explained that “alcohol consumption is an important part of heterosexual students’ strategies for accumulating sexual experiences” and that “what a student perceives as the general culture of alcohol consumption at Columbia is often only his experience as a rich white man. ” This argumentation is obviously respectable if it supports counter-argumentation, except that, on the one hand, it is a whole section of university research that develops it scientifically, that it now targets as a priority most of the foundations of Western civilization and that it is persistently propagated in the courts.

Read also Column of a student at Columbia # 1 – Forbidden words

Columbia now teaches her slave history in History or “compulsive masculinity” in Feminist Studies. In the mouths of teachers appear singular sentences like this: “When Saint Peter looks at what I have done, I do not want her [sic] confuses me with Dick Cheney or something like that. An African American studies teacher dismayed her students with a lesson on transgressive black female sexuality, one speaking of “horror” and “the hostile environment” created by this professor, who studied questions such as, “What can we learn about the sexuality of black women by reading erotic literature?” On November 14, a student at the Columbia School of Social Work published a column in the Spectator to explain the embarrassment felt after having found that in his course, the “only compulsory reading concerning the Jewish people in contemporary society” was entitled How the Jews became White. “During the discussions,” wrote the student, “classmates confessed that they were frustrated when Jews spoke of their experiences. On one occasion, I tried to explain to a close colleague how my Jewishness guided my work in favor of social justice and she told me that I should stop speaking, because my white privilege dominated any authentic form of solidarity that I could claim as a Jewish person. “


This business of making cleavage – in the name of tolerance – is striking because of its transversality and its orientation. Because it penetrates most courses, in the form of innuendos, provocations or curious elaborations, it maintains a culture of blame against the categories now automatically associated with the “guilty majority”, pushing ultimately to substitute – and not to associate – with this alleged majority the right and the expressions of the minorities, whatever their relevance, object or justification. This culture of blame is accompanied by a form of enjoyment of deconstruction on the part of the institution itself: on October 9, a petition from the Columbia Native Committee gathered a thousand signatures to claim that the university “recognize the stolen land and the bloodshed that allowed this institution to exist “and declares an official annual day off in memory of the indigenous peoples, while students demand the organization of guided tours of the affiliated places of Columbia, say they, to white supremacy, also calling for replacing the monuments therein with monuments for women and people of color.

I didn’t have to look far to find my conclusion here. The other day, one of my third-grade American comrades left class defeated, “weary” he told me, each time receiving a dose of “self-hatred”. He has been planning to spend his fourth year in London or Berlin for a few months and asked me, “Will it be the same there?” I did not know how to answer him, I believe, confined myself to observing that what is happening here never takes long to cross the Atlantic.

Gressel moves into the MLS final with Atlanta – first participation in the club’s history

Against Portland Timbers

Julian Gressel (photo) has reached the final of the North American Major League Soccer (MLS) with Atlanta United. The Georgia team lost the semi-final second leg against the New York Red Bulls 0-1 (0-0) on Thursday (local time), but a 3-0 win in the first leg on Sunday was enough to make it to the final.

The winning goal for the New Yorkers came in stoppage time by Tim Parker (90 + 4). Gressel played through. The 24-year-old midfielder achieved four goals and 14 assists in the main round. Last year he was the first German to receive the award for the best young player in the MLS.

For Atlanta United it is the first final appearance in the club’s history. The team only made its MLS debut last year. In the final, the team meets the Portland Timbers, who prevailed 3-2 against Sporting Kansas City.

In the second semi-final game between SKC and the Timbers, goals were much less stingy. It was 3-2 in the end for the guests from Portland. Everything started well for Kansas: In the 20th minute, winger Dániel Sallói scored the 1-0 with his third playoff goal.

It took until the 52nd minute before Sebastián Blanco equalized with a remarkable long-range shot. Around nine minutes later, Timbers captain Diego Váleri increased to 2-1. The home side fought self-sacrificingly and came in to equalize through substitute Gerso (81st). The final point, however, was set again by Váleri, who made his brace in the 9th minute of extra time and made it into the final perfectly.

The final of the MLS Cup Playoffs will take place on December 9th. at 2:00 a.m.

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Campaign against malaria in the DRC

“Peacekeepers are not the cure for Covid-19, but they do have a place in the fight against the virus,” said UN peacekeeper Jean-Pierre Lacroix.

The Covid-19 pandemic strikes countries that are at peace as well as those ravaged by armed conflict. For Jean-Pierre Lacroix, there is cause for concern for “people who already live in fragile political environments, in societies affected by conflict or recovering from conflict, with little or no infrastructure or health and social safety nets ”.

Concerns shared by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) which warned on Wednesday that 200,000 people have been displaced in Libya where fighting continues and where health infrastructure has been destroyed.

“The security challenges are now coupled with serious health concerns posed by the potential spread of the COVID-19 virus,” warned the IOM.

In conflict countries, many communities do not have access to clean water. This makes handwashing difficult as one of the ways to control the spread of the coronavirus.

Next to it, economies are collapsing; increasing the vulnerability of women. On the other hand, the collapse of the economy diminishes their ability to feed themselves and their families. The situation is more critical if “these families live under the threat of armed groups or terrorist acts”, worries Jean-Pierre Lacroix.

“Just as a body defends itself less well against the virus if its immune system is weakened, populations deprived of health systems or safety nets are even more vulnerable to the pandemic and its consequences. The same is true of the areas where our peacekeepers operate. Civilians are the most vulnerable there, ”he said.

According to the head of the peacekeepers, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic and Mali are countries which know a fragile peace and where the populations have already suffered too much because of the armed conflicts spanning long months.

“We continue to patrol while applying the rules of social distancing and we have intensified our use of online resources”, underlines Jean-Pierre Lacroix.

To stem the spread of the coronavirus pandemic, the missions also comply with precautionary measures, including quarantine and containment regardless of where they are deployed, he reassures.

The missions also support the efforts of the national authorities to contain the disease, through their means of communication and by maintaining essential supply chains. “Our staff educate communities about the coronavirus, through local radios and social networks, or during patrols,” adds Mr. Lacroix.

Work that is not without risk. According to the New Humanitarian, this week four UN staff have tested positive for coronavirus in South Sudan where there is fragile peace.

“We need the support of our member states more than ever. Their willingness to maintain their commitments to peacekeeping operations is crucial to ensuring our assistance capacity, “pleads Jean-Pierre Lacroix.


North Dakota’s capital, Bismarck: named after the Chancellor

London, Granada, Holland – America’s founding fathers showed little ingenuity when they named the new settlements. But how did Prince Otto von Bismarck get the capital of North Dakota named after him?

Bismarck, today’s seat of government in North Dakota, is named after the former German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. (Image: PD)

Americans like to see themselves as great innovators. But the founding fathers showed little ingenuity when it came to naming new settlements: London, Paris, Holland – the European settlers strangely often coppered the familiar. The traces of the Germans in particular have been tattooed on the American landscape to this day: Schoeneck is located in Pennsylvania, Schaumburg in Illinois, Mecklenburg in New York and Stuttgart in Kansas. Hamburg exists 20 times, and there are more than 40 Berlins between California and Vermont – often small towns with a fraction of the population that their big brother has.

A pearl among these namesakes is the capital of North Dakota: Bismarck, the current seat of government and, with 75,000 inhabitants, the second largest city in the sparsely populated state. How on earth did the German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck manage to honor in the New World?

The name is testimony to a formative chapter in the history of the Upper Midwest: in 1872, European settlers displaced the indigenous people from the region who had lived here for thousands of years. Strategically located on the Missouri River at the site of today’s Bismarck, the settlers planned a stop for the transcontinental railroad line that the Northern Pacific Railway company was working on. First, the settlement was named after the chief engineer Edwin Ferry Johnson.

But the name “Edwinton” soon had to give way to a charm offensive geared towards German investors: in the hope of attracting funding for the railroad project, the company named the city after the German head of government. The financially ailing railway company also wanted to decorate itself with the feathers of Bismarck, who was known as the “Iron Chancellor”.

Shortly thereafter, gold miners in the neighboring Black Hills came across gold; Bismarck rose to become a hub for raw materials and finally the capital of the Dakota Territory. This fame cost the German princes little: instead of the hoped-for Reichsmark, he merely sent a letter of thanks.

You will find more curious and unexpected items from all over the world in our column “Noticeable” every day – here you will find the latest and all older articles.

Le Silo, a grocery store without packaging in La Chaux-de-Fonds


The Silo team in front of Chez Becky, where we will soon find the bulk products. DAVID MARCHON

The Silo team in front of Chez Becky, where we will soon find the bulk products. DAVID MARCHON

The Silo team in front of Chez Becky, where we will soon find the bulk products. DAVID MARCHON

The Silo team in front of Chez Becky, where we will soon find the bulk products. DAVID MARCHON

The Silo team in front of Chez Becky, where we will soon find the bulk products. DAVID MARCHON

The first bulk goods store in the canton, the Silo will open its doors at the end of the year. A citizen and voluntary initiative to try to develop “zero waste”.

Packed. The four young Chaux-de-Fonniers, founders of the Silo association, are delighted at the idea of ​​offering bulk products in their town, at the end of the year, a first in the canton.

“The packaging has become rewarding. But on the environmental side, an impressive amount of waste is produced every day by most of us, because of our …

Family: Pregnant women influence their child’s metabolism

The lifestyle of a pregnant woman affects the child’s metabolism and can shape it for the rest of life. For example, it influences how the child’s body uses sugar and whether it tends to store fat in adipose tissue.

The concept of so-called perinatal programming is based on the assumption that important metabolic processes are not only influenced by genetic makeup, but also by external influences before and in the first few months after birth. This is what the Gesund im Leben network points out. Studies suggest that this programming is lifelong.

To protect the unborn child from too many calories, pregnant women should, for example, exercise moderately two and a half hours a week. But only about a third of women manage that. In addition, gestational diabetes should be better recognized and treated. (dpa)


Michael Jackson, a black American story in three cities

In the photo, Michael Jackson is the youngest, on the right, the one who waves. The photo dates from 1967, and the one who is already a singer and soon a star is nine years old. The Jackson Five pose for Gary, a town in Indiana that has mostly been remembered for having seen the birth of the king of pop.

The Jackson Five And Johnny, studio portrait in 1967 in Gary, Indiana

Credits: Gilles Petard / Redferns


Fourteen years later, in 1971, the magazine LIFE will make the front page with another photo of the Jackson Five, this time taken with their parents, from the stairs of their home in the upscale suburb of Los Angeles.

The LIFE edition, September 24, 1971
The LIFE edition, September 24, 1971

Between 1967 and 1971, fourteen years of a social ascent embodied in three cities and three addresses where the Jackson family lived for a career, led by a wand by a descendant slave who dreamed of the lights of LA for his descendants.

1. Gary, Indiana: two jewels, steel and Michael Jackson

Little known in Europe, the city of Gary holds its (relative) celebrity from two entangled stories:

  • to have been the birthplace of the Jackson family whose penultimate child, named Michael, was born in 1958
  • have the highest percentage of African-Americans in cities with more than 100,000 residents of all the United States (84% in the 2000 census)

If these two stories run on very different timeframes, they are linked. In 1958, when Michael Jackson was born, his family already settled in Indiana for a long time. The state that lives in the hollow of Lake Michigan, on the border with Canada, saw the birth of Michael’s maternal family in 1936. Katherine, his mother, granddaughter of a Métis slave, was six when his parents left the country. ” Alabama of deep south (the “Deep South”) for Indiana.

Having gone north to escape the cotton crisis, Katherine’s family is far from embodying an isolated trajectory: in half a century, from 1910, no less than six million African-Americans will leave the South of the United States. United, with racist laws and a bad economy, for the Midwest or the Northeast of the United States. They settle in Gary, where they are getting hired in the steel belt steel mills, the “Manufacturing belt”.

Aerial view of Gary, Indiana
Aerial view of Gary, Indiana

Credits: Francis MilleFrancis Miller / The LIFE Picture Collecr / The LIFE Picture Collection


Named “Gary” after the CEO of the big local industry, United States Steel Corporation, the city had grown like a mushroom in 1906, about 40 kilometers from Chicago. Thirty years later, when Katherine and her parents disembark, the black workforce was already large. They are part of what is called today “The Great Migration”, which was in full swing in the 1920s and 1930s.

But the black history of the Midwest does not date from the Great Migration: four hours away from there, near Lyes Station, two black and free pioneers had already acquired some land in Indiana, in 1840. Joined by d others they will form what will remain in history as “A black colony” ((“Black settlement”) – 800 inhabitants, all African-Americans, at the height of the wave of settlement, at the turn of the 20th century.

When Katherine meets Joseph, who will become her future husband and the father of the Jackson Five, the couple returns to Gary, where the steel industry is still hiring. An Arkansas native, Joseph is the son of descendants of Native American and African American slaves. In Gary, the couple will have eight children (one of whom will not survive just before Michael’s birth), who will huddle together in a small two-room house.

The Jackson’s do not belong to the black bourgeoisie, which is slow to emerge in the Midwest, where the middle class is still small. In Gary, the proletariat has rather black skin, in 1958 as it was already the case in 1919, the year of violent racial riots on the flanks of Lake Michigan.

Toriano Adaryll “Tito” Jackson, of the Jackson Five, and his three sons, in November 1995, outside Michael and Tito’s childhood home, in Gary, Indiana.

Credits: Raymond Boyd / Michael Ochs Archives


This summer of 1919, tension ignited on July 27 in Chicago, where the black population doubled in less than ten years. Over there, on the lake side, an African American teenager prided himself on getting out of the water on a corner of the beach traditionally reserved for whites. He will be rocked before the eyes of an imperturbable policeman. To die, drowned. Thirteen days of riots will follow in Chicago, with a very heavy toll – 38 dead and 537 injured. The incendiary gust of this “Red summer” ((“red summer”) will arrive in Gary a few weeks apart in early October. Gary is a black city and intends to make it known.

Gary, African-American capital of the United States? Half a century after these riots of 1919, some will want to believe it, when the city will elect Richard G. Hatcher, first African-American mayor of the whole country (in 1968), then will welcome in the gymnasium of a high school the Black National Convention, supposed to unify the political agenda of African American voters (in 1972).

But the Jackson’s are rather thinking of leaving Gary in this year 1968. The beautiful houses with avant-garde architecture overlooking the lake are gradually being abandoned by the Chicago bourgeoisie who had settled there. Gary’s Whites and Whites have started to faint in the wild.

It’s the “White flight”, literally “the white flight”, which coincides with the departure of the Jackson family, in 1968. That year, Michael is 10 years old, a little brother and a little sister (Janet), and Joe Jackson launched his offspring on the path of glory. The Jackson Five were born, they will serve as a stepping stone to the patriarch Jackson to raise his family socially, as swansong for the rest of the city.

In Gary, Indiana, his hometown, two weeks after the death of Michael Jackson, in 2009
In Gary, Indiana, his hometown, two weeks after the death of Michael Jackson, in 2009

Credits: Scott Olson


For a long time, the Jackson family – and especially Michael – will remain as a missing star for Gary, who will rather make the headlines when FBI statistics make it the most dangerous city in the United States. After their departure for Detroit in 1968, the former flagship of the industry began a spiral from which she would never really recover: in 1975 Gary already had only 175,000 inhabitants, including 32,000 steel workers, to not to exceed 80,000 inhabitants (and barely 7,000 workers) in 2005.

2. Detroit, from black pearl to dead city

When Joe Jackson decides to leave Gary, it’s not to go far: the Jackson family packs for Detroit, which the American press has been able to talk about as “the most beautiful black city” from the country. Less than four hours away (a straw, in the United States) Detroit is also a border town, with its lake which spends a foot in Canada.

Detroit is also a city emblematic of American industry, with the manufacturing identity encapsulated in its nickname, “Motor Town”. The automobile city, the homeland of Fordism and assembly line work, was no longer at its golden age when the Jackson landed, but Father Joseph no longer worked at the factory.

Five years earlier, Martin Luther King had first said in Detroit “I have a dream” in front of a large black community. But if the Jackson’s are there, it is mainly because Berry Gordy set up the Motown record company there. In 1968, when the iconic producer of the label and its star, Diana Ross, took the Jackson Five under their wing, Motown company was known as the most flourishing black company in all of the United States. The success of the firm’s soundtrack – music drunk for the most part – reflects on the aura of the city, and vice versa.

Gordy, whose parents had fled the South and the state of Georgia like many of these black families who will settle in the Midwest, plays a nuanced score: his stars are African-American, like many of his clients, and the drunk is rooted somewhere in the cotton fields of American slavery history.

The headquarters of Motown records, circa 1965, in Detroit, Michigan
The headquarters of Motown records, circa 1965, in Detroit, Michigan

Credits: Michael Ochs Archives


However, Berry Gordy fears more than anything the label of black ghetto. He, who was born in 1929 in Detroit at a time when the city was at its peak, also seeks to attract a white clientele. But in Detroit, the middle class, mostly white, began to migrate to the suburbs as African Americans from the south of the country arrived. In Detroit, 85% of the inhabitants are black, often poor, and regularly suppressed by a special police, the “Big Four” to methods as brutal as they are arbitrary.

For Gordy, riots like the one that tore the city apart in 1967, a year before the Jackson’s arrival, are a bad deal in terms of image. On July 23, 1967, a police raid on an unlicensed harbor degenerated. Law enforcement responds with beatings, tanks on the streets, and a curfew. The riots that summer, which remain today the most violent in the country’s history, will kill more than 40 people. Once the embers of the revolt have cooled, the city will continue to sink into deindustrialization, until its official bankruptcy in 2013.

Woodward Avenue, Detroit, Michigan, summer 2013, year of bankruptcy
Woodward Avenue, Detroit, Michigan, summer 2013, year of bankruptcy

Credits: In pictures Ltd.


But Berry Gordy, who aims for the sun in every sense of the word, has long since left Detroit when the city takes over. By 1969, he had started testing the California market to permanently relocate the entire Motown in 1971 to Los Angeles. In his luggage, the Jackson, who barely discovered Detroit but whose social advancement goes against the distress of the city in crisis.

3. Los Angeles light and whitening skin

The Jackson clan’s arrival in Los Angeles is eventful. The family is first housed by Berry Gordy on the hillside of Beverly Hills, on the heights of Hollywood whose sociology says a lot about the trajectory of the Jackson clan, far from Gary, Indiana. But the Jackson’s have to move several times: too noisy.

Two years and a few rentals later, the Jackson parents ended up buying $ 140,000 for a six-bedroom house in Encino. Encino flashes less than Beverly Hills or Bel Air, where Gordy had first thought of lodging them: it is a suburb of Los Angeles, forty minutes by car from Downtown (without traffic jams). But this is a wealthy suburb, where Katherine, the mother, recounts in her memories having fallen for “The eighteen lemon, orange and mandarin trees”, as well as the huge field, where children play basketball.

The Jackson family in their garden in Los Angeles in 1972
The Jackson family in their garden in Los Angeles in 1972

Credits: Michael Ochs Archives


In Encino, this upper class lair, Clark Gable lived a few blocks away in the 1960s. We are far from the black ghettos of Los Angeles, on the other side of the L.A. airport, to the south. A few years before the Jackson’s arrival in the city, it was in Watts that racial riots killed 34 people.

In the depths of August 1965, while at the same time in Indiana, the father, Joseph, created the Jackson Five who carried all his hopes, the black neighborhoods of Los Angeles protested against inequality and harassment which they paid massively on behalf of the police. At the cries of “Burn, baby, burn”, the rioters recalled that a year earlier, the Civil Rights Act was said to have abolished segregation across the country. On paper, because the discrimination, numerous, still ran.

By always becoming paler, Michael Jackson will carry on the skin this journey through black American geography, to beautiful predominantly white neighborhoods. When he died in 1999, the most optimistic would assure that his quest for whiteness would see the abolition of races and colors and the concern for an indivisible America.

Icon of African-Americans since his early notoriety, and for posterity flanked by an unforgettable Afro haircut, Michael Jackson will long be a spokesperson for the Blacks of America. However, in a country marred by racial riots since his birth, he will remain the first superstar to descend from slaves.

Michael Jackson in Los Angeles in 1979
Michael Jackson in Los Angeles in 1979

Credits: Cobbar


The family almost had to leave the stylish villa “Californian ranch” and his one hectare park in Encino in the early 1980s, when the father, Joseph Jackson, charged some debts. But Michael Jackson, whose solo career was already well launched at 23, will buy the family home.

Specialist blogs in “Michaeljacksonologie” we learn that he then decided to redecorate it entirely in Tudor style, which it seems common knowledge that the singer particularly liked him since a British tour. In the middle of the paved courtyard will sit for a long time a Victorian street lamp flanked by a sign: “Happyness”“happiness”, or the social ascent of a black American family in three cities.

In Mississippi, the last act of the “midterms”

We should know at the end of this day of Tuesday, November 27, three weeks after the big meeting of the “midterms”, the final composition of the new American Senate. A last senator’s seat remains to be filled, in Mississippi, a very conservative southern state where the outgoing Republican senator was forced to play a second round against her Democratic opponent, none of the four candidates running. obtained 50% of the vote on November 6.

Cindy Hyde-Smith, 59, won 41.5% of the vote, followed closely by Democrat Mike Epsy, 64, 40.6%, and two dissenting candidates from their parties including a member of the extreme right which collected 16.5%.

A Senate already acquired by the Republicans

Since the confirmation, on November 18, of the snatch victory and after a recount (by 50.05% of the vote!) Of Republican Rick Scott in Florida, we know that the Republican camp has emerged strengthened from these mid-term senatorials , slightly consolidating its majority in seats, so far 51 against 49 for the Democrats.

We remain far from the “Huge victory” which Donald Trump first rejoiced in a tweet on November 7. Especially since the House of Representatives, it has switched – with about forty seats which have changed color – to the Democratic side.

In the Senate, the Republican camp took four seats from outgoing Democratic senators: in North Dakota, Florida, Indiana and Missouri. Conversely, Democratic candidates have already won twice where Republicans held the seat: Arizona and Nevada.

The result of this Tuesday, November 27 in Mississippi will therefore give more or less relief to the Republican base on the Senate, already acquired. It would allow the American president to close the chapter of the “midterms” on a good note for him in the event of victory of Cindy Hyde-Smith. Republicans would then have three majority votes in the new Senate.

Conversely, a Democratic victory would narrow the gap, and would come as a resounding surprise in a state where the president had obtained nearly 18 points ahead of Hillary Clinton in November 2016, and given the profile of the Democratic candidate, d African-American descent. Mike Espy, former secretary of agriculture in 1993 and 1994 in the Clinton administration, was in more than a century the first black representative in Congress for Mississippi – a state which has 37% blacks, the highest percentage high of the country.

General outcry and race question

A priori, the carry over of votes is not favorable to him. But Mike Epsy could benefit from special circumstances linked to this extraordinary campaign, where remarks by his competitor caused controversy. Cindy Hyde-Smith greeted the “Great idea” of “Make it a little more difficult” student voting at progressive universities. Above all, she thanked one of her supporters, assuring that she would be “In the first row” if he invited her to a “Public hanging”

In a state whose history is filled with terrible episodes of persecutions and lynchings of black populations, the sentence sparked an uproar, even if it had only been“A mark of exaggerated esteem” towards this partisan – the candidate’s argument for self-defense.

This sentence also had the effect of bringing the racial question back to the heart of the election and melting the Republican lead in the latest internal polls in the Republican party, according to the New York Times. Mike Epsy, who also has some embarrassing cases linked to his former lobbyist activity – he thus acted on behalf of the former Ivorian president Laurent Gbagbo, today prosecuted by international justice for crimes against humanity and on order from which he would have received 750,000 dollars in 2011 – one can dream of a strong participation of African Americans and the mobilization of the moderate white electorate and concerned with the image of their state.

Aware of this issue, Donald Trump has planned to make the trip on the eve of the vote. He was to hold two meetings with the Republican candidate.