Ivory Coast / Resumption of addressing works on the streets of Bingerville

Bingerville (Abidjan), 28 Feb (AIP) – Started in 2016, then interrupted for “taking into account certain areas”, the addressing work on the streets of Bingerville (eastern suburb of Abidjan) has resumed for almost a week, learned the AIP, Tuesday, from municipal sources. According to the technical director of the town hall of Bingerville, Bakayoko Kassoum, the works were entrusted to the company Publistar, for a total cost of CFAF 25 million. They consist in naming the streets and installing directional signs with inscriptions such as the names of the entities, with a view to “being able to locate oneself in the municipality” easily. “Our objective here with these works is to improve the living environment of the populations”, added …

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Smokers in the United States have a harder time finding a job

The SDN list is the registry of those whom the United States considers infrequent. Zimbabwe, Libya and the DRC have the highest number of people sanctioned.

In Africa, at least 317 people in 26 countries are subject to economic sanctions from the United States, an analysis of the database of the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), an agency of the US Treasury, found.

Launched at the end of 1950, OFAC is the guarantor of the official register of American individual sanctions, better known under the name of “the SDN list” (specially designated nationals). Spanning over 1,420 pages, the comprehensive list spans 6 continents.

A vast repertoire of those whom the United States considers infrequent, the League of Nations list includes notorious warlords, heads of state (past and current), officials, businessmen and women, suspected drug traffickers. and people accused of acts of terrorism.

Some people are punished for major common law offenses. This is the case of six Nigerians who, to date, are the only Africans sanctioned under the rubric of cyber crime. Wanted by the FBI, the US federal police, they are accused of having stolen $ 6 million from companies and American citizens without ever leaving Nigeria.

In mid-August, two Ugandan judges were put on the sanctions list because, according to the US authorities, they were having Ugandan children adopted by Americans without the consent of their parents, who they made believe the children had. received a special scholarship for education abroad.

In addition to individuals, the US sanctions also target at least 200 businesses and charities on the African continent, as well as boats and planes, the exact number of which is difficult to determine.

Zimbabwe, Libya, DRC in the lead

On the continent, Zimbabwe is the country with the largest number of people sanctioned, 83 individuals. Among them are President Emerson Mnangagwa, as well as his predecessor Robert Mugabe, who died in 2018. The latter’s wife, Grace Mugabe, is also on the list.

Next comes Libya, with 46 individuals under sanctions, including the former Guide Muammar Gaddafi – killed in 2011 – and several members of his family.

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) comes in third place, with 44 people subject to sanctions. Among them, we recognize names that have hit the headlines in recent years. They are, among others, Generals Laurent Nkunda, John Numbi and Célestin Kanyama; the former president of the electoral commission Corneille Nangaa; Kalev Mutondo, former head of intelligence; Senator Evariste Boshab, former president of the National Assembly and former chief of staff to former President Joseph Kabila.

Former chairman of the DRC’s Independent National Electoral Commission (CENI), Corneille Nangaa, was added to the SDN list in May 2019 for “undermining democratic processes or institutions in the DRC.”

Somalia, South Sudan, the Central African Republic, Nigeria, Burundi and Mali complete the list of countries where there are at least 10 people sanctioned.

“An individual can be sanctioned under several headings”, explains in an interview Gary Kalman, director of the branch of the NGO Transparency International in the United States. “It all depends on the circumstances of each case and the profile of the people involved”, he specifies.

Indeed, former Gambian President Yaya Jammeh is not listed under The Gambia, but rather under Equatorial Guinea, the country where he has lived since his exile in 2017. Similarly, the Ugandan Joseph Kony does not appear in Uganda. , but under the CAR and Sudan. Ditto for the former president of the CAR, Michel Djotodia, who appears under Benin, the country where he spent 6 years in exile until his return to Bangui in January.

Sanctions extraterritoriales

The SDN list is especially an indispensable tool for US banks, import-export companies, lobbyists, binationals and businessmen who regularly deal with partners based outside the United States.

Concretely, an individual under sanctions cannot open a bank account or buy property in the United States. The accounts or properties that this individual held before being sanctioned are systematically frozen. These penalties are often accompanied by a visa ban.

Former Gambian President Yahya Jammeh was subjected to US sanctions in December 2017 for “serious human rights violations and corruption”.

Just because you have no assets in the United States does not mean that you are beyond the reach of the American authorities, points out Professor Peter Harrell, sanctions expert at the Center for New American Security, a think tank based in Washington.

He explains that the US government can require foreign-based entities to apply US sanctions or they will face penalties themselves. This mechanism is known as “secondary sanctions”.

“Secondary sanctions were introduced in the 1990s, but it was only recently – around 2009-2010 – that they became an important aspect of US foreign policy.”, explains Professor Harrell.

The principle is simple, he says: you have to choose either to deal with the infrequent or to deal with the United States, but not both.

In Namibia, secondary sanctions led to the cancellation, in 2017, of several construction contracts awarded to Mansudae Overseas Projects, a company linked to the armaments in North Korea. In 2015 the fear of sanctions led the only supplier of American currency in Angola to interrupt this service, causing a real headache for BNA, the Angolan central bank.

Changing behaviors

But as robust as it is, the US sanctions regime suffers from many shortcomings.

“There is a system of sanctions, of course, but there are also a series of maneuvers that allow them to be circumvented”, deplores Gary Kalman.

This is why, he adds, a handful of influential US lawmakers recently introduced a bill aimed at filling these loopholes.

Known as Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2020, this bill has been attached to the Amending Defense Budget Act, which means that it should be promulgated in the coming weeks.

“The ultimate goal of sanctions is not to punish, but to cause positive behavior change”, said a source at OFAC who requested anonymity.


Transgenic mosquitoes to defeat the Zika virus by copulating in Brazil

Asia seems to be on the right track towards a way out of the crisis, Europe is accelerating its deconfinement, South America is bogged down and everywhere the social and economic cost of the coronavirus pandemic, which adds to the terrible human cost, appears more every day.

While the 350,000 dead mark in the world (more than three-quarters in Europe and the United States) was crossed on Wednesday, the European Union is preparing to unveil an important recovery plan today, a gamble to minus one trillion euros to try to spread the economies of the 27 member countries.

Even in countries where health systems have resisted, economic and social indicators are red.

“I cover my face because I’m so ashamed, I never asked for food,” said 42-year-old Jacqueline Alvarez, a bag of groceries in hand in the working-class district of Aluche.

She stands in line, like nearly 700 others, at the counter of a neighborhood association transformed into a food bank. In Spain, poverty explodes faster than during the 2008 financial crisis, but the whole world is affected.

– “To beg”

According to the NGO Oxfam, the health crisis could plunge 500 million people into poverty.

In Brazil, experts expect a fall of 6 to 10% of GDP this year, with unemployment rates leaping from 12.2% currently to more than 18%.

In France, with a collapse of around 20% of GDP in the second quarter, experts expect a decline of more than 8% over the year. It is “the most significant recession since the creation of the national accounts in 1948”, assures the National Institute of Statistics.

After Argentina and Lebanon, which declared themselves in default of payment, the G20 experts fear that the pandemic will cause before the end of the year a contagion of default among emerging countries, unable to honor the reimbursements of their debts.

In South Africa, considered by the World Bank to be the most unequal country in the world, the pandemic has increased poverty and plunged many of the estimated 4 million foreigners, most of them illegal, into destitution.

“Here, a lot of people are suffering from confinement. Most of them are migrants or refugees and they cannot work,” said Alfred Djanga, spokesperson for refugee families in the Mayfair district of Johannesburg.

“Before, they were employed in shops where they sold around the corner. But they are no longer allowed to do so,” said the 50-year-old lawyer. “Without papers, they have no choice but to beg.”

The coronavirus is wreaking havoc on economies, social and health systems around the world, but it also takes a heavy toll on the minds of caregivers, subjected since the beginning of the year to exceptional work overload and stress.

“We have all the ingredients for a major risk of post-traumatic stress,” said Xavier Noël, expert in mental health issues at the Free University of Brussels.

Those who work in intensive care “faced a totally unusual death rate and way of dying, in a more dehumanized context, without the presence of families to relieve them on decision-making,” he said. ‘AFP.

A study carried out in early May among 3,300 caregivers in Dutch-speaking Belgium shows that 15% are thinking of “leaving the profession” against 6% in normal times.

In Spain, a study by the University of Madrid shows that 51% of the 1,200 caregivers interviewed have “depressive symptoms”. 53% presented signs “compatible with post-traumatic stress”.

In South America, there is still time to mobilize, in the face of the ravages caused by the virus on fragile societies and health systems.

The spread of the coronavirus “accelerates” in Brazil, Peru and Chile, warned Tuesday a regional agency of the World Health Organization, calling on these countries not to relax measures to slow the contamination.

“In South America, we are particularly concerned since the number of new cases registered last week in Brazil is the highest in a seven-day period since the start of the pandemic,” said Carissa Etienne, director of the ” Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), based in Washington.

Peru, for its part, recorded a record number of 5,772 new contaminations with the coronavirus in 24 hours, for a total of nearly 130,000, announced Tuesday the Ministry of Health.

– New epicenter –

The daily number of new infections in Latin America has exceeded that of Europe and the United States, making the Latin American continent “undoubtedly” the new epicenter of the pandemic, according to PAHO.

On the other hand, for the third day in a row, the United States deplored less than 700 daily deaths from the Covid-19, according to a count by Johns Hopkins University, which refers, at 8:30 p.m. Tuesday (12:30 GMT Wednesday).

In a Europe where figures and indicators are improving every day, pressure is mounting for a coordinated reopening of borders.

Italy is pushing for a concerted resumption of travel in Europe on June 15, which could become the “D-Day” of tourism, said Monday evening its Foreign Minister Luigi Di Maio.

His statements are in line with a Franco-German call for the borders to be reopened as quickly as possible, launched on Tuesday by the President of the French National Assembly and his German counterpart.

In France, a decree also announced Wednesday that hydroxychloroquine, a drug with controversial use, can no longer be prescribed against Covid-19 in hospitals, excluding clinical trials.


Nashville: a shock death in the middle of season 5 [SPOILERS] – News Series on TV

Episode 9 of season 5 of Nashville, broadcast last night in the United States, ended with a huge shock, which saw one of the show’s flagship characters die. A dreaded twist, which marks the departure of one of the stars and will change the series forever!


Attention, the following paragraphs contain major spoilers on episode 9 of season 5 of Nashville, broadcast last night in the United States on CMT !!

Following the takeover of Nashville by the CMT channel, after the cancellation of the series by ABC last May at the end of season 4, the rumors concerning an imminent departure of Connie Britton, the interpreter of Rayna James, and the one of the two stars of the series with Hayden Panettiere, were going well. Since the launch of season 5 in early January, all fans feared that something tragic would happen to the character of Britton, despite the denials of the actress, who had assured several times that she would stay in the show “for its entire duration “. Except that, all this was just a ruse to preserve the biggest twist of the series to date …

Because yes, episode 9 of season 5, entitled “If Tomorrow Never Comes” (“If tomorrow never comes” in French) and broadcast last night on CMT, ended with the death of Rayna! Victim of a car accident at the end of the previous episode, the heroine of the series ended up dying of complications related to her injuries, after an episode spent in the hospital, and visions of her deceased mother ( played by Carla Gugino as a guest) who gradually began to worry Deacon (Charles Esten), her husband. Surrounded by her husband, her daughters, and her former rival, Juliette Barnes, Rayna James, the country star, therefore breathed her last. And production and the CMT channel were quick to confirm that this tragic death marked the departure of Connie Britton, after a little over four years of good and loyal service.


As the former Friday Night Lights and American Horror Story star explained to Hollywood Reporter, it was his decision to move on, after 95 episodes in Rayna’s skin. “It was my decision. It was something that, for several reasons, had been germinating in me for some time. What was important to me was that it seemed like the right time to me. [pour partir]”. As for leaving during the season, as rumors already assumed at the time, rather than at the end of the season, Connie Britton explains that it was a choice of the new showrunner Marshall Herskovitz. “When I expressed my desire to Marshall, the producers were already looking at Season 5 as two half-seasons. For Marshall, in terms of plot, so it seemed like the right time and the right way to go. This allows them to design the second part of the season, which will be a separate entity, like a post-Rayna era “.

The star also confides that this desire for something else has nothing to do with the passage of the series from ABC to CMT, and that we will see it again in two episodes this season (probably the next two, focusing in particular on Rayna’s funeral). As for the rest of the series, without Connie Britton? Marshall Herskovitz told Deadline that new characters will be introduced in the second half of Season 5 and that Nashville will remain a choral series. In short, do not expect Hayden Panettiere to become the only “star” of the series from now on. And the showrunner even admits already thinking about a possible season 6. In summary, Rayna James is no more and a page is indeed turning for the series. But for all that, don’t panic, Nashville has not yet finished singing …

The teaser for the next episode, which will air on March 2 on CMT:

Amazon 2020-2023 hires: 1400 jobs

Amazon new hires in Italy even in 2020.

The American giant of the e-commerce is pursuing a growth program in our country that will bring numerous hires to indefinite time starting this year. I’m well 1400 the new resources who will join the company in the three-year period 2020-2023.

The insertions will concern, in particular, the newly opened distribution centers in Veneto is Lazio.

Here is all the information on new jobs at Amazon coming soon.


The company itself made the announcement, through a communique relating to new openings and the Amazon 2020 hiring plan hiring program follows the one already launched by the Group last year, which saw the creation of numerous jobs in Italy. The plan of expansion is continuing this year too and will bring 1400 new entries staff in our country by 2023, thanks to the opening of a new logistics center in the province of Rovigo and a new distribution center in Colleferro (Rome).

New hires, entered with permanent contracts, will do to grow up the number of employees Amazon in Italy, bringing them from current 6,900 to 8,300. The new warehouses and the increase in the Group’s workforce will serve to cope with the growing demand from customers, one wider selection it’s a better support for small and medium-sized businesses that sell on Amazon.

The selected resources will benefit from working conditions offered by the Group to its employees, which include various benefits, including insurance and discounts, as well as the possibility of training is growth professional.


What are the required figures? The new hires in Italy that Amazon will carry out in the next three years are aimed, in all likelihood, at the profiles usually employed at the Group’s distribution centers. therefore warehousemen, operators to picking, packing is shipment of the goods. Part of the hires will be generated by the related activities, which will bring job opportunities for drivers in charge to deliveries.

In all likelihood there will also be employment opportunities for unexperienced staff, to be trained and inserted in the company. In fact, Amazon offers its employees the opportunity to benefit from training courses to access different professions. Among these the Career Choice, the training program for permanent employees, which anticipates 95% of the costs to allow them to attend recognized courses, to access positions working ad high demand and high pay, such as those relating to planning and design, technologies for machine tools, medical laboratory technologies, nursing care and other fields.


The new Amazon warehouses in Castelguglielmo (Rovigo) and Colleferro (Rome) will be operating starting fromautumn 2020therefore it is already gone there countryside of recruiting to work in distribution centers and there are several open positions. The selections for operators of warehouse instead they will open in summer.


New hires at Amazon will have access to, in addition to regular pay, even to a package complete with benefits. The latter includes theMedical insurance private from the first day of work, insurance about life, one Discount for shopping on Amazon and a pension plan company.

As for the salaries offered, they are certainly of interest. For example, for i warehousemen one is expected initial salary equal to 1,550 euros Gross.


We remind you that Amazon.com, Inc. is a US company, founded in 1995, which operates in the e – commerce sector. The Group, which is headquartered in Seattle, USA, is listed on the NASDAQ. It was founded by Jeff Bezos and is today one of the 500 largest companies in the United States. Amazon is currently present in America, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, Sweden, Japan, Canada and China. It employs over 640 thousand collaborators globally. In our country, currently, it has almost 7 thousand employees.


Those interested in future Amazon hiring and active job opportunities can visit this web page reserved for the Group’s careers and selections (Work with us), accessible from the portal www.amazon.it. From the same it is possible to view the research in progress and apply, by sending the CV via the appropriate online form in response to the announcements of interest.

For more information on open positions and how to work in Amazon, we offer you our in-depth analysis, with many useful information on the work environment and recruiting methods.


All the job advertisements published are addressed without distinction to candidates of both sexes, in full compliance with Law 903/1977.

13% of the world’s adult population is obese

Growing globally, obesity affects nearly 650 million adults, or 13% of the world’s adult population, a percentage that could reach 20% by 2025 if the current rate of progression of this epidemic is sustained. .

“In 40 years, we have gone from a world where underweight was twice as important as obesity to a world where obese people outnumber those underweight”, underlines Prof. Majid Ezzati, from Imperial College London, which coordinated this study published in the British medical journal The Lancet.

Hailed as one of the most comprehensive to date on the subject, it is based on data from some 19 million people aged 18 and over, living in 186 countries.

By extrapolation, it estimates the number of obese adults at 641 million in 2014, including 375 million women and 266 million men. In 1975, they were only 105 million. An explosion linked in particular to an industrial and too rich diet, but also to genetic predipositions.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a person is considered obese when their body mass index (BMI, which is the ratio of weight to height) exceeds 30 kg / m2.

Beyond 35, we talk about severe obesity.

In 40 years, the average BMI has, according to the study, increased from 21.7 to 24.2 in men and from 22.1 to 24.4 in adult women, an increase in weight of 1.5 kg every 10 years on average.

“If the progression of obesity continues at the same rate, by 2025 about a fifth of men (18%) and women (21%) will be obese in the world while 6% of men and 9% of women will be affected. of severe obesity “, warn the authors.

The percentage of obese people tripled among men, from 3.2% in 1975 to 10.8% in 2014, and more than doubled among women (from 6.4% to 14.9%), with disparities very important depending on the country.

Obesity is now “a major public health problem” in many middle-income regions (Pacific, Middle East, North Africa, some states in South America or the Caribbean), notes the study.

While the BMI remained broadly stable between 1975 and 2014 among Japanese women and most European women (with the notable exception of the British), the six rich English-speaking countries (USA, UK, Australia, Canada, Ireland and New Zealand) present much more worrying results: they are now home to a fifth of obese adults in the world, or 118 million people, and 27% of severely obese, or 50 million.

However, the prize goes to Polynesia and Micronesia, Pacific islands where 38% of men and half of adult women are obese. In American Samoa, an island in the South Pacific, the average BMI today peaks at 34.8 for women and 32.2 for adult men, compared to 28 in the United States.

If policies to fight against obesity are not implemented “quickly” in the world, “health consequences of unknown magnitude” are to be feared, Professor Ezzati told AFP.

Conversely, being underweight – or underweight – (BMI less than 18.5) linked to malnutrition remains a major problem in other regions of the world, such as South Asia or certain states of Africa.

According to the study, nearly a quarter of the population was underweight in South Asia in 2014, compared to 12% to 15% of the population in Central and East Africa.

Timor-Lest (official name for East Timor), Ethiopia and Eritrea had the lowest average BMIs in the world in 2014, at around 20.

Underweight is blamed for increased mortality in women and very young children before and after childbirth, and increases the risk of death from infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. Obesity promotes certain cancers and cardiovascular diseases.

With AFP


Earth in the Eye of Thomas Pesquet # 17: Honolulu

On February 5, Thomas Pesquet posted this view of O’ahu Island, with the following comment: “The collection is growing with Honolulu! I wouldn’t mind touring all these airports once back on Earth;) “.

The image was taken from the ISS on January 16, using a Nikon D4 equipped with a 1,150 mm telephoto lens. The North is 1 hour on the photograph. We’re above Honolulu Airport on O’ahu Island in the Hawaiian Archipelago.

We know that before being an astronaut, Thomas Pesquet is a pilot. As such, he is particularly fond of airports and airstrips which he can photograph at leisure from the ISS. Here is a new illustration of this with this international airport.

We are in Hawaii, an archipelago in the North Pacific Ocean, named after its largest island (the island of Hawaii happens to be the southernmost of the archipelago). It is also a state of the United States of America. Also called the Sandwich Islands, there are 137 of these islands (with the atolls) and have many islets and seamounts. The complex extends over 2,400 km between the most northerly island (Kure Atoll very close to Midway) and the most southerly island (the island of Hawaii). Most of these islands are the tip of an incredible underwater mountain range formed by the volcanic activity of a hot spot. What is a hot spot? Imagine a torch under the earth and oceanic crusts, which pierces the mantle. The drift of the continents helping, the torch generates a chain of volcanoes often aligned …

O’ahu Island is the third island in this archipelago by size, with an area of ​​1,545 km2. It is also the most populous, with approximately 1 million residents, or almost 75% of the population of the entire state. The photograph is centered on Honolulu Airport, the capital on the south coast. If you are attentive, we can even see in the top left of the photo, a part of the famous port of Pearl Harbor, whose attack by Japan on December 7, 1941, caused the entry into war of the United States during the Second War. world. This Pearl Harbor naval base is home to the United States Pacific Fleet headquarters. The harbor and base are located around a harbor in the center of which is Ford Island, the southern tip of which can be seen. The entrance to this harbor is via a very narrow channel, which is also clearly visible on the photo.
Moreover, the famous USS Missouri (a battleship of the US Navy) and USS Arizona (dedicated to the memory of the 1,102 sailors of the USS Arizona died during the attack on Pearl Harbor) are not visible on the shot, a few pixels (meters) near …

Let’s go back to the airport. It has existed since 1927, has 4 asphalt runways and 2 water runways for seaplanes! The whole is very clearly visible on the picture. The two main asphalt tracks are parallel and oriented east-west for lengths of around 3,700 meters. The two water runways (which form a triangle with an additional lane) are shorter (approximately 1,000 and 1,500 meters) and are located southeast of the airport. Clearly, this part of the lagoon was dredged for the construction of the asphalt tracks and the water tracks. The spoil helped win over the ocean.

The rest of the photograph tells us that the urban and industrial fabric of the city of Honolulu is concentrated in relief. On the right side of the photograph, the foothills of the eastern volcanic massif of the island: the Ko’olau volcano and its bare slopes with deep ravines and spur ridges. Runoff must be particularly effective here.

Gilles Dawidowicz is a geographer, president of the Planetology commission of the Société astronomique de France.


Ivory coast/ 3 000 kits of dialysis offered at the hemodialysis center of Yamoussoukro

Yamoussoukro, 12 feb (AIP)- The hemodialysis center of the Department of medical assistance-urgent (UAS) of Yamoussoukro, received Saturday a check of 6,350 million FCFA for 3,000 kits of dialysis, 10 weighs-men and 10 blood pressure monitors offered by the Foundation Districom to relieve the patients. The cheque was presented by the president of the Foundation Districom, Atta Hussein, the director general of the UAS, Jacques Cissoko, on the occasion of a ceremony held in the presence of the administrative authorities, religious and traditional of the city and the honorary president of the Foundation, Atta Ali. The hemodialysis center of Yamoussoukro has 10 posts of care pending the forthcoming installation of 15 new. The center has had 76 patients, renal failure…

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Côte d’Ivoire / Health sector performance-based financing activities launched

Launch of performance-based financing (PBF) activities in the health districts of Yamoussoukro Tiébissou Prikro and M’Bahiakro

Yamoussoukro, Feb 08 (AIP) – The Director General of Health, Simplice Dagnan, on Wednesday officially launched performance-based financing (PBF) activities in the health districts of Yamoussoukro, Tiébissou, Prikro and M’Bahiakro, in the presence of Mr. Emre Özaltin, senior health economist at the regional office of the World Bank, financial partner of the project. PBF is an innovative approach to results-based health system financing that is part of the Health System Strengthening and Epidemic Emergency Response (PRSSE) project, funded by the World Bank. “It aims to improve the volume and quality of services, payment for services based on the results provided and the provision …

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Hip hop from Atlanta is the pop of the hour – culture

The sultry U.S. state of Georgia is a greenhouse for innovative music. It’s a good thing that the lyrics of the “trap” rappers are so poorly understood.

Actor and film producer Donald Glover named the at the Golden Globes Awards Migos, the hip hop trio from Atlanta, “the Beatles this generation “. He giggled. He was aware of the provocation. The Beatles are the most important band in music history. And the Migos? They rap about their” bad bitches “, that is, lightly clothed women with relevant qualities, about favorite submachine guns and about how best to cook crack, and of course about their luxury brand “Saatshi”, which means: Versace. In short: Migos make exactly the music with which the cultural establishment has problems. And then their new album is called First place on the American charts is “Culture”.

But many of the songs on “Culture” are actually breathtakingly good. For example the number 1 hit “Bad and Boujee”. The three Migos rap over a very slow, melancholic, ton-heavy beat – all more or less at the same time. Maybe you would have to use them instead of the Beatles Beach boys to compare. Because no other than these, the three rappers are revolutionizing the principle of polyphony in pop. Incredibly artfully they interweave different vowel traces. While one raps, another passage of the same text repeats at a different speed, the third one is responsible for the so-called ad libs, for imitated pistol shots, animal sounds or cryptic abbreviations. Language is broken down into abstract material, the voices become rhythm machines. All of this has been around for a few years, but the Migos have perfected it. And so “Culture” is a completely original product from Atlanta. This big city in sultry Georgia is the greenhouse where a very special kind of hip-hop is grown: trap.

Atlanta is the epicenter of the trap movement

Trap developed over ten years ago from various other types of southern hip-hop. The name – Trap – refers to the scene in which Trap was created: the extraordinarily precarious, drug and violence environment of Atlanta. The sound has a clear signature. Trap is remarkably slow at around 70 beats per minute. The electronic production is in the foreground: bright sounds chirping over dystopian synthesizer pads, in addition there is a massive bass, and among all that works the beat from the Roland 808 drum machine, which is characterized by sharp, ultra-fast cymbals. Trap is now an international phenomenon, pop stars like Rihanna have songs produced in this style, but it is clear that Atlanta remains the epicenter of this movement.

One of the central characters is the city’s hyperactive rapper Gucci Mane (trademark: the tattooed ice cream cone on his cheek), who produces about one song a day when he’s not in prison. But the producers like Zaytoven, Mike Will Made It or Metro Boomin are real stars. This is also shown by the fact that they proudly stick a kind of acoustic business card at the beginning of each song. But above all there is a very special form of hit production in Atlanta, a kind of short circuit. In Atlanta, strip clubs clarify what will be a hit – especially in a club called “Magic City”, where new songs are systematically tested. All of this generates a laboratory in which sounds and rap styles are driven as far as possible. Specifically, this means: as long as strippers can loll to the pole and the audience freaks out.

And so there has been a steady stream of black music from Atlanta that sounds new, exciting and, in the best sense, extraordinary, for example from the rapper Future or from Abra. But above all by Young Thug, who is currently becoming a favorite of the international pop scene. On the one hand, that’s due to his rap style. What the Migos do in threes – celebrate a polyphonic witch’s Sabbath – Young Thug can do alone. He uses his voice like a sampler, almost every word is emphasized differently, he screams, sings, coo, chatter and bark, and all at different speeds and, arrogantly confident, sometimes in, sometimes against the beat. The ridiculous thesis that there is nothing new in pop has long been falsified.