US election campaign: This is how the primaries work in the US

Why are Republicans and Democrats holding primaries for the US presidential election?

VElections within the respective parties are not anchored in the American constitution, but they have developed over the years. Until 1820, for example, the congressmen each appointed a representative of their party who was to run as a candidate in the presidential election. Later it was party delegates at the district or state level who voted for a particular candidate.

Not until 1910 was the first experiment with primary codes in Oregon, which was then slowly expanded to other states. The aim was to reduce the influence of party bosses and backroom deals, to test the popularity of candidates and to give the internal party selection process greater democratic legitimacy. It was only after a chaotic Democratic party conference in 1968, at which Hubert Humphrey was nominated even though he had not won a primary, that primary elections became binding for the delegates who represented their respective states at the national nomination party conferences.

What is the difference between caucus and primary?

The individual US states decide for themselves how the voters decide on the candidates for the presidential election. Most states do this by primary – a secret ballot. A few states have chosen the caucus system.

In Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, Kansas, Maine, Minnesota, Nevada, North Dakota, Wyoming and Iowa, party meetings take place at the district level – with a show of hands or by dividing the participants into different groups depending on the candidate.

Only those who are registered voters of the respective party can participate in a caucus. There are different systems for the primaries. In some states only registered voters can vote, others are open to all citizens of a state. A caucus is organized and paid for by the relevant party, while primaries are held by the state.

How are the votes of the states weighted?

The number of voting delegates that each state can send to the national nomination party congress is usually dependent on its population. For the Democrats, the delegate votes are distributed proportionally according to the election result. However, the states are allowed to set up a hurdle of up to 15 percent, above which votes are only credited to a candidate.

For Republicans, this hurdle can be up to 20 percent. However, there are still some cases where the leading candidate receives all delegate votes. However, many states have a mixed form: the votes are largely given according to proportionality, but there are mechanisms that give the winner bonus votes.

What about the super delegates?

Superdelegates are participants at the nomination congresses who are entitled to vote who were not sent via the pre-election system and who are therefore not bound in their voting. The Democrats are former and active party leaders, including former presidents, vice-presidents, party leaders in the Senate and House of Representatives, as well as active governors, congressmen or elected representatives of the party.

These delegates can tip the scales in the event of a stalemate or a tight election result, after all, the Democrats make up around a sixth of the delegates. With the Republicans, the “undetermined delegates” play a less important role and only make up about a tenth of the electorate at the nomination convention.

As a rule, each state sends three high party officials as super delegates. In view of the volatile situation among the Republicans, this time the undefined delegates could play an important role at the nomination party conference.

When are the primaries decided?

This year, the primaries begin on February 1 with the caucus in Iowa and end with the Democratic vote on June 14 in DC. Republicans end the primaries on June 7 with primaries in five states, including weighty California.

Traditionally, the votes in the first three states, i.e. Iowa, New Hampshire and South Carolina, play an important role because they can trigger an unexpected dynamic – for example, Barack Obama’s 2008 Iowa victory against Hillary Clinton was very important to him in in the eyes of donors and supporters as a possible alternative. The most important milestone after that is Super Tuesday on March 1st, when 15 states will vote. Convincing victories on Super Tuesday often resulted in candidates being nominated.

This year, however, it is quite possible that the race, especially with the Republicans, will remain open until the end and may not be decided until the nomination party conference (July 18-21). The Democratic nomination convention will take place shortly thereafter, July 25-28.

Not everyone is happy with the system. What is being criticized?

Iowa (February 1) and New Hampshire (February 9) have special roles in the election calendar as early pre-election states. The per capita allocation quota that the citizens of both states experience through the politicians is many times higher than in later area code states. Criticism is mainly inflamed by the fact that Iowa in particular is not representative of the rest of the USA. It is mostly rural, the population is mostly white and more affluent than other regions. Iowa happened to be the first state on the Democratic election calendar in the 1972 primary. In the meantime, this prelude has become a tradition in both parties that the state tenaciously defends.

In Iowa, the state constitution even wrote that the area code should be held at least eight days before the other states. This poses a significant problem for candidates with limited financial means. Should they invest a lot of money in the fight for Iowa, even though only about one percent of the delegate votes are given there? Or should they plan for the long term and thus run the risk that their campaign will quickly lose momentum after poor results in the early states?

What role do money and the super PACs play in the primaries?

The socialist Bernie Sanders contests his election campaign for the Democratic nomination mainly with the accusation that America’s politics were bought with big money. His campaign is the best proof that large donors do not make elections. He’s neck and neck with Hillary Clinton ahead of the primaries, despite the fact that he’s raised far fewer funds. The Republican Jeb Bush raised by far the most money. But that doesn’t change the fact that he is far behind in the polls.

However, it is clear that candidates need more and more money to campaign successfully. US campaign funding laws are a patchwork of regulation and deregulation. Individuals are limited to a maximum of $ 2,700 to donate to a campaign. At the same time, according to a constitutional court ruling from 2010 (“Citizens United vs. Federal Election Commission”), non-profit organizations, companies, trade unions or associations can spend as much money on election campaigns as they want – although donations may not go directly to the candidates.

Since this ruling, independent action committees, the so-called Super-PACs, have grown in importance. They are allowed to advertise a candidate, but are not allowed to work directly with the campaign team. According to another ruling, Super-PACs are now also allowed to accept unrestricted donations from individuals. For some candidates, this leads to increasing dependency on some major donors. And because of that, more and more Americans feel that politics can be bought.

In which states do you vote and when?

February 1: Iowa (first area code)

9. Februar: New Hampshire

February 20: Nevada (Democrats); South Carolina (Republican)

February 23: Nevada (Republicans)

February 27: South Carolina (Democrats)

1. März (Super Tuesday): Alabama, Alaska (Republikaner), American Samoa; Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia

March 5: Kansas, Kentucky (Republicans), Louisiana, Maine (Republicans), Nebraska (Democrats)

March 6: Maine (Democrats), Puerto Rico (Republicans)

March 8: Hawaii (Republicans), Idaho (Republicans), Michigan, Mississippi

March 12: DC (Republicans), Northern Marianas Islands (Democrats)

15. März: Florida, Illinois, Missouri, Northern Marianas Islands (Republikaner), North Carolina, Ohio

March 19: Virgin Islands (Republicans)

March 22: Arizona, Idaho (Democrats), Utah

March 26: Alaska (Democrats), Hawaii (Democrats), Washington (Democrats)

5. April: Wisconsin

9. April: Wyoming

19. April: New York

26. April: Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island

May 3: Indiana

7. Mai: Guam

10. Mai: Nebraska (Republikaner), West Virginia

17. Mai: Kentucky (Demokraten), Oregon

24. Mai: Washington (Republikaner)

June 4: Virgin Islands (Democrats)

June 5: Puerto Rico (Democrats)

7. Juni: Kalifornien, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexiko North Dakota, South Dakota

June 14th: DC (Demokrats)

July 18 to July 21: Republican Nomination Convention

July 25th to July 28th: ​​Democrats Nomination Congress


Manchester United signs a partnership with the outdoor brand Columbia

At the end of last week, the outdoor brand Columbia announced the signing of a partnership with Manchester United on the occasion of ISPO 2016 in Munich.

As part of this agreement, the American brand will launch a range of products in the Club’s colors for outdoor and mountain activities such as hiking and climbing as well as water and winter sports. We are delighted with this opportunity to associate one of the most prestigious names in sport with the world leader in the outdoor industry. Commented Joe Boyle, Senior Vice President Columbia Merchandising and Design.

While the Mancunian club has signed a record equipment supplier partnership of 96.4 million euros per year over 10 years with adidas, it is surprising to see that the mega deal does not include all the sports equipment sectors. A “detail” which therefore enhances the adidas – Man United contract a little more, which covers a number of categories lower than one might think.

For the club, the deal with Columbia therefore means additional cash flow and new support to expose its brand to new consumers. ” Available in over 100 countries, Columbia has an international reach akin to that of the Club. We are eager to start working together to make available to our fans, via this line of products marked with the colors of the Club, a new way of expressing their attachment to the Club, via a line of outdoor products. ” Richard Arnold, Managing Director of Manchester United, commented in the statement. An interesting partnership also for the Premier League club in terms of image since Columbia is the world leader in its market with technical products whose quality is well established.

The first Columbia / Manchester United co-branded collection will be available for sale in Fall 2016.

columbia doudoune manchester United columbia manteau manchester United columbia outdoor manchester united Columbia manchester united hooded puffer jacket

Manchester United and Columbia Sportswear formalize their partnership – Sports Marketing

Last Friday, Columbia Sportswear has become Manchester United’s first official outdoor clothing partner.

This agreement will include the creation of a range of clothing in club colors, for some outdoor adventures such as hiking, climbing, mountaineering and even winter and water sports.

Richard Arnold, Managing Director of Manchester United said on the subject: “Manchester United is proud to sign a partnership with Columbia Sportswear to bring our fans a new range of co-branded products […] Present in more than 100 countries, Columbia has an international reach similar to that of the club. We are impatient to start working together to make available to our fans, through this line of products marked with club colors, a new way of expressing their attachment to the Club, via a line of outdoor products. “

An interesting partnership also for the Manchester United club in terms of image since Columbia is the world leader in its market with very technical products.

Joe Boyle, Senior Vice President of Columbia Merchandising and Design also said: ” We are delighted with this opportunity to associate one of the most prestigious names in sport with the world leader in the outdoor industry.. “

In July 2014, Manchester United had taken the lead in the classification of equipment suppliers for football clubs following their contract with Adidas. After his caps New Era, this collaboration with Columbia will allow the club to launch a new line of derivative products in order to complete its range. The collection Columbia – Manchester United will be available for sale in Fall 2016.

Coat-Accord-Columbia-Manchester-UnitedDown jacket-Accord-Columbia-Manchester-United

Michigan: 100,000 people poisoned by lead – Panorama

Of the 80,000 employees who once worked at the General Motors car factory, only a few thousand remain; the city’s population has halved since the sixties. People know what it feels like to be abandoned in the industrial town of Flint, Michigan. But who could have expected to be poisoned?

For a year and a half, the residents used leaded water, washed it, boiled it and drank it. They had suspected that the Flint River, misused as a flowing garbage dump, could not provide clean water. They saw the smelly broth coming from the tap, but when they inquired they were told lies. The American media calls it a “water crisis”, but it is a catastrophe. For the 100,000 residents of Flint, but also for their trust in all institutions.

How could this happen? Let’s start at the beginning. In the spring of 2011, Republican Governor Rick Snyder signed a bill that expanded the skills of emergency finance administrators. Until then, these officials could be used to control the finances of over-indebted cities and communities; under the new regulation they were given extensive control over city politics. Flint also got such an emergency administrator in 2011.

The mayor solemnly raises a glass of river water

The position is controversial because it can determine over the heads of the elected representatives. Black civil rights activists also believe that communities in Michigan that are predominantly African-American are placed under supervision. Like in Flint.

In April 2014, the manager, who changed several times over the years, made a momentous decision: In order to save money, the highly indebted Flint should no longer get its water from Detroit, but from the regional Lake Huron. That should save millions, but there is still no pipeline there. Therefore, the city will temporarily receive water from the Flint River. On April 25, then Mayor Dayne Walling pushes a button and solemnly raises a glass with the new river water.

After just a few days, the first residents complain of a rash, nausea and exhaustion. You ask questions but get no answers from the administration. “Nobody cared, they weighed down,” councilor Wantwaz Davis told the Fusion portal. In the summer, Michigan’s environmental authority issued the instruction to only consume the water boiled – E-Coli bacteria were found. “My family and I drink the water and use it every day,” says the mayor, trying to calm the angry residents down. In the fall, General Motors stops using the water in its engine factory because it causes rust damage. The automaker then has the water delivered by truck.

The residents of Flint cannot afford this luxury, as the city’s water prices are among the highest in the country. At the beginning of 2015, it was suspected that the water contained lead. Michigan’s environmental agency weighs in. The Emergency Administrator refuses to return Detroit to water – no money. Instead, Flint sets up a commission that releases funds for improving water quality.


Austerity Poisons Water in Michigan City

Volunteers distribute bottles of mineral water outside a church in Flint, Michigan, January 11, 2016. CONOR RALPH / AP

The city of Flint, Michigan, an hour’s drive north of Detroit, has been best known until now as a symbol of the auto crisis. Its factory closings, its unemployment rate almost twice the national average, its 41% of the population living below the poverty line. But, for several months, this agglomeration of 100,000 inhabitants has been struggling with another scourge: lead. Contamination of the city’s drinking water, caused by a change in the mode of supply which should allow short-term gains, has forced the President of the United States to declare an emergency situation on Saturday January 16. .

Read also Barack Obama declares state of health emergency in Michigan after water contamination

The aid, decided by Barack Obama, will speed up the distribution of water bottles and filters by the National Guard and free up a budgetary envelope, while anger is mounting against local authorities who have turned a blind eye for months.

In 2011, Flint, on the verge of bankruptcy, was placed by the Republican governor of Michigan, Rick Snyder, under the supervision of a regulatory authority. Until then, the community purchased drinking water from the city of Detroit. But the controller considers the solution too expensive and decides that from April 2014 Flint will pump water into the local river, before it is treated. Very quickly, the inhabitants complained about the color and the taste of the water. Some suffer from vomiting, hair loss and skin rashes.

Boil the water before consuming it

After discovering a bacteria in tap water, the city is issuing notices recommending that it be boiled before consumption. The solutions adopted by the treatment plant only increase the level of contaminants.

A few months later, in October 2014, General Motors, which has factories in the city, stops using municipal water, deemed too corrosive for the parts of its cars. Should the pipes have been stronger? Attacked, the pipes gradually distill their lead into drinking water.

Then begins an Erin Brockovich scenario, this environmental activist, played on screen by Julia Roberts, who, in the early 1990s, had revealed a case of water pollution in California. Faced with disbelief from Michigan authorities, a Flint mother who worried about her son’s rashes ended up alerting the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Blood tests on children show lead levels twice as high as the norm.

It was not until September 2015 that the evidence of poisoning was recognized by the authorities. Since then, the scandal has continued to escalate. The justice ministry announced an investigation on January 8. Mr. Snyder’s repeated apologies struggle to calm the people. “We are going to make sure that this never happens again in the state of Michigan”, he declared on January 13.

“It’s a poverty crisis”

But the damage is done. To date, authorities have identified 43 people suffering from excessive doses of lead. This metal can damage the nervous system and delay brain development in young children. In parallel, since June 2014, legionellosis was diagnosed in 87 people. Ten of them died.

“Ten people were killed here because of a political decision. They knew “, Michael Moore

Saturday, filmmaker Michael Moore, originally from Flint and a defender of societal and economic dysfunctions in the United States, came to support the inhabitants. ” It is not an error. Ten people were killed here because of a political decision. They knew “, he launched during a demonstration that brought together a few hundred people, accusing the authorities of neglect of a poor city with a large black population.

“They would never have done that at West Bloomfield or Ann Arbor [deux communes aisées de la région]. It’s not just a water crisis. It’s a racial crisis, a poverty crisis. “

Since October 2015, Flint has been getting water from Detroit again, but the lines are still damaged. The cost of the necessary repairs is estimated at 1.5 billion dollars, without it being clear who will pay. And without counting the numerous prosecutions to come.

Quincy Pondexter (New Orleans Pelicans) will not play this season – basketball – NBA

New Orleans has announced that Quincy Pondexter will have another left knee surgery. Absent since the start of the season because of an intervention on the same knee last May, the Pelicans player is forced to definitively put a cross on the year 2015-2016.

“After carrying out additional examinations, taking the advice of new specialists and consulting Quincy and his representatives, we came to the conclusion that it was better in the long term for Quincy to have the operation again to correct the cartilage injury in his knee “, Dell Demps, the team’s general manager, said in a statement.

Pondexter, who had joined the franchise just over a year ago, turned last year for the Pelicans at 9 points per game, 43.3% at 3 points.


Hawaii is the first country to increase the age limit for nicotine consumption to 21 years:


Already in June 2015, Governor David Ige signed the law, which allows the purchase and possession of conventional and e-cigarettes only at the age of 21. “We are proud to be a pioneer in tobacco prevention and control again,” commented Dr. Virginia Pressler, the country’s health minister, made a statement. And it was a fitting step for a state that is consistently one of the healthiest in America.

With this statutory age increase, the Hawaiian government hopes to make it more difficult for young people to start smoking. Hawaii is the first country to increase the age for cigarette smoking – from both “normal” and e-cigarettes – to 21 years. The new law came into force on January 1, 2016.

“In Hawaii, about a quarter of high school students try their first cigarette annually, and one in three who becomes addicted dies prematurely,” said Lola Irvin of the Hawaii Department of Health. According to the Department, 95% of adult smokers in the US start smoking before they reach the age of 21. E-cigarettes have been included in the legislation, as the number of students using them has quadrupled in the past four years and reached 22% among young people in 2015.

Under the new law, the sale of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, or other tobacco products to anyone under the age of 21 can be punished with fees ranging from $ 500 (approximately € 464) to $ 2,000 (approximately € 1858). In addition, any minor caught caught in the purchase or possession of such products may be fined between $ 10 ($ 9.50) to $ 50 ($ 46.40) and for community service.

There will be a three-month tolerance period during which people can get used to the new laws. Alerts and no fines are still being issued during this time, and more than 100 cities and counties in the United States have raised the age limit for smoking to 21 years, including New York City.

Quelle: HealthDay, Huffington Post

Detroit tries to restart | The echoes

Posted on Jan. 11, 2016 at 1:30 p.m.

Can we survive an industrial accident? Detroit, capital of Michigan and ex-showcase of the American automobile, tries. How to define it today? ” The symbol of twentieth century America, the rise and fall of our industrial empire“, it is with these words that the photographer Sara Jane Boyers evokes the ex” Motor Cicty “, the city where she was born.

Through her series “Detroit-Definition” initiated in 2011, the photographer paints a portrait of the former capital of the automotive industry, gradually devastated by post-industrial problems. But the more it advances, the more it perceives the rebirth of this city.“Today, after seven visits and almost five years later, the same specter of bankruptcy still threatening, I return to a Detroit which expresses the ingenuity, the perseverance and the strength of the human spirit. always sure of the problems, but despite everything, progress, admittedly slow, is clearly visible, “she commented as part of the exhibition entitled” Renaissance “presented at the Maison de la photo de Lille last September (see here).

Symbol of this embryo of rebirth (see box), the Detroit Motor Show which opens its doors this Monday for a 28th edition. Created in 1907, this Fair has long been considered a world event for the sector. From 1920 to 1960, Detroit was at its peak. Fourth city in the United States in the 1950s, it symbolizes the omnipotence of the auto industry which, thanks to the presence of the “Big Three”, GM, Chrysler and Ford, employs more than 300,000 people on site.

In 2015, Detroit builders at their best since mid-2000

In the automobile industry, and notably in Detroit, wages have fallen by a quarter since 2003. These sacrifices have borne fruit since the three major American car manufacturers have managed to maintain or even repatriate thousands of jobs to the States -United. In 2015, 17.5 million vehicles were sold across the Atlantic, a historic record that slightly erases that of 2000 (17.4 million). What about the builders of Detroit? According to Detroit News, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles has achieved its best performance since 2005, Ford Motor since 2006 and General Motors since 2007.

Then it will be the decline, fueled by competition from Japanese cars … and the fall, accentuated by the financial crisis of 2008. Crossing the capital of the state of Michigan, it is then getting lost in a ghost town with entire neighborhoods left unclaimed. Witnesses of this decrepitude, Bellevue Avenue or Michigan Central Station, the magnificent station abandoned in 1988 and photographed in spring 2008 by Sean Hammerled in his series “The Remains of Detroit” for “Time Magazine”.

The poorest big city in the United States

The city, which counted nearly 2 million inhabitants at the time of its splendor, had only 700,000 in 2011. In a recession since 2001, Michigan posted in 2013 the highest unemployment rate in the United States (40 % Population). Between 2000 and 2008, with the successive bankruptcies of General Motors (GM) and the ex-Chrysler, renamed Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) in 2009, without forgetting Ford’s difficulties, 400,000 jobs were lost.

Detroit has become the poorest big city in the United States, with nearly 4 in 10 people living below the poverty line last year and one of the highest crime rates, earning it the unenviable title of the most dangerous city in the country. The Municipality weighed down with a debt of 18 billion dollars declares itself bankrupt (see video below) in July 2013.

Almost everywhere, grass grows in parking lots and buildings collapse. To attract new residents, real estate agencies are ready to do anything. Houses are sold at a price of …. one dollar (excluding agency fees). Once again, we can rely on the eye of the photographers to measure the extent of the disaster. That of French photographers Yves Marchand and Romain Meffre, for example who worked on the city between 2005 and 2010. The title says it all: Ruins of Detroit (see here).

Dan Gilbert, billionaire and Detroit native

But nothing is totally lost. Thanks to transactions carried out with arm of arm, Dan Gilbert, billionaire and businessman, native of Detroit last May owned nearly a quarter of the properties of the center of the city. Described as the possible savior of the city, the finance tycoon says he wants to build his future empire there. And digital start-ups, which responded to the call “Made in Detroit” launched last year, have rushed into the city. Their ambition: to make the day before a second Sillicon Valley.

Like Seoul, Rio or Eindhoven, will Detroit be able to rise from the ashes? The question should tap Barack Obama who is expected at the Detroit auto show on January 20, a year to the day before the end of his presidency.

The Copa América Centenario already has all its guests

Canaleros and grenadiers, as the teams of Panama and Haiti are known, signed their presence in the Copa América by beating Cuba and Trinidad and Tobago in repechage duels, respectively, on Friday in Panama City.

The local team, under the orders of Colombian Hernán Darío ‘Bolillo’ Gómez, beat Cuba 4-0 with scores from Gabriel Gómez, Luis Tejada (penalty), Armando Cooper and Blas Pérez.

Haiti, meanwhile, surprised the ‘Soca Warriors’ with a 1-0 score thanks to a goal from Pascal Millien four minutes from time.

With the victories, Panama and Haiti joined Mexico, champion of the 2015 Gold Cup, the United States, host of the Centennial Cup, Costa Rica, champion of the Central American Cup, and Jamaica, monarch of the Caribbean Cup, as representatives of Concacaf at the Copa América 2016.

Conmebol will have its ten national associations present, with Chile being the 2015 Copa América champion, and Argentina and Brazil in their role as main candidates for the title.

The selected Concacaf classifieds largely reflect the usual balance of forces in the North, Central, and Caribbean region, where the United States and Mexico are the hegemonic powers, followed by Costa Rica, which tends to dominate in Central America. , while Panama is emerging as an emerging force.

The absence of Honduras stands out, a team of weight in Central America that has declined with the generational change it is going through and that played the World Cups in South Africa-2010 and Brazil-2014.

In the Caribbean, Jamaica is a dominant force alongside Trinidad and Tobago, overtaken by a rising Haiti.

The special edition of the Copa América will allow Central American and Caribbean players to face some of the main figures in world football, such as the stellar attacking trio of Spanish Barcelona: the Argentine Lionel Messi, the Uruguayan Luis Suárez and the Brazilian Neymar.

Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and the United States will be the heads of the group for the historic Copa América Centenario 2016, which will be played from June 3 to 26 in ten US cities.

The United States will lead Group A, while Brazil will do so in Group B, Mexico in C and Argentina in D.

MetLife Stadium in New York / New Jersey will host the final on June 26, while the inaugural match will be played on June 3 between the host and a Group A team from the draw, scheduled for February.

The debut duel will be in Santa Clara, California, and the local route in the first phase includes Chicago (June 7) and Philadelphia (June 11).

Argentina will travel to Santa Clara (June 6), Chicago (June 10) and Seattle (June 14). Brazil will open its participation in Pasadena (June 4), followed by Orlando (June 8) and Foxborough (June 12). Mexico will be in Phoenix (June 5), Pasadena (June 9) and Houston (June 13).

Seattle, New York / New Jersey, Foxborough and Santa Clara will host the quarterfinals, while Houston and Chicago will host the semifinalists of the tournament.

The Copa América Centenario was in doubt when the corruption scandal broke out in FIFA, after the United States Justice uncovered last May a gigantic scheme of bribery, money laundering and electronic fraud that implicated several Latin American and soccer leaders world.

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